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-  •  y 










BY  THE  REV.  J.  S.  BREWER,  M.A. 



M.DCCC.XLvl  ^ly 

'     1 







[There  if  a  generation  that  are  pure  in  their  own  conceit,  and  yet  are  no* 
washed  from  their  filthineM.  Proy.  zzx.  t  a.] 

rULLBR,  VOL.  VI.  B 



T  is  a  strange  casualty  which  an  histo- 
rian1* reporteth,  of  five  eariB  of  Pem- 
broke, successively,  (of  the  family  of 
Hastings,)   that    the   father   of  them 

never  saw  his  son,  as  bora  either  in  his  absence  or 

after  his  death. 

•  [This  Edward  lord  Moan- 
tague  of  Bough  ton,  a  very  able 
and  accomplished  gentleman, 
was  the  second  who  bore  that 
title  i  son  of  the  celebrated 
lord  Mountague,  of  whom  some 
account  is  given  in  note  (S.) 
He  succeeded  his  father  in 
1644,  and  in  1646  was  nomi- 
nated with  certain  other  lords 
and  commons  to  receive  the 
king's  person  from  the  Scots 
and  conduct  him  to  Holmeby 
house.  After  the  restoration 
he  lived  mostly  at  his  conn- 
try -seat,  and  died  1  oth  of  Ja- 
nuary, 1683.  His  son  Ed- 
ward, to  whom  this  dedication 
wis  inscribed,  contrary  to  the 
will  of  Us  father,  had  a  great 

share  in  the  restoration,  and  in 
persuading  his  cousin,  admiral 
Edward  Mountague,  afterwards 
earl  of  Sandwich,  to  serve  his 
majesty,  Charles  II.  After  the 
restoration  he  was  appointed 
master  of  the  horse  to  the 
queen  of  Charles  II.,  but  being 
dismissed  from  that  post,  and 
going  to  sea  with  his  kinsman, 
the  earl  of  Sandwich,  he  was 
slain  in  the  attack  of  the  Dutch 
East-India  ships  at  Bergen  in 
Norway,  3rd  of  August,  1 665, 
in  the  twenty-fifth  year  of  his 
age.  See  Collins'  Peerage,  vol.  i. 
P-  333-] 

b  Camd.  Brit,  in  Pembroke- 


I  know  not  whether  more  remarkable,  the 
fatality  of  that,  or  the  felicity  of  your  family; 
where,  in  a  lineal  descent,  five  have  followed  one 
another;  the  father  not  only  surviving  to  see  his 
son  of  age,  but  also  (yourself  excepted,  who  in 
due  time  may  be)  happy  in  their  marriage,  hopeful 
in  their  issue. 

These  five  have  all  been  of  the  same  Christian 
name:  yet  is  there  no  fear  of  confusion,  to  the 
prejudice  of  your  pedigree,  (which  heralds  com- 
monly in  the  like  cases  complain  of,)  seeing  each 
of  them  being,  as  eminent  in  their  kind,  so  different 
in  their  emiuency,  are  sufficiently  distinguished  by 
their  own  character  to  posterity. 

Of  these,  the  first  a  judge0 ;  for  his  gravity  and 
learning  famous  in  his  generation 

The  second,  a  worthy  patriot  and  bountiful 
housekeeper,  blessed  in  a  numerous  issue ;  his  four 
younger  sons  affording  a  bishop  to  the  church d,  a 

•  [Edward,  son  of  Thomas  of  the  others  were  sir  Walter 

Mountague,  chief  justice  of  the  and  sir  Charles,  not  mentioned 

common  pleas  in  the  reigns  of  here.] 

Henry  VIII.  and  Edward  VI.  e  [Henry,  earl  of  Manches- 
See  a  further  account  of  him  ter,  who  professed  the  common 
by  our  author  in  this  History,  law,  and  from  recorder  of  Lon- 
viii.  i.  §.  i.  His  son,  who  don  came  to  be  lord  chief  jus- 
was  knighted  in  1567,  served  tice  of  the  king's  bench,  after- 
in  parliament  as  knight  of  the  wards  lord  treasurer  of  Eng- 
shire  of  Northampton  ;  and  land,  where  he  continued  but  a 
was  much  celebrated  for  his  short  time ;  then  was  made 
piety,  justice,  and  other  virtues,  president  of  the  council  of  state, 

He  died  Jan.  26,    1601.     See 
Collins*  Peerage,  vol.  i.  324.] 

(for  he  and  chancellor  Bacon 
were  put  out  of  their  places  to- 

d  [James  Mountague,  bishop     gether,)  and  at  last  died  lord 
of  Winchester.  privy  seal.    Warwick's  Chas.  I. 

He  had  six  sons,  the  names     p.  245.] 

■    • 

•  • 


judge  and  peer  to  the  state6,  a  commander  to  the 
camp,  and  an  officer  to  the  court f. 

The  third  was  the  first  baron  of  the  house;  of 
whose  worth  I  will  say  nothing,  because  I  can 
never  say  enough  *. 

The  fourth,  your  honourable  father,  who  because 
he  doth  still,  and  may  he  long,  survive;  I  cannot 
do  the  right  which  I  would  to  his  merit,  without 
doing  wrong,  which  I  dare  not,  to  his  modesty. 

You  are  the  fifth  in  a  direct  line,  and  let  me 
acquaint  you  with  what  the  world  expected  (not 
to  say  requireth)  of  you,  to  dignify  yourself  with 
some  select  and  peculiar  desert,  so  to  be  differenced 
from  your  ancestors,  that  your  memory  may   not 

f  [Sir  Sidney  Mountague,  fa- 
ther of  the  earl  of  Sandwich, 
and  master  of  requests  to  James 
I.  He  refused  to  take  the  oath 
to  live  and  die  with  the  earl  of 
Essex,  in  1642,  as  other  mem* 
bers  of  the  commons  had  done, 
for  which  he  was  ousted  from 
the  house.  See  Warwick's 
Chas.  I.  p.  243.] 

%  [The  celebrated  Edward, 
lord  Mountague  of  Bough  ton, 
a  man  of  a  plain  upright  Eng. 
lish  spirit,  of  a  steady  courage, 
of  a  devout  heart,  and  a  true 
son  of  the  Church  of  England ; 
so  severe  and  regular  in  his  life, 
that  he  was  by  most  men  reckon- 
ed a  puritan ;  and  yet  so  attach- 
ed to  the  liturgy  of  the  Church 
of  England,  that  when  he  had 
married  his  eldest  son  (father  of 
theEdwardtowhom  this  book  is 
dedicated)  unto  secretary  Win- 
wood's   eldest  daughter,  who 

affected  not  the  common  prayer, 
which  he  used  daily  in  his  house, 
he  would  say  to  her,  "  Daugh- 
"  ter,  if  you  come  to  visit  me,  I 
"  will  never  ask  why  you  come 
"  not  to  prayers ;  but  if  you 
"  come  to  cohabit  with  me,  pray 
"  with  me  or  not  live  with  me." 
(Warwick's  Chas.  I.  p.  243.  ed. 
1813).  This  fine  old  nobleman 
and  true  patriot,  of  whom  some 
beautiful  anecdotes  are  related 
by  Collins  in  his  Peerage,  (vol. 
i.  p.  326,  ed.  2.)  was,  for  his 
loyalty  to  king  Charles  I.,  ap- 
prehended by  command  of  the 
members  who  sat  at  Westmin- 
ster, and  made  prisoner  in  the 
Savoy,  near  to  the  Strand,  in 
London,  where  he  died,  15th 
June,  1 644.  He  was  the  per- 
son who  proposed  the  thanks- 
giving day  for  discovery  of  the 
popish  plot.] 



be  mistaken  in  the  homonyme  of  your  Christian 
names ;  which  to  me  seemeth  as  improbable,  as  that 
a  burning  beacon  (at  a  reasonable  distance)  should 
not  be  beheld ;  such  the  brightness  of  your  parts 
and  advantage  of  your  education. 

You  was  bred  in  that  school  which  hath  no 
superior  in  England;  and  successively  in  those  two 
universities  which  have  no  equal  in  Europe.  Such 
the  stock  of  your  native  perfection  before  grafted 
with  the  foreign  accomplishments  of  your  travels. 
So  that  men  confidently  promise  themselves  to 
read  the  best,  last,  and  largest  edition  of  "  Mer- 
"  cator'8  Atlas/9  in  your  experience  and  discourse. 

That  good  God  who  went  with  you  out  of  your 
native  country,  and  since  watched  over  you  in 
foreign  parts,  return  with  you  in  safety  in  due  time, 
to  his  glory,  and  your  own  good;  which  is  the 
daily  desire  of 

Your  Honour's  most  devoted  Servant, 














HE  sad  news  of  king  James  his  death  A-p.  ,,6»i- 
was  soon  brought  to  Whitehall,  at  that  -  "~" 
very  instant  when   Dr.  Laud,  bishop  king'«4»tji 
of  St.  David's,  was  preaching  therein.  wnhchaiL 
'  This  caused  him  to  'break  off  his  ser- 
mon in  the  midst  thereof,  out  of  civil  compliance 
with  the  Badness  of  the  congregation ;  and  the  same 
day  was  king  Charles  proclaimed  at  Whitehall b. 

2.  On  the  seventh  of  May  following,  king  James "j"'°j"Dn 
his  funerals  were  performed  very  solemnly  in  the 
collegiate  church  at  Westminster,  his  lively  statue 
being  presented  on  a  magnificent  hearse c.  King 
Charles  was  present  thereat:  for  though  modem 
state  used  of  late  to  lock  up  the  chief  mourner  in 
his  chamber,  where   his  grief  must  be  presumed 

*  See  his  own  Diary  on  that  lay  in  state  for  a  considerable 

day,  [p.  15.]  time.     It  was  carried  thence 

°  [See  the  account  of  it  in  with  great  solemnity  on  Satur- 

Rnshwortb,  vol.  i.  p.  169.]  day,  7th  of  May,  to  St.  Peter's 

1  [The  body  of  the  late  king  church  in  Westminster,  where 

was  brought  from  Theobald's  it  was  solemnly  interred.     See 

into  Somerset  house,  where  it  Heylin's  Life  of  Laud,  p.  132.3 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1625.  too  great  for  public  appearance,  yet  the  king  caused 

-  this  ceremony  of  sorrow  so  to  yield  to  the  substance 

thereof,  and  pomp  herein  to  stoop  to  piety,  that 
in  his  person  he  sorrowfully  attended  the  funerals 
of  his  father. 

3.  Dr.  Williams,  lord  keeper  and  bishop  of  Lin- 
coln,  preached   the  sermon,    taking  for  his   text 

Dr.  Wil- 
liams his 

£3^  2  Chron.  ix.  29,  30,  and  part  of  the  31st  verse,  con- 
text king  taining  the  happy  reign,  quiet  death,  and  stately 
aid  king  burial  of  king  Solomon.  The  effect  of  his  sermon 
was  to  advance  a  parallel  betwixt  two  peaceable 
princes,  king  Solomon  and  king  James.  A  parallel 
which  willingly  went,  (not  to  say  ran  of  its  own 
accord,)  and  when  it  chanced  to  stay,  was  fairly 
led  on  by  the  art  and  ingenuity  of  the  bishop,  not 
enforcing,  but  improving  the  conformity  betwixt 
these  two  kings  in  ten  particulars,  all  expressed  in 
the  text,  as  we  read  in  the  vulgar  Latin,  somewhat 
different  from  the  new  translation. 

King  Solomon. 

1.  His  eloquence,  the  rest 
of  the  words  of  Solomon. 

2.  His  actions,  and  all  that 
he  did. 

3.  A  well  within  to  supply 
the  same,  and  his  wisdom. 

4.  The  preservation  there- 
of to  eternity ;  Are  they  not 
written  in  the  book  of  the  acts 

King  James. 

1.  Had  dprofluentemy  et 
quae  principem  deceret,  elo- 

%.  Was  eminent  in  his  ac- 
tions of  religion,  justice,  war, 
and  peace. 

3.  So  wise,  "  that  there  was 
"  nothing  that  any  •  would 
"  learn,  which  he  was  not 
"  able  to  teach." 

4.  As  Trajan  was  nick- 
named herba  parietaria,  "  a 
u  wall-flower,"   because   his 

<*  Tacitus  of  Augustus. 

e  Sermon,  p.  59. 


of  Britain. 


of  Solomon,  made  by  Nathan 
the  prophet,  Ahijah  tlte  Shu 
lonite,  and  Iddo  the  seer  t 

5.  He  reigned  in  Jerusa- 
lem, a  great  city,  by  him  en- 
larged and  repaired. 

6.  Over  all  Israel,  the 
whole  empire. 

7.  A  great  space  of  time, 
full Jbrty  years. 

8.  Then  he  slept,  import- 
ing no  sudden  and  violent 
dying,  but  a  premeditate  and 
affected  kind  of  sleeping. 

9.  With  his  fathers,  Da- 
vid especially;  his  soul  being 
disposed  of  in  happiness. 

10.  And  was  buried  in  the 
city  of  David. 

name  was  engraven  on  every  A.  D.  16*5. 

wall;  so  king  James  shall  be  \ * 

called  herba  chartacea,  "  the 
"  paper-flower,*  and  his  glory 
be  read  in  '  all  writers. 

5.  He  reigned  in  the  capi- 
tal city  of  London,  by  him 
much  augmented. 

6.  Over  Great  Britain,  by 
him  happily  united,  and  other 

7  •  In  all  fifty-eight,  (though 
over  all  Britain  but  two  and 
twenty  years,)  reigning  as 
ffbetter,  so  also  longer,  than 
king  Solomon. 

8.  Left  the  world  most  re- 
solved, most  prepared,  em- 
bracing his  grave  for  his  bed. 

9.  Reigning  gloriously  with 
God  in  heaven. 

10.  Whilst  his  body  was  in- 
terred with  all  possible  so- 
lemnity in  king  Henry  the 
Seventh  his  chapel. 

Be  it  here  remembered,  that  in  this  parallel  the 
bishop  premised  to  set  forth  Solomon,  not  in  his  full 
proportion,  faults  and  all,  but  half  faced,  (imagine 
lusca,  as  Apelles  painted  Antigonus,  to  conceal  the 
want  of  his  eye,)  adding,  that  Solomon's  vices  could 
be  no  blemish  to  king  James,  wh  resembled  him 
only  in  his  choicest  virtues.  He  concluded  all  with 
that  verse,  Ecclesiasticus  xxx.  4.  Though  his  father 

'  Sermon,  p.  61.  *  Ibid.  p.  66. 

12  The  Church  History  book  Xi. 

a.d.  1625.  die,  yet  he  is  as  though  he  were  not  dead,  for  he  hath 
r*J  left  one  behind  him  that  is  like  himself:    in  applica- 
tion to  his  present  majesty  h. 
Exceptions      4.  Some   auditors   who   came   thither  rather  to 

taken  at  his 

•ermou.  observe  than  edify,  cavil  than  observe,  found  or 
made  faults  in  the  sermon,  censuring  him  for  touch- 
ing too  often,  and  staying  too  long,  on  an  harsh 
string ;  three  times  straining  the  same,  making  elo- 
quence too  essential,  and  so  absolutely  necessary  in 
a  king,  that  the  want  thereof  made  Moses  in  a 
1  manner  refuse  all  government,  though  offered  by 
God ;  that  kno  man  ever  got  great  power  without 
eloquence:  Nero,  being  the  first  of  the  Caesars, 
qui  alienee  facundite  eguit,  "  who  usurped  another 
"  man's  language  to  speak  for  him/9  Expressions 
which  might  be  forborne  in  the  presence  of  his 
son  and  successor,  whose  impediment  in  speech 
was  known  to  be  great,  and  mistook  to  be  greater. 
Some  conceived  him  too  long  in  praising  the  past, 
too  short  in  promising  for  the  present  king,  (though 
saying  much  of  him  in  a  little;)  and  the  bishop's 
adversaries,  (whereof  then  no  want  at  court,)  some 
took  distate,  others  made  advantage  thereof.  Thus 
is  it  easier  and  better  for  us  to  please  one  God,  than 
many  men  with  our  sermons.  However,  the  sermon 
was  publicly  set  forth  by  the  printer  (but  not  by  the 
express  command)  of  his  majesty,  which  gave  but 
the  steadier  mark  to  his  enemies,  noting  the  marginal 
notes  thereof,  and  making  all  his  sermon  the  text 
of  their  captious  interpretations. 

b  [This  Sermon,  under  the  an  epitome  of  it  in  Rushworth's 

title  of  "  Great  Britain's  Solo-  Collections,  vol.  i.  p.  164.] 
"  mon,"  will  be  found  in  So-         i  Sermon,  p.  16. 
mere' Tracts,  vol.ii.  p.  33 ;  and         k  Ibid.  p.  5. 


cknt.xvii.  of  Britain.  13 

5.  Now  began  animosities  to  discover  themselves  a.  d.  1625. 

in  the  court,  whose  sad  influences  operated  many — 

jeare  after,  many  being  discontented  that  on  this bc^nin the 
change  they  received  not  proportionable  advance- court' 
ment  to  their  expectations.     It  is  the  prerogative 

of  the  King  of  heaven  alone,  that  he  maketh  all  his 
sons  heirs,  all  his  subjects  favorites,  the  gain  of  one 
being  no  loss  to  the  other;  whereas  the  happiest 
kings  on  earth  are  unhappy  herein,  that,  unable 
to  gratify  all  their  servants  (having  many  suitors  for 
the  same  place)  by  conferring  a  favour  on  one,  they 
disoblige  all  other  competitors,  conceiving  them- 
selves, as  they  make  the  estimate  of  their  own 
deserts,  as  much  (if  not  more)  meriting  the  same 

6.  As  for  doctor  Preston,  he  still  continued  andDr-Pn*ton 

a  great  fa- 

increased  in  the  favor  of  the  king  and  duke,  it  being  rant* 
much  observed,  that  on  the  day  of  king  James  his 
death,  he  *rode  with  prince  and  duke  in  a  coach  shut 

1  See  his  Life,  p.  [99,  writ-  "  had  preferred  himself  to 
ten  by  Thomas  Ball,  a  puritan,  "  be  chaplain  to  the  prince, 
and  published  at  the  end  of  "  and  wanted  not  the  intelli- 
Clark's  Martyrology,  ed.  1677.  "  gence  of  all  dark  mysteries 
This  artful  and  designing  man,  "  through  the  Scotch  especi- 
who  veiled  a  discontented  and  "  ally  of  his  highness'  bed- 
ambitious  spirit  under  the  cloak  "  chamber.  These  gave  him 
of  religious  seal,  to  ingratiate  "  countenance  more  than  others, 

elf  with  the  duke  of  Buck-  "  because   he    prosecuted  the 

t,  (anxious  at  that  time  "  endeavours  of  their  country- 

to  repair  his  credit  by  some  "  man,  Knox.     To  the  duke 

popular  measure,)  proposed  to  "he  repairs,  and  be  assured 

him  the  spoliation  of  the  church's  "  he  had  more  skill  than  bois- 

lands.      His  conduct  is  accu-  "  terously  to  propound  to  him 

rately  described  by  bishop  Hack-  "  the  extirpation  of  the  bishops, 

et,  whose  moderation  and  piety  "  Therefore  he  began  to  dig 

is  a  sufficient  warrant  for  no-  "  further  off,  and  to  heave  at 

thing  being  exaggerated  in  his  "  the  dissolution  of  cathedral 

narrative.    "  This  politic  man,"  "  churches,   with   their   deans 

he  observes,  "  that  he  might  "  and  chapters,  the   seminary 

"  feel  the  pulse  of  the  court,  "  from  whence  the  ablest  scho- 


77*4?  Church  History 


Acfok?i  ^own  ^°m  Theobald's  to  London,  applying  comfort 

now  to  one  now  to  the  other  on  so  sad  an  occasion. 

His  party  would  persuade  us,  that  be  might  hare 
chose  his  own  mitre,  much  commending  the  moder- 
ation of  his  mortified  mind,  denying  all  preferment 
which  courted  his  acceptance ;  verifying  the  anagram 
which  a  "friend  of  his  made  on  his  name,  Johannes 


•  « 

•  • 

•  t 



•  • 


lars  were  removed  to  bishop- 
rics. At  his  audience  with 
the  duke,  he  told  him  he  was 
sorry  his  grace's  actions  were 
not  so  well  interpreted  abroad 
as  godly  men  thought  they 
deserved.  That  such  mur- 
murings  as  were  but  vapours 
in  common  talks  might  prove 
to  be  tempests  when  a  par- 
liament met.  That  his  safest 
way  was  to  anchor  himself 
upon  the  love  of  the  people ; 
and  let  him  persuade  himself 
he  should  not  fail  to  be  mas- 
ter of  that  achievement  if  he 
would  profess  himself  not 
among  those  that  are  Pro. 
testants  at  large,  and  never 
look  inward  to  the  centre  of 
religion,  but  become  a  warm 
and  zealous  Christian  that 
would  employ  his  best  help 
strenuously  to  lop  off  from 
this  half-reformed  church  the 
superfluous  branches  of  Rom- 
ish superstition  that  much 
disfigured  it.  Then  he  named 
the  quire-service  of  cathedral 
and  collegiate  churches,  with 
the  apanages  which  were 
maintained  with  vast  wealth 
and  lands  of  excessive  com- 
modity to  feed  fat,  lazy,  and 
unprofitable  drones ;  and  yet 
all  that  chanting  and  pomp 
hindered  the  heavenly  power 
and  simplicity  of  prayer,  and 






•  < 


"  furthered  not  the  preaching 
"  of  the  gospel.  And  now, 
"  says  he,  let  your  grace  ob- 
"  serve  all  the  ensuing  emo. 
•*  luments  if  you  will  lean  to 
"  this  counsel ;  God's  glory 
"  shall  be  better  set  forth ; 
(that's  ever  the  quail-pipe  to 
bring  worldlings  into  the 
snares  of  sacrilege;)  the  lands 
of  those  chapters  escheating 
"  to  the  crown  by  the  dissolu- 
"  tion  of  their  foundations,  will 
pay  the  king's  debts.  Your 
grace  hath  many  alliances  of 
kindred  all  sucking  from  you, 
"  and  the  milk  of  those  breasts 
"  will  serve  them  all  and  nou- 
"  rish  them  up  to  great  growth 
"  with  the  best  seats  in  the 
"  nation.  Lastly,  your  grace 
"  shall  not  only  surmount  envy, 
"  but  turn  the  darling  of  the 
"  commonwealth,  and  be  rever- 
"  enced  by  the  best  operators 
"  in  parliament  as  a  father  of  a 
"  family  ;  and  if  a  crum  stick 
"  in  the  throat  of  any  consider- 
"  able  man  that  attempts  to 
make  a  contrary  part,  it  will 
be  easy  to  wash  it  down  with 
"  manors,  woods,  royalties, 
tythes,  &c.  the  large  product 
of  those  superstitious  planta- 
tions." Hacket's  Life  of  Wil- 
liams, p.  204.] 

m  Mr.  Ayrs    of    Lincoln's 






of  Britain. 


En  stas  pius  in  honore.     Indeed  he  was  A«P-  !^5- 

111111  i»i»  ii1  Charles  I. 

conceived  to  hold  the  helm  of  his  own  party,  able — 

to  stew  it  to  what  point  he  pleased,  which  made  the 
duke,  as  yet,  much  to  desire  his  favour  n. 

7.  A  book  came  forth  called  Appello  Caesarem,  Mr.Mount- 
made  by  Mr.  Mountague.  He  formerly  had  been  ^Crater. 
fellow  of  King's  College  in  Cambridge,  at  the  pre- 
sent a  parson  of  Essex  and  fellow  of  Eton;  one 
much  skilled  in  the  fathers  and  ecclesiastical  anti- 
quity, and  in  the  Latin  and  Oreek  tongues.  Our 
great  ° antiquary  confesseth  as  much  {Grace  simul 
et  Latine  doctus)  though  pens  were  brandished  be- 
twixt them ;  and  virtues  allowed  by  one's  adversa- 
ries may  pass  for  undeniable  truths.  These  his  great 
parts  were  attended  with  tartness  of  writing,  very 
sharp  the  nib  of  his  pen,  and  much  gall  in  his  ink, 
against  such  as  opposed  him.  However,  such  the 
equability  of  the  sharpness  of  his  style  he  was  un- 
partial  therein,  be  he  ancient  or  modern  writer, 



°  [Hit  character  is  thus  set 
forth  by  Dr.  Heylyn:  "His 
"  principles  and  engagements 
"  were  too  well  known  by  those 
which  governed  affairs  to 
venture  him  unto  any  such 
'*  great  trust  in  church  or  state; 
"  and  his  activity  so  suspected 
"  that  he  would  not  have  been 
"  long  suffered  to  continue 
*  preacher  at  Lincoln's  Inn. 
"  As  for  his  intimacy  with  the 
"  duke,  too  violent  to  be  long 
"  lasting,  it  proceeded  not  from 
"  any  good  opinion  which  the 
"  duke  had  of  him,  but  that  he 
"  found  how  instrumental  %he 
"  might  be  to  manage  that  pre- 
u  railing  party  to  the  king's 
"  advantage.  But  when  it  was 
"  found  that  he  had  more  of  the 

"  serpent  in  him  than  the  dove, 
"  and  that  he  was  not  tract- 
"  able  in  steering  the  helm  of 
"  his  own  party  by  the  court- 
"  compass,  he  was  discounte- 
"  nanced  and  laid  by,  as  not 
"  worth  the  keeping.  He 
"  seemed  the  court-meteor  for 
"  a  while,  raised  to  a  sudden 
"  height  of  expectation  ;  and 
"  having  flashed  and  blazed  a 

little,  went  out  again,  and 
was  as  suddenly  forgotten." 
Fuller  appears  to  acknowledge 
the  justice  of  these  remarks, 
and  therefore  they  are  probably 
correct.  See  "  The  Appeal, 
"  &c,"  part  iii.  p.  a  ;  see  also 
note  p.  13.] 

0  pelden  De  Diis  Syris,  p. 




The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1615.  Papist  or  Protestant,  that  stood  in  his  way,  they 

1  Charles  1-   •        .  ,     •«  „  ,  g^ 

should  all  equally  taste  thereof*. 

Setteth  8.  Pass  we  from  the  author  to  his  book,  whereof 

AppeUoC».  this  was  the  occasion.  He  had  lately  written  satiri- 
*****  cally  enough  against  the  Papists  in  confutation  of 
The  Gagger  of  Protestants.  Now  two  divines  of 
Norwich  diocess,  Mr.  Yates  and  Mr.  Ward,  informed 
against  him  for  dangerous  errors  of  Armimanism  and 
Popery,  deserting  our  cause  instead  of  defending  it. 
Mr.  Mountague,  in  his  own  vindication,  writes  a 
second  book,  licensed  by  Francis  White,  dean  of 
Carlisle  4,  finished  and  partly  printed  in  the  reign 
of  James,  to  whom  the  author  intended  the  dedi- 
cation. But  on  king  James  his  death,  it  seems  it 
descended  by  succession  on  king  Charles  his  son, 
to  whom  Mr.  Mountague  applied  the  words  which 
Ockam  once  used  to  Lewis  of  Bavaria,  emperor  of 
Germany,  Dotnine  imperator  defends  me  gladio,  et 
ego  te  defendant  calamo,  "  Lord  emperor,  defend  me 
"  with  thy  sword,  and  I  will  defend  thee  with  my 
"  pen."  Many  bitter  passages  in  this  his  book  gave 
great  exception,  whereof  largely  hereafter. 
Queen  9.  On  Sunday,  being  the  twelfth  of  June,  about 

fint  arrival  seven  of  the  clock  at  night,  queen  Mary  landed 
**      er'   at  Dover ;  at  what  time  a  piece  of  ordnance  being 

P  [Fuller  is  not  very  favor* 
able  to  Dr.  Richard  Montague, 
certainly  one  of  the  ablest  con- 
troversialists and  most  learn* 
ed  men  of  his  times.  Nor  has 
he  by  any  means  done  jus- 
tice to  the  "  AppelloCasarem" 
of  that  writer,  a  work  ably 
written,  and  containing  pas* 
sages  of  great  beauty.  Unfortu- 
nately, any  one  who  opposed 
the  doctrines  of  Calvin  was  at 

this  time  branded  with  the 
name  of  Papist,  and  persecuted 
as  such.  This  was  the  lot  of 
Montague,  who  opposed  the 
religious  principles  of  Hall, 
Davenant,  and  others,  and  for 
this  he  has  met  with  a  very 
scanty  measure  of  justice  from 
our  author.] 

q  [The  author  of  the  Reply 
to  Fisher  the  Jesuit,  1620.] 

CENT-  XV11. 

of  Britain. 


discharged  from  the  castle,  flew  in  fitters,  yet  did  a.  d.  1625. 

f  nobody  any  harm.     Moe  were  fearful  at  the  presage " 

than  thankful  for  the  providence'.  Next  day,  the  king 
coming  from  Canterbury  met  her  at  Dover,  whence 
with  all  solemnity  she  was  conducted  to  Somerset 
house  in  London,  where  a  chapel  was  new  prepared 
for  her  devotion,  with  a  convent  adjoining  of  Capu- 
chin friars,  according  to  the  articles  of  her  marriage8. 

10.  A  parliament  began  at  London,  wherein  the  The  king 
first  statute  agreed  upon  was  for  the  more  strict  Mr.  Mount- 
observation  of  the  Lord's  day ;  which  day,  as  it  first SSTLuieof 
honoured  the  king,  (his  reign  beginning  thereon,) 



•  i 

r  [Laud's  Diary,  p  18.] 
*  (/'In  all  this,  nothing  true 
but  that  the  new  queen  was 
conducted  with  all  solemnity 
from  Dover  to  London.  For 
first,  although  there  was  a 
chapel  prepared,  yet  was  it 
not  prepared  for  her,  nor  at 
Somerset  house.  The  chapel 
which  was  then  prepared, 
was  not  prepared  for  her, 
but  the  Lady  Infanta,  built 
in  the  king's  house  at  St. 
James's,  at  such  time  as  the 
treaty  with  Spain  stood  upon 
good  terms,  and  then  intend. 
ed  for  the  devotions  of  the 
princess  of  Wales,  not  the 
queen  of  England.  Secondly, 
the  articles  of  the  marriage 
make  no  mention  of  the  Ca- 
puchin friars,  nor  any  con- 
vent to  be  built  for  them. 
The  priests  who  came  over 
with  the  queen  were  by  a- 
greement  to  be  all  of  the 
Oratorian  order,  as  less  sus- 
pected by  the  English,  whom 
they  had  never  provoked,  as 
had  the  Jesuits,  and  most 
other  of  the    monastic    or* 


"  ders,  by  their  mischievous 
"  practices.  But  these  Orato- 
"  rians  having  been  sent  back 
"  with  the  rest  of  the  French, 
"  anno  1626,  and  not  willing  to 
"  expose  themselves  to  the  ha. 
"  zard  of  a  second  expulsion, 
"  the  Capuchins  under  father 
"  Joseph  made  good  the  place. 
"  The  breach  with  France,  the 
"  action  at  the  Isle  of  Rhee, 
u  and  the  loss  of  Rochelle,  did 
"  all  occur  before  the  Capu- 
"  chins  were  thought  of  or  ad- 
"  mitted  hither.  And  thirdly, 
44  some  years  after  the  making 
"  of  the  peace  between  the 
"  crowns,  which  was  in  the  lat- 
"  ter  end  of  1628,  and  not  be- 
"  fore,  the  queen  obtained  that 
M  these  friars  might  have  leave 
"  to  come  over  to  her,  some 
M  lodgings  being  fitted  for  them 
"  in  Somerset  h  juse,  and  a  new 
"  chapel  then  and  there  built 
u  for  her  devotion."  Heylin  in 
"  The  Appeal,  &c,"  part  iii.  p. 
2.  Rush  worth  gives  a  full  ac- 
count of  the  queen's  espousals, 
Coll.  vol.  i.  p.  173.] 


The  Church  History 


a.  D.1625.  go  the  king  first  honoured  it  by  passing  an  act  for  the 

1  Conrtes  I. 

greater  solemnity  thereof.     The  house  of  commons 

fell  very  heavy  on  Mr.  Mountague  for  many  bitter 
passages  in  his  book ;  who  in  all  probability  had  now 
been  severely  censured,  but  that  the  king  himself 
was  pleased  to  interpose  in  his  behalf,  signifying  to 
the  house,  "that  those  things  which  were  then 
a  spoken  and  determined  concerning  Mountague 
"  without  his  privity  did  not  please  him,"  who  by 
his  court  friends  being  employed  in  the  king's  ser- 
vice, his  majesty  signified  to  the  parliament,  that  he 
"  thought  his  chaplains  (whereof  Mr.  Mountague  was 
"  one)  might  have  as  much  protection  as  the  servant 
"  of  an  ordinary  burgess,"  nevertheless  his  bond  of 
two  thousand  pounds  wherewith  he  was  tailed  con- 
tinued uncancelled,  and  was  called  on  the  next 

*  [The  best  account  of  Dr. 
Mount  ague's  book  is  given  by 
Dr.  Heylyn  in  his  Life  of  Arch- 
bishop Laud,  p.  124,  who  ob- 
serves that  the  Jesuits  and  Pa- 
pists, being  very  busy  at  this 
time  in  gaining  proselytes,  had 
begun  to  infest  a  village  in 
Essex  called  Stamford- Rivers. 
"  The  rector  of  that  church 
"  was  Richd.  Mountague,  B.D. 
"  prebend  of  Windsor,  and  one 
"  of  the  fellows  of  Eton  col- 
•'  lege;  a  man  exceedingly  well 
"  versed  in  all  the  learning  of 
"  Greeks  and  Romans,  and  as 
'*  well  studied  in  the  fathers, 
"  councils,  and  all  other  an- 
"  cient  monuments  of  the  Chris- 
"  tian  church.  Desirous  to  free 
"  his  parish  from  this  haunt, 
"  he  left  some  propositions  at 
"  the  house  of  one  of  his  neigh  - 
"  bours,   which  had  been  fre- 





•  « 

•  • 


quently  visited  by  these  night- 
spirits,  with  this  declaration 
thereunto ;  that  if  any  of 
those  which  essayed  that  walk 
could  convince  him  in  any 
of  the  same,  he  would  im- 
mediately subscribe  and  be  a 
Papist.  After  long  expecta- 
tion, instead  of  answering  to 
his  queries,  one  of  them  leaves 
a  short  pamphlet  for  him,  en- 
titled, A  new  Gag  for  the  old 
Gospel ;  in  which  it  was  pre- 
tended, that  the  doctrine  of 
the  Protestants  should  be  con- 
futed out  of  the  verv  words 
of  their  own  English  Bibles. 
This  book  he  was  required  to 

answer But  in  perusing 

of  that  book,  he  found  that 
besides  some  few  doctrines 
which  properly  and  truly 
did  belong  to  the  Church  of 
England,  there  were  crowded 


of  Britain. 


11.  The  plague  increasing  in  London,  the  parlia-  a.  d.  1625. 

ment  was  removed  to  Oxford.     But  alas !  no  avoid —' 

ing  God's  hand.     The  infection  followed,  or  rather  mmt^.  *" 
met  the  houses  there,  (whereof  worthy  Dr.  Chaloner^^^ 
*fiedu,  much  lamented,)  yet  were  the  members  of  Jj£^2n£n 
parliament  not  so  careful  to  save  their  own  persons 
from  the  plague,  as  to  secure  the  land  from  a  worse 
and  more  spreading  contagion,  the  daily  growth  of 
popery.     In  prevention  whereof,  they  presented  a 
petition  to  his  majesty,  containing  sixteen  particu- 
lars, all  which  were  most  graciously  answered  by  his 
majesty,  to  their  full  satisfaction.     Thus  this  meet- 
ing began  hopefully  and  cheerfully,  proceeded  tur- 
bulently  and   suspiciously,  brake  off  suddenly  and 

"  into  it  all  points  of  Calvinism, 
"  such  heterodoxies  and  out- 
"  landish  fancies  as  the  Church 
"  of  England  never  owned. 
*'  And  therefore  in  his  answer 
*'  to  that  Popish  Gagger,  he 
"  severed  or  discriminated  the 
44  opinions  of  particular  men 
"'  from  the  authorized  doctrines 
"  of  this  church  ;  leaving  the 
*'  one  to  be  maintained  by  their 
"  private  fautors,  and  only  de» 
"  fending  and  maintaining  the 
*'  other.  And  certainly,  had 
"  he  not  been  a  man  of  a  mighty 
**  spirit,  and  one  that  easily 
"  could  contemn  the  cry  and 
M  clamors  which  were  raised 
M  against  him  for  so  doing,  he 
"  could  not  but  have  sunk  im- 
"  mediately  under  the  burthen 
"  of  disgrace,  and  the  fears  of 
"  ruin  which  that  performance 
'*  drew  upon  him."  This  an- 
swer came  out  under  the  quaint 
title  of  "  A  Gag  for  the  new 
•*  Gospel? — No,  a  new  Gag  for 
"  an  old  Goose,  who  would  un- 

"  dertake  to  stop  all  Protestant 
'•  Mouths  for  ever  with  276 
"  Placesout  of  their  own  Eng- 
"  lish  Bibles,  &c.  1625/'  Out 
of  this  book,  Yates  and  Ward, 
two  preachers  in  Ipswich,  were 
employed  to  gather  such  points 
as  they  conceived  to  lean  to 
Popery  and  Arminianism*  to 
be  presented  to  the  censure  of 
the  following  parliament.  Of 
which  information  Montague 
having  obtained  a  copy,  be- 
sought his  majesty's  protection, 
and  wrote  his  book,  entitled 
'*  AppelloCaesarem."  But  king 
James  dying  before  it  had  gone 
through  the  press,  it  was  pre- 
sented to  king  Charles  at  die 
beginning  of  his  reign.  A  com- 
mittee of  bishops  seems  also  to 
have  been  appointed  by  the 
king  to  report  on  the  subject. 
See  the  letters  in  the  Appendix.] 
*  [Dr.  Edward  Chaloner  was 
principal  of  St.  Alban  HalL 
See  an  account  of  him  in  Wood'* 
A  then.  vol.  i.  p.  496.  J 


20  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1625.  sorrowfully,  the  reason  whereof  is  to  be  fetched  from 

I  Charles  I.  .  \  . 

our  civil  historians. 

Dr.  James       12.  The  convocation  kept  here  is  scarce  worth 

his  motion  .  •         i«     1       1  ., 

in  the  con-  the  mentioning,  seeing  little  the  appearance  thereat, 
▼ocaaon.     noti1iI1g.  tbe  performance  therein.      Dean  Bowles, 

the  prolocutor,  absented  himself  for  fear  of  infection, 
Dr.  Thomas  Goad  officiating  in  his  place,  and  their 
meeting  was  kept  in  the  chapel  of  Merton  College. 
Here  Dr.  James,  that  great  book  man,  made  a  mo- 
tion, that  all  manuscript  fathers  in  the  libraries  of 
the  universities,  and  elsewhere  in  England,  might 
be  perused,  and  that  such  places  in  them  as  had 
been  corrupted  in  popish  editions,  (much  superstition 
being  generated  from  such  corruptions,)  might  faith- 
fully be  printed  according  to  those  ancient  copiesx. 
Indeed,  though  England  at  the  dissolving  of  abbeys 
lost  moe  manuscripts  than  any  country  of  Christen- 
dom (of  her  dimensions)  ever  had,  yet  still  enough 
were  left  her,  if  well  improved,  to  evidence  the 
truth  herein  to  all  posterity.  This  design  might 
have  been  much  beneficial  to  the  Protestant  cause, 
if  prosecuted  with  as  great  endeavour  as  it  was  pro- 
pounded with  good  intention :  but  alas !  this  motion 
was  ended  when  it  was  ended,  expiring  in  the  place 
with  the  words  of  the  mover  thereof. 

w^ofp  **'  ^e  k*nff»  according  to  his  late  answer  in  the 
pistsseason- parliament  at  Oxford,  issued  out  a  commission  to 
ttnined.     the  judges  to  see  the  law  against  recusants  put  in 

execution.      This   was   read   in   all  the   courts   of 


x  [See  Wilkins'  Concil.  vol.  heart,  as  appears  by  several  of 

iv.  p.  469.    There  is  an  unpub-  his  letters  to  Usher.    See  Parr's 

lished  letter  addressed  by  him  Usher,  p.  303.  A  motion  to  the 

to  Dr.  Ward  upon  this  subject,  same  effect  was  also  made  in 

in  Tan.  MSS.  lxxiv.     It  was  a  the  convocation  of  1624.     See 

subject  which  he  had  much  at  Wilkins,  ibid.] 

cent,  xvii,  of  Britain.  21 

judicature  at  Reading,  (where  Michaelmas  term  was  ad.  1625 

kept,)  and  a  letter  directed  to  the  archbishop  of - 

Canterbury  to  take  special  care  for  the  discovery  of 
Jesuits,  seminary  priests,  &c.  within  his  province. 
A  necessary  severity,  seeing  Papists  (presuming  on 
protection  by  reason  of  the  late  match)  were  grown 
very  insolent.  And  a  popish  lord,  when  the  king 
was  at  chapel,  was  heard  to  prate  on  purpose  louder 
in  a  gallery  adjoining  than  the  chaplain  prayed, 
whereat  the  king  was  so  moved  that  he  sent  him 
this  message :  "  Either  come  and  do  as  we  do,  or 
"  I  will  make  you  prate  further  off." 

14.  In  this  and  the  next  year,  many  books,  from  Several 
persons  of  several   abilities   and  professions,  were  gainst  Mr 
written  against  Mr.  Mountague,  by  Moumagu* 

i.  Dr.  Sutcliffe,  dean  of  Exeter;  one  who  was 
miles  emeritus,  age  giving  him  a  supersedeas,  save 
that  his  zeal  would  employ  itself,  and  some  conceived 
that  his  choler  became  his  old  age. 

ii.  Mr.  Henry  Burton,  who  then  began  to  be  well 
(as  afterwards  too  well)  known  to  the  world. 

iii.  Mr.  Francis  Rowse,  a  layman  by  profession. 

iv.  Mr.  Yates,  a  minister  of  Norfolk,  formerly  a 
fellow  of  Emmanuel  in  Cambridge ;  he  entitles  his 
book  "  Ibis  ad  Csesarem." 

v.  Dr.  Carleton,  bishop  of  Chichester. 

vi.  Anthony  Wotton,  divinity  professor  in  Gres- 
ham  College. 

In  this  army  of  writers  the  strength  is  conceived 
to  consist  in  the  rear,  and  that  the  last  wrote  the 
solidest  confutations.  Of  these  six,  dean  Sutcliffe 
is  said  to  have  chode  heartily ;  Mr.  Rowse  meant 
honestly ;    Mr.  Burton  wrote  plainly ;    bishop  Carle- 



The  Church  History 


a.d.  1625. ton  very  piously;    Mr.  Yates  learnedly;    and  Mr. 
*  Wotton  most  solidly  y. 

1  [The  divines  who  were 
sent  to  the  Synod  of  Dort  were 
extremely  mortified  by  the  re- 
marks of  Mountague  in  this  and 
his  other  pamphlet.  In  a  let- 
ter of  Dr.  John  Davenant,  then 
bishop  of  Salisbury,  to  Ward, 
master  of  Sidney  College,  he 
thus  speaks  of  Mountague  : 
"  Your  vindicating  of  those 
"  that  were  at  the  Synod  of 
"  Dort  from  the  wash  and  filth 
"  in  perfection  laid  on  us  by 
"  Mr.  Mountague,  was  a  laud- 
"  able  and  necessary  work.  I 
"  could  wish  for  his  own  good 
"  that  he  had  a  more  modest 
"  conceipt  of  himself,  and  a 
"  less  base  opinion  of  all 
"  others  who  jump  not  with 
"  him  in  his  mongrel  opinions. 
He  mightily  deceives  him- 
self in  taking  it  for  granted 
M  that  Dr»  Overall,  or  Bucer, 
•'  or  Luther,  were  ever  of  his 
"  mind  in  the  point  of  Pre- 
"  destination,  or  falling  from 
"  grace  ;  the  contrary  may  evi- 
"  dently  be  shewn  out  of  their 
"  writings.  But  the  truth  is, 
"  he  never  understood  what 
"  Bucer  or  Luther  mean,  when 
"  they  speak  of  extinguishing 
"  faith  or  losing  grace;  and 
"  as  little  does  he  understand 
"  the  canon  of  our  church, 
44  which  he  makes  his  main 
"  foundation.  Whether  Re- 
"  probus  may  be  mere  justifi- 
"  cat  us,  verum  et  vivum  mem- 
*'  brum  sub  Christo  copite,  vere 
"  adopt  at  us,  I  confess  may  out 
t€  of  Aug.  and  Prosp.  be  pro- 
"  bably  held  both  ways.     But 



"  yet  let  all  places  which  seem 
"  to  imply  contradiction  about 
"  this  matter  be  laid  together,. 
"  and  such  other  as  may  serve 
"  for  interpretation  be  also  cast 
"  into  the  balance*  and  in  my 
"  opinion  it  will  be  found  that 
"  S.  Augustine  does  more  in- 
"  cline  to  the  opinion,  that  only 
"  the  predestinate  attain  unto 
"  a  true  estate  of  justification, 
"  regeneration,  and  adoption* 
"  &c.  Oct.  10,  1625."  Tan. 
MSS.  lxxii.  p.  65. 

So  in  another  letter. 

—  "lam  afraid  Mr.  Mount* 
"  ague  his  book  will  breed  him- 
"  self  and  others  much  trouble 
"  whensoever  a  parliament  shall 
"  be  called.  His  opinion  0011- 
"  cerning  predestination  and 
**  total  falling  from  grace  is 
"  undoubtedly  contrary  to  the 
"  common  tenet  of  the  English 
"  Church  ever  since  we  were 
"  born.  Against  our  next  meet- 
"  ing  you  shall  have  our  opinion 
"  concerning  the  two  theses. 
M  For  Dr.  Overall,  1  know  not 
'*  to  the  contrary,  but  it  was 
"  his  opinion  that  some,  not 
"  elected  by  the  working  of 
"  universal  sufficient  grace,  did 
"  or  might  sometimes  attain  to 
"  an  estate  of  justification  and 
"  regeneration,  and  yet  fall 
"  a  way  and  perish.  But  for 
"  Luther  and  Bucer,  I  am  re- 
* '  sol  ved  that  they  never  thought 
"  any  reprobate  to  have  ever 
"  obtained  the  state  of  a  truly 
"  faithful,  justified,  adopted, 
"  and  sanctified  man.  But  they 
"  affirm  that  faith  and  the  grace 


of  Britain. 


15.  I  remember  not  at  this  time  any  of  master  a.  d.  16*5. 

1  Chnrlif  I 

Mountague's  party  engaged  in  print  in  his  behalf; ! 

whether  because  they  conceived  this  their  champion ^^eftto 
sufficient  of  himself  to  encounter  all  opposers,  or^ndhim- 
because  they  apprehended  it  unsafe  (though  of  the 
same  judgment)  to  justify  a  book  which  was  grown 
so  generally  offensive.  Insomuch,  as  his  majesty 
himself,  sensible  of  his  subjects'  great  distaste  thereat, 
(sounded  by  the  duke  of  Buckingham  to  that  pur- 
pose,) was  resolved  to  leave  Mr.  Mountague  to  stand 
or  fell,  according  to  the  justice  of  his  cause.  The 
duke  imparted  as  much  to  Dr.  Laud,  bishop  of  St. 
David's,  who  conceived  it  of  such  ominous  concern- 
ment, that  he  entered  the  same  in  his  diary,  viz. 
Methinks  I  see  a  cloud  arising  and  threatening 
the  Church  of  England ;  God  of  his  mercy  dissi- 
pate it." 

16.  The   day   of  the  king's   coronation  drawing  a  maim  on 

,.  .      ,  .     .  j  .1      the  emblem 

near,   his  majesty   sent  to  survey  and  peruse  the  of  peace, 
regalia,  or  royal  ornaments,  which  then  were  to  be 
used*.     It  happened  that  the  left  wing  of  the  dove  on 
the  sceptre  was  quite  broken  off,  by  what  casualty 
God  himself  knows.     The  king  sent  for  Mr.  Acton, 




**  of  the  Spirit  cannot  stand  to- 
"  gether  with  impenitency  in 
"  any  mortal  sin :  meaning 
"  thereby  the  act  of  faith  ap- 
"  prehending  justification,  and 
"  the  working  of  the  Spirit 
"  sealing  unto  us  our  justitica- 
"  tion.  But  that  the  state  of 
44  regeneration,  or  adoption,  or 
"  justification,  (as  it  respects 
"  all  sins  fore-passed,)  was 
thereby  dissolved,  they  never 
thought. —  "  Dec.  5,  1625. 
Jo.  Sarum  to  Dr.  Ward.    Tan. 



lxxii.  p.  68.] 

*  [This  account  of  the  coro- 
nation of  king  Charles,  Fuller 
tells  us  he  received  from  "  a 
."  doctor  of  divinity  still  alive, 
"  rich  in  learning  and  piety, 
"  present  on  the  place,  and  an 
"  exact  observer  of  all  passa- 
••  ges."  See  "  The  Appeal," 
&c.  part  iii.  p.  4.  See  also  a 
letter  written  at  the  time  by 
sir  S.  D'Ewes  on  the  same  sub- 
ject in  Ellis'   Orig.  Lett.   iii. 

c  4 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1625.  then  his  goldsmith,  commanding  him  that  the  very 

-  same  should  be  set  on  again.    The  goldsmith  replied, 

that  it  was  impossible  to  be  done  so  fairly,  but  that 
some  mark  would  remain  thereof.  To  whom  the 
king  in  some  passion  returned a,  "  If  you  will  not  do 
"  ity  another  shall."  Hereupon  Mr.  Acton  carried  it 
home,  and  got  another  dove  of  gold  to  be  artifi- 
cially set  on ;  whereat,  when  brought  back,  his 
majesty  was  well  contented,  as  making  no  discovery 
thereof  b. 

*  His  son  succeeding  his  fa- 
ther in  that  place,  and  then 
present,  attested  to  me  the 
truth  hereof. 

b  ["  Two  things  there  were 
"  remarkable  in  this  corona- 
"  tion,  which  seemed  to  have 
"  something  in  them  of  presage. 
•'  Senhouse,  who  had  been  once 
"  his  chaplain  when  prince  of 
*•  Wales,  and  was  now  bishop 
•*  of  Carlisle,  had  the  honor  to 
*'  preach  upon  the  day  of  that 
"  great  solemnity.  An  elo- 
•'  quent  man  he  was  reputed, 
"  and  one  that  could  very  well 
"  express  a  passion ;  but  he 
"  had  chosen  such  a  text  as 
••  was  more  proper  for  a  fune- 
"  ral  than  a  coronation  ;  his 
"  text  being  this,  viz.  I  will 

give   thee  a   crown   of  life, 

Apoc.  ii.  10.  and  was  rather 
"  thought  to  put  the  new  king 
"  in  mind  of  his  death  than  his 
"  duty  in  government ;  and  to 
*'•  have  been  his  funeral  sermon 
•*  when  he  was  alive,  as  if  he 
0  were  to  have  none  when  he 
•-  was  to  be  buried.  It  was 
"  observed  also  that  his  ma- 
"  jesty  on  that  day  was  clothed 
"  in  white,  contrary  to  the  cus- 
"  torn  of  his  predecessors,  who 



"  were  on  that  day  clad  in  pur- 
"  pie.      And  this  he  did  not 
**  out  of  any  necessity,  for  want 
"  of  purple  velvet  enough   to 
"  make  a  suit,  (for  he  had  many 
"  yards  of  it  in  his  outward 
"  garment,)   but   at    his    own 
"  choice  only,  to  declare  that 
M  virgin  purity  with  which  he 
"  came  to  be  espoused  unto  his 
••  kingdom.       White    (as    we 
"  know)  is  the  colour  of  the 
"  saints,  who  are  represented 
"to  us  in  white  robes  by  St. 
"  John  in  the  Revelation  ;  and 
"  purple  is  the   imperial   and 
"  regal  colour.     And  this  some 
"  looked  on  also  as  an  evil  pre- 
"  sage   that   the   king,   laying 
"  aside  his  purple,  the  robe  of 
"  majesty,  should  clothe  him- 
••  self  in  white,  the  robe  of  in- 
"  nocence ;    as    if  it    thereby 
tf  were   fore-signified   that   he 
"  should  divest  himself  of  that 
"  royal  majesty,  which  might 
"  and   would  have   kept    him 
"  safe  from  affront  and  scorn, 
"  to  rely  wholly  on  the  inno- 
"  cence  of  a  virtuous  life,  which 
"  did  expose  him  finally  to  ca- 
'•  lamitous   ruin."       Heylyn's 
Life  of  Laud,  p.  144.]] 


of  Britain. 


17.  The  bishop  of  Lincoln,  lord  keeper,  was  now  a.  p.  1625. 
daily  descendent  in  the  king's  favor ;    who  so  highly  l---aren 
distasted  him,  that  he  would  not  have  him,  as  dean  weii  waved. 
of  Westminster,  to  perform  any  part  of  his  corona- 
tion ;  yet  so  (was  it  a  favour  or  a  trial  ?)  that  it  was 
left  to  his  free  choice  to  prefer  any  prebendary  of 
the  church  to  officiate  in  his  place0.      The  bishop 
met  with  a  dilemma  herein.     To  recommend  Dr. 
Laud,   bishop   of  St.  David's,   (and   prebendary   of 
Westminster,)  for  that   performance  was   to  grace 
one  of  his  greatest  enemies;  to  pass  him  by,  and 




•  • 



e  [Dr.  Heylyn  observes  that 
the  bishop  of  Lincoln  was  not 
lord  keeper  at  the  coronation. 
Secondly,  if  he  had  been  so, 
and  that  the  king  was  so  dis- 
tasted with  him  as  not  to 
suffer  him  to  assist  at  his  co- 
ronation, how  came  he  to  be 
suffered  to  be  present  at  it  in 
the  capacity  of  lord  keeper  ? 
For  that  he  did  so  in  affirmed 
by  our  author,  saying,  '  That 
the  king  took  a  scroll  of 
parchment  out  of  his  bosom 
and  gave  it  to  the  lord  keeper 
Williams,  who  read  it  to  the 
commons  four  several  times, 
east,  west,  north,  and  south/ 
p.  30.  Thirdly,  the  lord 
keeper  who  read  that  scroll 
was  not  the  lord  keeper  Wil- 
liams, but  the  lord  keeper 
Coventry,  the  seal  being  taken 
from  the  bishop  of  Lincoln 
and  committed  to  the  custody 
of  sir  Thomas  Coventry  in 
October  before.  And  there- 
fore, fourthly,  our  author  is 
much  out  in  placing  both  the 
coronation  and  the  following 
parliament  before  the  change 
of  the  lord  keeper;  andsend- 

"  ing  sir  John  Suckling  to  fetch 
"  that  seal  at  the  end  of  a  par- 
*'  liament  in  the  spring,  which 
"  he  had  brought  away  with 
"  him  before  Michaelmas  term." 
The  Appeal,  &c.  part  iii.  p.  3. 
A  MS.  letter  from  Mr.  Mead, 
quoted  by  sir  Henry  Ellis  in 
his  Orig.  Lett.  iii.  214,  gives 
the  following  reasons  for  Wil- 
liams' disgrace  :  "  My  lord  bi- 
"  shop  of  Lincoln  being  se- 
"  questered  from  his  office  at 
the  coronation,  as  he  is  dean 
of  Westminster,  and  the  bi- 
shop of  St.  David's  being  set 
up  in  his  room  by  the  great 
man,  his  lordship  is  going 
to  retire  himself  at  Bugden. 
"  The  occasion  of  this  loss  of 
his  lord  keeper's  place,  was 
(besides  some  things  that 
passed  at  the  last  sitting  in 
parliament)  a  plain  piece  of 
counsel  his  lordship  gave  my 
lord  duke  at  Salisbury,  name- 
ly, that. being  as  then  general 
both  by  sea  and  land,  he 
"  should  either  go  in  person,  or 
"  stay  the  fleet  at  home,  or  else 
"  give  over  his  office  of  admi- 
"  ralty  to  some  other."] 














26  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1625.  prefer  a  private  prebendary  for  that  purpose  before  a 

"  bishop,  would  seem  unhandsome,  and  be  interpreted 

a  neglect  of  his  own  order.  To  avoid  all  exceptions, 
he  presented  a  list  of  all  the  prebendaries  of  that 
church,  referring  the  election  to  his  majesty  himself, 
who  made  choice  of  Dr.  Laud,  bishop  of  St.  David's, 
for  that  attendance. 
The  coro.       18.  Dr.  Senhouse,  bishop  of  Carlisle,  (chaplain  to 

nation  ser- 
mon,        the  king  when  prince,)  preached  at  the  coronation ; 

his  text,  And  I  wiU  give  unto  thee  a  crown  of  life. 

In  some  sort  it  may  be  said  that  he  preached  his 

own  funeral,  dying  shortly  after ;  and  even  then  the 

black  jaundice  had  so  possessed  him,  (a  disease  which 

hangs  the  face  with  mourning  as  against  its  burial,) 

that  all  despaired  of  his  recovery.     Now  seeing  this 

coronation  cometh  within  (if  not  the  pales  and  park) 

the  purlieus  of  ecclesiastical  history,  we  will  present 

so   much   thereof  as  was   acted  in  the  church  of 

Westminster.     Let  heralds  marshal  the  solemnity  of 

their  advance  from  Westminster  hall  to  this  church, 

where  our  pen  takes  the  first  possession  of  this  subject. 

The  solemn     19.  But  first,  we  will  premise  the  equipage  ac- 

the  church,  cording  to  which  they  advanced  from  Westminster 

hall  to  the  abbey  church,  in  order  as  followeth : 

1.  The  aldermen  of  London,  two  by  two,  ushered 
by  an  herald. 

£.  Eighty  knights  of  the  bath  in  their  robes,  each 
having  an  esquire  to  support,  and  page  to  attend  him. 

3.  The  king's  sergeants  at  law,  solicitor,  attorney, 
masters  of  request,  and  judges. 

4.  Privy  counsellors  that  were  knights,  and  chief 
officers  of  the  king's  household. 

5.  Barons  of  the  kingdom,  all  bare  headed,  in  their 
parliament  robes,  with  swords  by  their  sides. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  27 

6.  The  bishops,  with  scarlet  gowns  and  lawn  sleeves,     a.d.  1635. 
bare  headed.  »Ch»rU»l. 

7.  The  viscounts  and  earls  (not  in  their  parliament, 
but)  in  their  coronation  robes,  with  coronetted  caps 
on  their  heads. 

8.  The  officers  of  state  for  the  day ;  whereof  these 
are  the  principal : 

Sir  Richard  Winn. 

Sir  George  Goring. 

The  Lord  Privy  Seal. 

The  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 
The  earl  of  Dorset  carrying  the  first  sword  naked. 
The  earl  of  Essex  carrying  the  second  sword  naked. 
The  earl  of  Kent  carrying  the  third  sword  naked. 
The  earl  of  Montgomery  carrying  the  spurs. 
The  earl  of  Sussex  carrying  the  globe  and  cross  upon  it. 
The  bishop  of  London  carrying  the  golden  cup  for  the 

The  bishop  of  Winchester  carrying  the  golden  plate  for 

the  communion. 
The  earl  of  Rutland  carrying  the  sceptre. 
The  marquis  Hamilton  carrying  the  sword  of  state 

The  earl  of  Pembroke  carrying  the  crown. 

The  lord  mayor,  in  a  crimson  velvet  gown,  carried 
a  short  sceptre  before  the  king  amongst  the  ser- 
geants :  but  I  am  not  satisfied  in  the  criticalness  of 
his  place. 

The  earl  of  Arundel,  as  earl  marshal  of  England, 
and  the  duke  of  Buckingham,  as  lord  high  constable 
of  England  for  that  day,  went  before  his  majesty  in 
this  great  solemnity. 

20.  The  king  entered  at  the  west  gate  of  the  The  man. 
church,  under  a  rich  canopy  carried  by  the  barons  of  king's  coro. 
the  cinque  ports,  his  own  person  being  supported  by natMM1- 
Dr.  Neyle,  bishop  of  Durham,  on  the  one  hand,  and 

28  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1625.  Dr.  Lake,  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  on  the  other. 

t  Charles  I.  tt«     j.      •       i_    •  •  j     »  i?  1  1      .*. 

His  train,  being  six  yards  long,  of  purple  velvet,  was 

held  up  by  the  lord  Compton  (as  belonging  to  the 
robes)  and  the  lord  viscount  Doncaster.  Here  he 
was  met  by  the  prebends  of  Westminster,  (bishop 
Laud  supplying  the  dean  his  place,)  in  their  rich 
copes,  who  delivered  into  his  majesty's  hand  the 
staff  of  king  Edward  the  confessor,  with  which  he 
walked  up  to  the  scaffold. 

n»  fashion     21.  This  was   made  of  wood  at  the  upper   end 

ofthescaf-  rr 

fold.  of  the  church,  from  the  choir  to  the  altar.      His 

majesty  mounted  it,  none  under  the  degree  of  a 
baron  standing  thereon,  save  only  the  prebends  of 
Westminster,  who  attended  on  the  altar :  three 
chairs  were  appointed  for  him  in  several  places ;  one 
of  repose,  the  second  the  ancient  chair  of  corona- 
tion, and  the  third,  (placed  on  a  high  square  of  five 
stairs  ascent,)  being  the  chair  of  state. 

The  king        22.  All  being  settled  and  reposed,  the  lord  arch- 

and  accept,  bishop   did  present  his   majesty  to  the   lords  and 
peopL  e    commons,  east,  west,  north,  and  south,  asking  their 
minds,  four  several  times,  if  they  did  consent  to 
the  coronation  of  king  Charles,  their  lawful  sovereign. 
The  king  meantime  presented  himself  bare  headed ; 
the  consent  being  given  four  times  with  great  accla- 
mation, the  king  took  his  chair  of  repose. 
8wom  and      23.  After  the  sermon,  (whereof  before,)  the  lord 
anointed.    archbishop,  invested  in  a  rich  cope,  tendered  to  the 
king  (kneeling  down  on  cushions  at  the  communion 
table)  a  large  oath;  then  were  his  majesty's  robes 
taken  off  him  and  were  offered  on  the  altar.     He 
stood  for  a  while  stripped  to  his  doublet  and  hose, 
which  were  of  white  satin,   (with  ribbons  on  the 
arms  and  shoulders  to  open  them,)  and  he  appeared 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  29 

a  proper  person  to  all  that  beheld  him.     Then  wasA.D.  1625. 

he  led  by  the  lord  archbishop  and  the  bishop  of — 

St.  David's,  and  placed  in  the  chair  of  coronation, 
(a  close  canopy  being  spread  over  him,)  the  lord 
archbishop  anointing  his  head,  shoulders,  arms,  and 
hands,  with  a  costly  ointment,  the  choir  singing  an 
anthem  of  these  words,  Zadoc  the  priest  anointed 
king  Solomon. 

24.  Hence  the  king  was  led  up  in  his  doublet  Solemnly 
and  hose,  with  a  white  coif  on  his  head,  to  the  com-crow 
munion  table,  where  bishop  Laud  (deputy  for  the 
dean  of  Westminster)  brought  forth  the  ancient 
habiliments  of  king  Edward  the  Confessor,  and  put 
them  upon  him.  Then  was  his  majesty  brought 
back  to  the  chair  of  coronation,  and  received  the 
crown  of  king  Edward,  (presented  by  Laud,  and) 

put  on  his  head  by  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury ; 
the  choir  singing  an  anthem,  Thou  shalt  put  a  crown 
of  pure  gold  upon  his  head.  Whereupon  the  earls 
and  viscounts  put  on  their  crimson  velvet  caps  with 
coronets  about  them,  (the  barons  and  bishops  always 
standing  bare  headed.)  Then  every  bishop  came 
severally  to  his  majesty  to  bring  his  benediction 
upon  him,  and  he,  in  king  Edward's  robes,  with  the 
crown  upon  his  head,  rose  from  his  chair  and  did 
bow  severally  to  every  bishop  apart. 

25.  Then  was  king  Edward's  sword  girt  about  *"igirtana 
him,  which  he  took  off  again  and  offered  up  at  the  »"<>"i»- 
communion  table,  with   two  swords  more,  (surely 

not  in  relation  to  Scotland  and  Ireland,  but  to  some 
ancient  principalities  his  predecessors  enjoyed  in 
France.)  Then  the  duke  of  Buckingham  (as  master 
of  the  horse)  put  on  his  spurs ;  and  thus  completely 

30  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1625.  crowned  his  majesty  offered  first  gold,  then  silver,  at 

-the  altar,   and   afterwards  bread  and  wine,  which 

were  to  be  used  at  the  holy  communion. 

Homage         26.  Then  was  his  majesty  conducted  by  the  no- 
done  by  the  o      J  J 

nobility  to  bility  to  the  throne  upon  that  square  basis  of  five 
18  *******'  ascents,  the  choir  singing  Te  Deum.  Here  his 
majesty  took  an  oath  of  homage  from  the  duke 
Buckingham,  (as  lord  high  constable  for  that  day,) 
and  the  duke  did  swear  all  the  nobility  besides  to 
be  homagers  to  his  majesty  at  his  majesty's  knees. 

with  their       27.  Then  as  many  earls  and  barons  as  could  con- 

oath.  veniently  stand  about  the  throne,  did  lay  their  hands 
on  the  crown  on  his  majesty's  head,  protesting  to 
spend  their  bloods  to  maintain  it  to  him  and  his 
lawful  heirs.  The  bishops  severally  kneeled  down, 
but  took  no  oath  as  the  barons  did,  the  king  kissing 
every  one  of  them. 

A  pardon        gg.  Then  the  king  took  a  scroll  of  parchment  out 

general  °  r 

granted,     of  his  bosom,  and  gave  it  to  the  lord  keeper  Wil- 
liams, who  read  it   to   the  commons  four  several 
times,   east,   west,   north,   and   south.      The   effect 
whereof  was,  that  his  majesty  did  offer  a  pardon 
to  all   his  subjects  who  would  take  it  under  his 
broad  seal. 
The  com-        29.  From  the  throne  his  majesty  was  conducted 
conclude    to  the  communion  table,  where  the  lord  archbishop 
the^oiem-  knee]jng  on  ^e  north  side,  read  prayers  in  the  choir 

and  sung  the  Nicene  Creed.  The  bishop  of  Llandaff 
and  Norwich  read  the  epistle  and  gospel,  with  whom 
the  bishops  of  Durham  and  St  David's,  in  rich  copes, 
kneeled  with  his  majesty  and  received  the  commu- 
nion ;  the  bread  from  the  archbishop,  the  wine  from 
the  bishop  of  St.  David's,  his  majesty  receiving  last 

cent,  xvii,  of  Britain.  31 

of  all9  whilst   Gloria  in  excebis  was  sung  by  the  a.  d.  16*5. 

choir,  and  some  prayers  read  by  the  archbishop  con-i ar<* 

eluded  the  solemnity. 

30.  The  king,  after  he  had  disrobed  himself  in  The  return 

•  to  White- 

king  Edward's  chapel,  came  forth  in  a  short  robe  of  hail. 

red  velvet  girt  unto  him,  lined  with  ermines,  and  a 

crown  of  his  own  on  his  head  set  with  very  precious 

stones,  and  thus  the  train  going  to  the  barges  on 

the  water  side,  returned  to  Whitehall  in  the  same 

order  wherein  they  came,  about  three  o'clock  in  the 


31.  I  have  insisted  the  longer  on  this   subject  Ourproiiri. 

0  J         ty  herein 

moved  thereunto  by  this  consideration,  that  if  it  excused. 
be  the  last  solemnity  performed  on  an  English  king 
in  this  kind,  posterity  will  conceive  my  pains  well 
bestowed,  because  on  the  last.  But  if  hereafter 
divine  providence  shall  assign  England  another  king, 
though  the  transactions  herein  be  not  wholly  prece- 
dential, something  of  state  may  be  chosen  out  grate- 
ful for  imitation. 

32.  And  here  if  a  blister  was  not,  it  deserved  A  foul 

mouth  rail- 
to  be,  on  the  fingers  of  that  scandalous  pamphleteer,  er. 

who  hath  written  that  king  Charles  was  not  crowned 
like  other  kings ;  whereas  all  essentials  of  his  coro- 
nation were  performed  with  as  much  ceremony  as 
ever  before,  and  all  robes  of  state  used  according 
to  ancient  prescription :  but  if  he  indulged  his  own 
fancy  for  the  colour  of  his  clothes,  a  white  suit,  &c. 
persons  meaner  than  princes  have  in  greater  matters 
assumed  as  much  liberty  to  themselves. 

33.  Indeed,  one  solemnity  (no  part  of,  but  preface  Why  the 
to,  the  coronation)  was  declined  on  good  consider- not  through 
ation.    For  whereas  the  kings  of  England  used  to  ride    eaty* 
from  the  tower,  through  the  city,  to  Westminster; 

S£  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1625.  king  Charles  went  thither  by  water,  out  of  double 

—  providence,  to  save  health  and  wealth  thereby.     For 

though  the  infectious  air  in  the  city  of  London  had 
lately  been  corrected  with  a  sharp  winter,  yet  was  it 
not  so  amended  but  that  a  just  suspicion  of  danger  did 
remain.  Besides,  such  a  procession  would  have  cost 
him  threescore  thousand  pounds,  to  be  disbursed  on 
scarlet  for  his  train ;  a  sum  which  if  then  demanded 
of  his  exchequer  would  scarce  receive  a  satisfactory 
answer  thereunto ;  and  surely  some  who  since  con- 
demn him  for  want  of  state  in  omitting  this  royal 
pageant,  would  have  condemned  him  more  for  pro- 
digality, had  he  made  use  thereof. 
A  memo-        34.  As  for  any  other   alterations  in   prayers  or 

nble  alter-  J  r     J 

ation  in  a  ceremonies,  though  heavily  charged  on  bishop  Laud, 
pag6an  are  since  conceived  by  unpartial  people  done  by 
a  committee,  wherein  (though  the  bishop  accused 
as  most  active)  others  did  equally  consent*.  Indeed, 
a  passage  not  in  fashion  since  the  reign  of  king  Henry 
the  Sixth,  was  used  in  a  prayer  at  this  time.  Obti- 
neat  gratiam  huic  populo  sicut  Aaron  in  tabemaculo, 
Elizeus  in  flwio,  Zacharias  in  templo,  sit  Pctrus  in 
clave,  Paulus  in  dogmate.  "  Let  him  obtain  favour 
"  for  his  people  like  Aaron  in  the  tabernacle,  Elisha 
"  in  the  waters,  Zacharias  in  the  temple;  give  him 
"  Peter's  key  of  discipline,  Paul's  doctrine."  This  I 
may  call  a  Protestant  passage,  though  anciently  used 
in  popish  times,  as  fixing  more  spiritual  power  in 
the  king  than  the  pope  will  willingly  allow,  jealous 
that  any  should  finger  Peter's  keys  save  himself. 
a  confer-  35  a  few  days  after  a  parliament  began,  wherein 
home.        Mr.  Mountague  was  much  troubled  about  his  book, 

d  [Upon  this  point  see  a  full  and  complete  justification  of  the 
archbishop,  in  the  History  of  his  Troubles,  p.  3 18,  sq.] 


of  Britain. 


but  made  a  shift  by  bis  powerful  friends  to  saveAP-  !/wJ- 

*  *  i  Chnrles  I. 

himself.     During  the  sitting  whereof,  at  the  instance 

and  procurement  of  Robert  Rich,  earl  of  Warwick, 
a  conference  was  kept  in  York  house,  before  the 
duke  of  Buckingham  and  other  lords,  betwixt  Dr. 
Buckeridge,  bishop  of  Rochester,  and  Dr.  White, 
dean  of  Carlisle,  on  the  one  side,  and  Dr  Morton, 
bishop  of  Coventry,  and  Dr.  Preston  on  the  other, 
about  Arminian  points,  and  chiefly  the  possibility  of 
one  elected  to  fall  from  grace e.     The  passages  of 

c  [Not  upon  Arminian  points, 
although  our  author  is  pleased 
to  call  them  such.  The  confer- 
ence resjiected  points  of  doctrine 
and  discipline,  where,  in  sup- 
port of  his  views,  Mountague 
appealed  to  the  writings  of  the 
primitive  church.  Indeed  he 
earnestly  disclaimed  the  tenets 
of  Arminius,  or  any  other  pri- 
vate teacher,  as  may  he  seen  in 
the  following  passage :  "  I  am 
"  not,  nor  would  be  accounted 
"  willingly,  Arminian,  Calvin- 
44  ist,  or  Lutheran,  (names  of  di- 
"  vision,)  but  a  Christian.  For 
"  my  faith  was  never  taught  by 
"  the  doctrine  of  men.  I  was 
not  baptized  into  the  belief, 
or  assumed  by  grace  into  the 
"  family  of  any  of  these,  or  of 
••  the  pope.  I  will  not  pin  my 
"  belief  unto  any  man's  sleeve, 
"  carry  he  his  head  never  so  high ; 
"  not  unto  S.  Augustin,  or  any 
"  ancient  father,  nedum  unto 
"  men  of  lower  rank.  A  Chris- 
'*  tian  I  am  and  so  glory  to  be  ; 
"  only  denominated  of  Christ 
"  Jesus  my  lord  and  master,  by 
whom  I  never  was  as  yet  so 
wronged  that  I  would  relin- 
quish   willingly    that    royal 





























title,  and  exchange  it  for  any 
of  his  menial  servants.  And 
further  yet  I  do  profess  that 
I  see  no  reason  why  any 
member  of  the  Church  of 
England,  a  church  every  way 
so  transcendant  unto  that  of 
Leyden  and  Geneva,  should 
bend  so  low  as  to  denomi- 
nate himself  of  any  the  most 
eminent  among  them. 

"  For  Arminianism    I 

must  and  do  protest  before 
God  and  his  angels,  id  que  in 
verbo  sacerdotis,  the  time  is 
yet  to  come  that  I  ever  read 
word  in  Arminius.  The  course 
of  my  studies  was  never  ad- 
dressed to  modern  epitom- 
izers  ;  but  from  my  first  en- 
trance to  the  study  of  divi- 
nity, I  balked  the  ordinary 
and  accustomed  bye- paths  of 
Bastingius'  Catechism,  Fen- 
ner's  Divinity,  Buchanan's 
Common-places,  Trelcasius, 
Polanus,  and  such  like ;  and 
betook  myself  to  scripture, 
the  rule  of  faith,  interpreted 
by  antiquity,  the' best  expo- 
sitor of  faith  and  applier  of 
that  rule  :  holding  it  a  point 
of  discretion  to  draw  water, 


34  The  Church  History  book  xe. 

A^P*  1.625*  which  conference  are  variously  reported.     For  -it  is 

I  Charles  I.  ,11 

not  in  tongue  combats,  as  in  other  battles,  where 

the  victory  cannot  be  disguised,  as  discovering  itself 
in  keeping  the  field,  number  of  the  slain,  captives, 
and  colours  taken.  Whilst  here,  no  such  visible 
effects  appearing,  the  persons  present  were  left  to 
their  liberty  to  judge  of  the  conquest  as  each  one 
stood  affected.  However  William*  earl  of  Pembroke, 
was  heard  to  say,  "that  none  returned  Arminians 
4i  thence,  save  such  who  repaired  thither  with  the 
"  same  opinions." 

ABecondon     g(}#  Soon  after,  a  second  conference  was  entertain- 

the  same 

■ubjecu.  ed  in  the  same  place,  on  the  same  points,  before  the 
game  persons ;  betwixt  Dr.  White,  dean  of  Carlisle, 
and  Mr.  Mountague  on  the  one  side,  and  Dr.  Mor- 
ton, bishop  of  Lichfield,  and  Dr.  Preston  on  the 
other.  Dr.  Preston  carried  it  clear  at  the  first  by 
dividing  his  adversaries;  who  quickly  perceiving 
their  error,  pieced  themselves  together  in  a  joint  op- 
position against  him.  The  passages  also  of  this  con- 
ference are  as  differently  related  as  the  former.  Some 
making  it  fa  clear  conquest  on  one,  some  on  the 
other  side,  and  a  third  sort  a  drawn  battle  betwixt 
both.  Thus  the  success  of  these  meetings  answered 
neither  the  commendable  intentions,  nor  hopeful 
expectations,  of  such  who  procured  them.  Now 
whilst  other  dare  say  universally  of  such  conferences, 
what  David  saith  of  mankind,  that  of  them,  *there 

*'  as  near  as  I  could,  to  the  •'  to  I  have  not  repented  me  of 

"  well-head,  and  to  spare  labor  ••  it."  Appello,  p.  10,  sq.] 

"  in  vain  in  running  further  off  f  Thus   the    writer    of    Dr. 

c<  to  cisterns  and  lakes.  I  went  Preston's    Life   concludes  the 

"  to  inquire  when  doubt  was  of  conquest  on  his  side. 

'•  the  days  of  old,  as  God  him-  ff  Psalm  xlv.  3. 

"  self  directed  me,  and  hither- 


of'  Britain. 


is  none  that  doeth  good;  no,  not  one:  we  dare  only  a.  d.  1635. 

intimate,   tbat  (what    statesmen   observe  of  inter " 

views  betwixt  princes;  so)  these  conferences  be- 
twixt divines  rather  increase  the  differences  than 
abate  them11. 

37.  The  bishop  of  Lincoln  fell  now,  through  the  The  bishop 

,1,.  11*9        1*1  1  it      of  Lincoln 

dukes,  into  the  kings,  displeasure;   and  such  who loseth his 
will  read  the  late  letters  in  the  Cabala  may  conjee-  pST  * 
ture  the  cause  thereof,  but  the  certainty  we  leave  to 
be  reported  by  the  historians  of  the  state ;  belonging 
in  his  episcopal  capacity  to  my  pen,  but  as  lord 
keeper  properly  to  theirs. 

38.  The  bishop,  finding  his  own   tottering  con- The  duke 
dition,  addressed  himself  to  all  who  had  intimacy  gainst  him. 
with  the  duke,  to  reingratiate  himself.     But  such 
after-games  at  court  seldom  succeed ;    all  would  not 

do :  for  as  amicus  omnium  optimus  was  part  of  the 
duke's  epitaph ',  so  no  fiercer  foe  when  displeased ; 
and  nothing  under  the  bishop's  removal  from  his 
office  would  give  him  satisfaction. 

39-  Sir  John  Suckling  was  sent  unto  him  from  The  w- 

#  .       shop's  wari- 

the  king  to  demand  the  broad  seal  of  him,  which  ness  in  re. 
the  cautious  bishop  refused  to  surrender  into  hisJS"* 
hands,  to  prevent  such  uses  as  might  be  made  there- 
of (by  him  or  others)  in  the  interval  betwixt  this 

h  [Of  these  conferences, 
which  made  great  noise  at 
the  time,  and  certainly  caused 
a  great  change  in  the  senti- 
ments of  bishop  Morton,  some 
account  will  be  found  in  Ball's 
Life  of  Preston,  p.  101,  sq. 
But  the  writer  of  that  life  has 
either  so  entirely  misunderstood 
or  misrepresented  the  argu- 
ments, us  to  make  the  defenders 
of  the  sentiments  he  disliked 

talk  arrant  nonsense,  and  sup- 
port their  tenets  in  a  way  utter- 
ly at  variance  with  their  printed 
works.  An  account  of  the  se- 
cond conference  is  printed  in 
the  appendix  to  Cosins'  History 
of  Transubstantiation,  found  a- 
mong  some  MS.  papers  in  the 
Bodleian  ;  and  probably  writ- 
ten by  Cosins.] 

1  On  his  tomb  in  Westmin- 
ster chapel. 

D  2 

36  The  Church  History  jiook  xi. 

a.d.  1615. resigning  it,  and  the  king's  conferring  it  on  another; 
but  he  charily  locked  it  up  in  a  box,  and  sent  the 

box  by  the  knight,  and  key  thereof  inclosed  in  a 

letter  to  his  majesty. 
But  keeps       40.  However,  his  bruise  was  the  less,  because  he 

his  bishop- 
ric fell  but  from  the  first  loft  and  saved  himself  on  the 

second  floor.  Outed  his  lord-keepership,  but  keep- 
ing his  bishopric  of  Lincoln  and  deanery  of  West- 
minster, though  forced  to  part  with  the  king's  purse, 
he  held  his  own,  and  that  well  replenished.  And 
now  he  is  retired  to  Bugden-great,  where,  whether 
greater  his  anger  at  his  enemies  for  what  he  had 
lost,  or  gratitude  to  God  for  what  he  had  left,  though 
others  may  conjecture,  his  own  conscience  only  could 
decide.  Here  we  leave  him  at  his  hospitable  table, 
where  sometimes  he  talked  so  loud,  that  his  dis- 
course at  the  second  hand  was  heard  to  London, 
by  those  who  bare  no  good-will  unto  him. 
a  new  col-  41.  An  old  hall  turned  into  a  new  college  was 
old  hail  in  this  year  finished  at  Oxford.  This  formerly  was 
called  Broadgate's  Hall,  and  had  many  students 
therein,  k amongst  whom,  Edmund  Bonner,  after- 
wards bishop  of  London,  (scholar  enough  and  tyrant 
too  much,)  had  his  education1.  But  this  place  was 
not  endowed  with  any  revenues  till  about  this  time ; 
for  Thomas  Tesdale,  of  Glympton,  in  the  county  of 
Oxford,  esquire,  bequeathed  five  thousand  pounds, 
wherewith  lands  were  purchased  to  the  value  of  two 
hundred  and  fifty  pounds  per  annum,  for  the  main- 
tenance of  seven  fellows  and  six  scholars.  After- 
wards Richard  Whitwick,  bachelor  of  divinity,  rector 
of  East  Ilsley  in  Berkshire,  gave  lands  to  the  yearly 

k   [So  well  frequented  and  known  as  to  become  a  proverb.] 
1   O  *524-] 


of  Britain. 


value  of  one  hundred  pounds,  for  the  maintenance  a.  p.  16*5. 

of  three  fellows  and  four  scholars ;  whereupon,  peti " 

tion  being  made  to  king  James,  this  new  college 
was  erected,  and  a  charter  of  mortmain  of  seven 
hundred  pounds  per  annum  granted  thereunto. 

42.  It  was  called  Pembroke  College,  partly  in  Called  Pem- 
respect  to  William,  earl  of  Pembroke,  then  chan-iege.e 
cellor  of  the  university,  partly  in  expectation  to 
receive  some  favour  from  him.  And  probably  had 
not  that  noble  lord  died  suddenly  soon  after,  this 
college  might  have  received  more  than  a  bare  name 
from  him.  The  best,  where  a  child  hath  rich  pa- 
rents it  needeth  the  less  any  gifts  from  the  god- 




Learned  Writers. 

1.  [1624]  Dr.  [Thomas]  Clay- 
ton,  M.D. 

2.  [1647.  Henry  Wightwick, 
ejected  by  Parliament;  re. 
stored  in  1660;   and  eject- 
ed  by  the  chancellor  a  se- 
cond time,  1664.] 

3.  [1647]  Dr.  [Henry]  Lang- 

King  Charles, 
who  gave  the 
patronage  of 
St.  Aldate's, 
the      church 

Sir  Thomas  Browne, 

So  that  this  college  consisteth  of  a  master,  ten 
fellows,  and  ten  scholars,  with  other  students  and 
officers  to  the  number  of  one  hundred  sixty-nine. 

43.  "  The  doctor  and  the  duke  were  both  of  them 
unwilling  to  an  open  breach,  loved  for  to  temporise 
and  wait  upon  events™".  Surely  temporise  here  is 
taken  in  the  apostolic  sense,  according  to  some 
copies,  "  serving  the  times11".     And  henceforward  the 

m~  Dr.  Preston's  Life,  p.  505. 

B  Rom.  xii.  II.  r$  icaipy  &ov\€vovrts.     Ambrosiu?. 



The  Church  History 

book  xr. 

a.  d.  1626.  duke  resolved  to  shake  off  the  doctor,  who  would 

1  f  hiirlrn  T 

not  stick  close  unto  him,  betaking  himself  to  the 

opposite   interest.      Nor   was   the   other   surprised 

herein,  as  expecting  the  alteration  long  before. 

Dr.  Piw.       44.  By  the  late   conferences   at  York  house  it 

Inthe   n<* appeared,  that  by  the  duke's  cold  carriage  towards 

v^§fiu  *l*m»  (an(*  sn"ling   on  his  opponents,)  Dr.  Preston 

was  now  entering  into  the  autumn  of  the  duke's 

favour.     Indeed,  they  were  well  met,  each  observing, 

neither  trusting  other,  (as  I  read  in  the  doctor's  life, 

written  by  his  judicious  pupil.) 

The  death       45.  This  year  concluded  the  life  of  Arthur  Lake, 

•hop  Lake,  warden  of  New  College  in  Oxford,  master  of  St. 

Cross's,  dean  of  Worcester,  and   at  last  promoted 

bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  not  so  much  by  the  power 

of  his  brother,  sir  Thomas,  (secretary  to  king  James,) 

as  his  own  desert ;  as  one  whose  piety  may  be  justly 

exemplary  to  all  of  his  order.     He  seldom  (if  at  all) 

is  said  to  have  dreamt,  justly  imputed,  not  to  the 

dulness  of  his  fancy,  in  which  faculty  he  had  no 

defect,  but  to  the  staidness  of  his  judgment,  wherein 

he  did  much  excel,  as  by  his  learned  sermons  doth 


The  death       46.  About  the  same  time  Lancelot  Andrews  ended 

and  charac- 
ter of  bi-     bis  religious  lifeP;    born  at  Allhallows-Barking  in 

drew*,11     London;  scholar,  fellow,  and  master  of  Pembroke 

Hall  in  Cambridge*.     Then  dean  of  Westminster, 

0  [He  died  May  4.  See 
Wood's  Athen.  vol.  i.  p.  505.] 

P  [See  Buckeridge's  Sermon 
upon  bishop  Andrews'  death, 
Nov.  11,  1626.] 

q  [Perhaps  there  never  ex- 
isted a  prelate  so  universally 
beloved  as  Andrews.  Al- 
though a  zealous  and  earnest 

admirer  of  the  primitive  church, 
and  one  of  the  most  learned 
men  of  his  days,  he  bore  his 
faculties  so  meekly,  his  humi- 
lity was  so  unaffected,  his  piety 
so  real  and  sincere,  that  all 
parties  have  joined  in  com- 
mending him.  "  This  is  that 
"  Andrews,"  says  Hacket,  who 


of  Britain. 


bishop  of  Chichester,  Ely,  and  at  last  of  Winchester1".  ^J^jf7*!' 

The  world  wanted  learning  to  know  how  learned  

this  man  was,  so  skilled  in  all  {especially  oriental) 
languages,  that  some  conceive  he  might  (if  then 
living)  almost  have  served  as  an  interpreter  general  at 
the  confusion  of  tongues.  Nor  are  the  fathers  more 
faithfully  cited  in  his  books,  than  lively  copied  out 
in  his  countenance  and  carriage;  his  gravity  in  a 
manner  awing  king  James,  who  refrained  from  that 
mirth  and  liberty,  in  the  presence  of  this  prelate, 
which  otherwise  he  assumed  to  himself.  He  lieth 
buried  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Mary  Overe's,  having  on 
his  monument  a  large,  elegant,  and  true  epitaph8. 

had  personally  known  him, 
"  the  ointment  of  whose  name 
"  is  sweeter  than  all  spices. 
This  is  that  celebrated  bishop 
of  Winton,  whose  learning 
king  James  admired  above  all 
his  chaplains.  Indeed,  he 
"  was  the  most  apostolical  and 
primitive-like  divine,  in  my 
opinion,  that  wore  a  rochet 
in  his  age ;  of  a  most  vener- 
able gravity,  and  yet  most 
sweet  in  all  commerce ;  the 
most  devout  that  ever  I  saw 
when  he  appeared  before  God ; 
**  of  such  a  growth  in  all  kind 
u  of  learning,  that  very  able 
"  clerks  were  of  a  low  6tature 
to  him ;  colossus  inter  icun- 
culas ;  foil  of  alms  and  cha- 
rity, of  which  none  knew  but 
his  Father  in  secret;  a  certain 
patron  to  scholars  of  fame 
and  ability,  and  chiefly  to 
"  those  that  never  expected  it. 
'*  I  am  transported  even  as  in 
"  a  rapture  to  make  this  digres- 
sion ;  for  who  could  come 
near  the  shrine  of  such   a 


















"  saint  and  not  offer  up  a  few 
"  grains  of  glory  upon  it !" 
Life  of  Williams,  p.  45.] 

r  [Wood  dates  his  death 
upon  Sept.  26,  1626,  wherein 
he  is  followed  by  a  MS.  in 
the  Heralds'  College,  and  by 
Parker  in  his  Seel.  Cant,  (see 
Wood's  Fast.  vol.  i.  p.  219, 
and  the  notes.)  But  Godwin 
de  Praesul.  p.  245,  and  Heylyn 
in  his  Life  of  Laud,  p.  165, 
date  it  on  the  21st.  In  this 
they  are  supported  by  the  fol- 
lowing entry  in  Laud's  Diary, 
p.  36,  which  is  decisive  of  the 
question:  "  Sep.  21.  die  Lunee, 
"  hora  matutina  fere  quarta 
•'  Lancelotus  Andrews,  episco- 
**  pus  Winton.  nieritissimus, 
"  lumen  orbis  Christiani,  mor- 
"  tuus  est."  He  died  at  the 
age  of  71.  His  Life,  written 
by  Isaacson,  may  be  seen  in 
Fuller's  Abel  Redivivua,  and 
has  also  been  printed  sepa- 

8  S tow's  Survey  of  London, 
[vol.  ii.  p.  1 4  and  1 6.] 

D  4 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1626.     47.  Since  bis  death  some  have  unjustly  snarled  at 
-his  memory,    accusing  him   for  covetousness,   who 

Unjustly  .  .  -  . 

accused  for  was   neither  rapaa\  to   get  by  unjust  courses,  (as 
covetous-    a  pj^fegg^  enemy  to  usury,  simony,  and  bribery,) 


and  super- 

nor  tenaw,  to  hold  money  when  just  occasion  called 
for  it ;  for  in  his  lifetime  he  repaired  all  places  he 
lived  in,  and  at  his  death  left  the  main  of  his  estate 
to  pious  uses.  Indeed  he  was  wont  to  say,  "that 
"  good  husbandry  was  good  divinity1,"  the  truth 
whereof  no  wise  man  will  deny. 

48.  Another  falls  foully  upon  him  for  the  orna- 
ments of  his  chapel,  as  popish  and  superstitious,  in 
the  u  superabundant  ceremonies  thereof,  to  which 
I  can  say  little ;  but  this  I  dare  affirm,  that  where- 
soever he  was  a  parson,  a  dean,  or  a  bishop,  he 
never  troubled  parish,  college,  or  diocess,  with  press- 
ing other  ceremonies  upon  them  than  such  which 
he  found  used  there  before  his  coming  thither.  And 
it  had  not  been  amiss  if  such,  who  would  be  ac- 
counted his  friends  and  admirers,  had  followed  him 
in  the  footsteps  of  his  moderation,  content  with  the 
enjoying,  without  the  enjoining,  their  private  prac- 
tices and  opinions  on  others1. 
c«i»deMiy  49.  As  for  such  who  causelessly  have  charged  his 
with  affect- sermons  as  affected,  and  >' surcharged  with  verbal 
sermons,     allusions,  when  they  themselves  have  set  forth  the 

*  [See  his  sermon  on  Mary's 
anointing  our  Lord's  feet,  p. 
287.  Buckeridge's  sermon  suf- 
ficiently disproves  this  slander.] 

u  Prynne,  in  Canterbury's 
Doom,  p.  1  a  1,  sq. 

x  [He  means  archbishop 
Laud,  who  was  exceedingly 
devoted  to  Andrews ;  publish- 
ing his  sermons  and  writing  the 

preface  prefixed  to  them.  The 
ceremonies  used  in  dedicating 
Catharine  Cree  Church,  for 
which  the  archbishop  was  vehe- 
mently taxed,  (see  Rush  worth, 
vol.  i.  p.  77,)  were  derived  from 
Andrews.  See  Heylyn's  Life 
of  Laud,  p.  49.] 

y  Bayley  in  his  Laudensium 
Autocatacrisis,  [p.  89.] 


of  Britain. 


like,   it  will   then    be   time   enough  to  make  thisA.D.  ir>*r». 

bishop's  first   defence   against  their   calumniations -  •' 

Nor  is  it  a  wonder  that  the  master's  pen  was  so 
in  his  writings,  whose  very  servant  (a  layman)  was 
so  successful  in  the  same ;  I  mean  Mr.  Henrv  Isaac- 
son,  (lately  gone  to  God,)  the  industrious  author  of 
the  useful  Chronology1. 

50.  It  is  pity  to  part  this  patron  from  his  chap-  Nicholas 
lain,  Nicholas  Fuller,  born,  as  I  take  it,  in  1 1  amp- chaplain, 
shire,  bred  in  Oxford,  where  he  was  tutor  to  sir  abie  Stic. 
Henry  Wallop,   who  afterwards  preferred    him   to 
the    small    parsonage    of  Allington   in    Wiltshire; 
and   Robert  Abbot,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  made  him 
canon  of  that  church.     Afterwards  a  living  of  great 
value   was   sent  by   bishop  Andrews   (the   patron* 
thereof)  on   the  welcome  errand  to  find  out  Mr. 
Fuller  to  accept  the  same,  who  was  hardly  contented 
to  be  surprised  with  a  presentation  thereunto ;  such 
his  love  to  his  former  small  living  and  retired  lifeb. 
He  was  the  prince  of  all  our  English  critics;  and 
whereas  men   of  that  tribe  are  generally  morose, 

*  [Author  of  the  Life  of  bi- 
shop Andrews,  generally  pre- 
fixed to  his  Works.] 

*  See  bishop  Andrews  his 
funeral  sermon,  [by  bishop 
Buckeridge,  at  the  end  of  his 

b  [Aubrey  tells  the  follow- 
ing anecdote,  which  he  received 
from  good  authority,  respect- 
ing Nicholas  Fuller's  present- 
ation. Speaking  of  Andrews' 
industry  in  searching  out  and 
promoting  poor  and  deserving 
clergymen,  he  observes ;  "  The 
"  bishop  made  it  his  inquiry  to 
"  search  out  such  men.      A- 

"  mongst  several  others,  (whose 
"  names  have  escaped  my  me- 
"  mory,)  Nicholas  Fuller,  min- 
"  isterof  Allington,  near  Ames- 
"  bury,  in  Wilts,  was  one.  The 
"  bishop  sent  for  him,  and  the 
"  poor  man  was  afraid,  and 
"  knew  not  what  hurt  he  had 
"  done.  He  makes  him  sit 
"  down  to  dinner :  and,  after 
"  the  dessert,  was  brought  in,  in 
"  a  dish,  his  institution  and  in- 
"  duction,  or  the  donation  of  a 
"  prebend,  which  was  his  way." 
Letters  from  the  Bodleian,  vol. 
ii.  p.  206.] 


The  Church  History 


A.D.  1626.  so  that  they  cannot  dissent  from  another  without 

2  Charlen  I. 

'disdaining,  nor  oppose  without   inveighing  against 

him,  it  is  hard  to  say  whether  more  candour,  learn- 
ing, or  judgment,  was  blended  in  his  miscellanies. 
By  discovering  how  much  Hebrew  there  is  in  the 
New  Testament  Greek,  he  cleareth  many  real  diffi- 
culties from  his  verbal  observations0, 
ceedl™*^      &l.  A  commission  was  granted  unto  five  bishops 
gam«tarrfi- (whereof  bishop  Laud  of  the  quorum)  to  suspend 
i*>t.   Su»-  archbishop  Abbot  from  exercising  his  authority  any 

pendedfrom «  «  •      1     #»  1     1  •    •  j 

hi8 juriadio longer,    because   uncanomcal  for  casual   homicide; 
tion-         the  proceeding  against   him  being  generally  con- 
demned as  over  rigid  and  severed. 

c  [See  a  very  just  commend- 
ation   of  Nicholas   Fuller    in 
Wood's  Athen.  vol.  i.  p.  474.] 
d  [The  observations  on  this 
passage  in  "  The  Appeal,  &c." 
part  iii.  p.  1  o,  deserve  serious 
attention.      Dr.  Heylyn   says, 
"  Had   our  author   said    that 
"  bishop  Laud  had  been  one  of 
"  the   number,  he  had  hit   it 
"  right ;  the  commission  being 
"  granted  to  five  bishops,  viz. 
"  Dr.  Mountain,  bishop  of  Lon- 
"  don  ;    Dr.  Neil,   bishop   of 
"  Durham ;     Dr.  Buckeridge, 
"  bishop   of  Rochester;     Dr. 
"  Howson,  bishop  of  Oxford ; 
"  and  Dr.  Laud  bishop  of  Bath 
"  and  Wells ;  and  to  any  four, 
"  three,  or  two  of  them,  and 
"  no  more  than  so.     Had  bi- 
shop Laud  been  of  the  quo- 
rum, his  presence  and  con- 
"  sent  had  been  so  necessary 
"  to    all    their   consultations, 
"  conclusions,  and  despatch  of 
"  businesses,  that  nothing  could 
"  be  done  without  him,"  &c. 
To  this  Fuller  replies  :  ''Be 














it  remembered  that  here  I 
use  the  word  quorum  not  in 
the  legal  strictness  thereof, 
but  in  that  passable  sense  in 
common  discourse;  viz.  for 
one  so  active  in  a  business, 
that  nothing  is,  though  it 
may  be,  done  without  him 

"  When  the  writing  for  arch- 
bishop Abbot's  suspension 
was  to  be  subscribed  by  the 
bishops  aforesaid,  the  four 
seniors,  viz.  London,  Dur- 
ham, Rochester,  and  Oxford, 
all  declined  to  set  their  hands 
thereunto,  and,  seemingly  at 
the  least,  shewed  much  re- 
luctance and  regret  thereat. 
Then  give  me  the  pen,  said 
bishop  Laud,  and  though  last 
in  place  first  subscribed  his 
name.  Encouraged  by  whose 
words  and  example,  the  rest, 
after  some  demur,  did  the 
like.  This  was  attested  to 
me  by  him  who  had  best 
cause  to  know  it,  the  good 
and    credible  register,   still 


<tf  Britain. 


i.  The  act  was  committed  seven  years  since,  inA.D.  1626. 
the  reign  of  king  James.  

ii.  On  a  commission  then  appointed  for  that  pur- 
pose, he  was  cleared  from  all  irregularity,  by  bishop 
Andrews,  in  divinity ;  sir  Edward  Coke  in  common, 
and  sir  Henry  Martin  in  canon  law. 

iii.  It  would  be  of  dangerous  consequence  to 
condemn  him  by  the  canons  of  foreign  councils, 
which  never  were  allowed  any  legislative  power  in 
this  land. 

iv.  The  archbishop  had  manifested  much  remorse 
and  self-affliction  for  this  (rather  sad  than  sinful) 

v.  God  may  be  presumed  to  have  forgotten  so 
much  as  there  was  of  fault  in  the  fact,  and  why  then 
should  man  remember  it  ? 

vi.  Ever  since  he  had  executed  his  jurisdiction 
without  any  interruption6. 

vii.  The  archbishop  had  both  feet  in  the  grave, 
and  all  his  whole  body  likely  soon  after  to  follow 

viii.  Such  heightening  of  casual  homicide  did 
savour  of  intentional  malice. 

"  alive,  who  attended  in  the 
"  place  upon  them.  This  I 
"  formerly  knew,  but  conceal- 
"  ed  it ;  and  had  not  published 
"  it  now,  if  not  necessitated 
"  thereunto  in  my  just  de- 
"  fence."] 

e  ["  I  must  needs  add,  that 
"  he  is  very  much  mistaken  in 
"  this  particular.  Dr.  Williams, 
"  lord  elect  of  Lincoln ;  Dr. 
'•  Carew,  lord  elect  of  Exeter ; 
"  and  Dr.  Laud,  lord  elect  of 
"  St.  David's,  and  I  think  some 


others,  refusing  to  receive 
"  episcopal  consecration  from 
"  him  on  that  account."  Dr. 
Heylyn,  in  "The  Appeal," 
&c.  p.  12,  pt.iii.  Fuller  re- 
plies, "  I  beheld  this  as  no 
"  effectual  interrupting  of  his 
jurisdiction,  because  other 
bishops,  more  in  number,  no 
"  whit  their  inferiors,  received 
"  consecration,  Dr.  Davenant, 
"  Dr.  Hall,  and  king  Charles 
"  himself  his  coronation  from 
"  him."  Ibid.] 




The  Church  History 


ad.  1626.  The  truth  is,  the  archbishop's  own  stiffness  and 
'  averseness  to  comply  with  the  court  designs,  advan- 
taged his  adversaries  against  him,  and  made  him  the 
more  obnoxious  to  the  king's  displeasure.  But  the 
blame  did  most  light  on  bishop  Laud,  men  account- 
ing this  a  kind  of  filius  ante  diem>  Sfc.  as  if  not  con- 
tent to  succeed,  he  endeavoured  to  supplant  him; 
who  might  well  have  suffered  his  decayed  old  age  to 
have  died  in  honour.  What  needs  the  felling  of 
the  tree  a  falling f? 

f  [On  this  Dr.  Heylyn  re- 
marks, "  No  such  matter  nei- 
"  ther ;  for  though  for  a  while 
"  he  stood  confined  to  his  house 
"  at  Ford,  yet  neither  this  con- 
"  finement,  nor  that  commis- 
"  sion,  were  of  long  continu- 
"  ance ;  for  about  Christmas, 
,4  in  the  year  1628,  he  was  re- 
"  stored  both  to  his  liberty  and 
"  jurisdiction,  sent  for  to  come 
"  unto  the  court,  received  as 
"  he  came  out  of  his  barge  by 
4<  the  archbishop  of  York  and 
"  the  earl  of  Dorset,  and  by 
"  them  conducted  to  the  king, 
"  who,  giving  him  his  hand  to 
"  kiss,  enjoined  him  not  to  fail 
"  the  council-table  twice  a 
"  week.  After  which  time  we 
"  find  him  sitting  as  archbishop 
"  in  parliament,  and  in  the  full 
"  exercise  of  his  jurisdiction 
"  till  the  day  of  his  death, 
"  which  happened  on  Sunday, 
"  August  4th,  1633."  Fuller 
replies,    "But   from    this   his 

"  suspension he  was  in  his 

"  own  thoughts  buried,  it  re- 
"  viving  his  obnoxiousness  for 
"  his  former  casual  homicide; 
"  so  that  never  he  was  seen 
"  heartily,  if  at  all,  to  laugh 

"  hereafter,  though,  I  deny  not, 
"  much  court  favour  was  after* 
"  wards  on  design  conferred  on 
t%  him.  Here  I  hope  it  will  be 
•'  no  offence  to  insert  this  inno- 
u  cent  story,  partly  to  shew  how 
"  quickly  tender  guiltiness  is 
"  dejected,  partly  to  make  folk 
"  cautious  how  they  cast  out 
"  galling  speeches  in  this  kind. 
"  This  archbishop  returning  to 
"  Croydon  after  his  late  ab- 
"  sence  thence  a  long  time, 
"  many  people,  most  women, 
"  whereof  some  of  good  quality 
"  for  good  will,  for  novelty  and 
"  curiosity,  crowded  about  his 
"coach.  The  archbishop,  being 
•'  unwilling  to  be  gazed  at,  and 
"  never  fond  of  females,  said, 
"  somewhat  churlishly,  '  What 
"  make  these  women  here  ? ' 
"  '  You  had  best,'  said  one  of 
•«  them,  '  to  shoot  an  arrow  at 
"  us/  I  need  not  tell  the  read- 
••  er  how  near  this  second  arrow 
"  went  to  his  heart."  There 
is  a  very  pleasing  anecdote 
respecting  Abbot  related  in  an 
unpublished  letter  of  J.  Pory 
to  sir  Thomas  Pickering,  (dated 
Sept.  20,  1632.)  "  One  day  the 
"  last  week  my  lord  of  A  run- 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  45 

52.  However,  a  double  irood  accrued  hereby  toAI)  ,f>a 

2  Churlett 

the  archbishop.     First,  he  became  the  more  beloved 

Two  pjod 

of  men ;  (the  country  hath  constantly  a  blessing  for  effects  of 
those,  for  whom  the  court  hath  a  curse.)  And  >a<  c*"w 
secondly,  he  may  charitably  be  presumed  to  love 
God  the  more,  whose  service  he  did  the  better 
attend,  being  freed  from  the  drudgery  of  the  world, 
as  that  soul  which  hath  the  least  of  Martha  hath  the 
most  of  Mary  therein. 

53.  And  although  this  archbishop  survived  some  Thecham 
years  after,  yet  it  will  be  seasonable  here  for  us  tobiihop  At 
take  a  fair  farewell  of  his  memory,  seeing  hence- lK)t* 
forward  he  was  buried  to  the  world.     He  was  bred 
in  Oxford,  master  of  University  College ;    an  excel- 
lent preacher,  as  appears  by  his  Lectures  on  Jonah ; 
chaplain  to  the  earl  of  Dunbar,  (with  whom  he  was 
once  solemnly  sent  by  king  James  into  Scotland  to 

M  del  and  his  son,  my  lord  Mai-  "noble  usage  of  his  son  and 

"  travers,    having    espied    my  "  daughter,  Malt  ravers,  while 

"  lord  of  Canterbury's  coach  on  "they    were     his    prisoners/ 

•*  Barnsted  Down  coming  to-  "  Whereupon  my  lord's  grace 

"  wards    their 's,    before    they  "  took  occasion  to  congratulate 

"  came  a  butt's  length  short  of  "  unto  both  their  lordships,  my 

"  it  both  their  lordships  alight-  "  lord  Maltravers  his  brave  and 

"  ed  and  went  a  great  pace  to-  "  hopeful  progeny  of  three  sons 

"  wards  his  grace's  coach,  who,  "  and  a  daughter  :  and  so  they 

••  when  they  were  approached,  "  parted.      His  grace  by   his 

"  said,   •  What !   and  must  my  "  diet  hath  so  moderated  his 

"  lord  marshal  of  England  take  "  gout,  as  it  is  now  rather  an 

"  so  great  pains  to  do  me  so  "  infirmity  than  a  pain.      He 

"  much  honour  ?  were  my  legs  u  looks  fresh,  and   enjoys    his 

"  as  good  as  my  heart,  I  should  "  health,  and  hath  his  wits  and 

"  have  met  your  lordships  the  "  intellectuals  about  him.     So 

'•  better  half  of  the  way.'  Then  "  that  if  any  other  prelate  do 

"  my  lord  of  Arundel  replied,  "  gape  after  his  benefice,  his 

•'  '  It  might  well   become   an  "  grace  perhaps   (according  to 

"  earl  marshal  to  give  so  much  "  that  old  and  homely  proverb) 

"  respect  to  an  archbishop  of  "  [may]  eat  of  the  goose  which 

"  Canterbury,  besides  the  par-  •'  shall  graze  upon  his  grave." 

"  ticular  obligation   from    his  Harl.  MSS.  7000.  fol.  181.] 
0  lordship  to  his  grace  for  his 


Tl*  Chunk  History 


a.  D.1676.  preach  there,)  and  afterwards  by  his  means  promoted 

2  Charles  1. 

to  the  archbishopric  of  Canterbury,  haply  according 

to  his  own,  but  sure  I  am  above,  if  not  against, 
the  expectations  of  others ;  a  grave  man  in  his  con- 
versation, and  unblamable  in  his  life*. 

Accounted       54.  Indeed  it  is  charged  on  him  that  nan  amavit 

no  great  111  %* 

friend  to  the  gentem   nostram,    "he  loved   not   our  nation,    for- 
ew'       saking  the  birds  of  his  own  feather  to  fly  with  others, 
and  generally  favouring  the  laity  above  the  clergy  in 
all  cases  brought  before  him.     But  this  he  endea- 
voured to  excuse  to  a  private  friend,  by  protesting 
he  was  himself  so  severe  to  the  clergy  on  purpose 
to  rescue  them  from  the  severity  of  others,    and 
to  prevent  the  punishment  of  them  from  lay  judges 
to  their  greater  shame. 
Accused  for     55.  I  also  read  in  a  nameless  author11,  that  to- 
of  maieoon-  wards  his  death  he  was  not  only  discontented  himself, 
tenu*        but  his  house  was  the  rendezvous  of  all  malecontents 
in  church  and  state  ;    making  midnight  of  noonday 
by  constant  keeping  of  candles9  light  in  his  chamber 
and  study;  as  also  such  visitants  as  repaired  unto 

*  [It  was  generally  expected 
as  it  was  hoped  by  the  clergy 
that  Andrews  should  have  suc- 
ceeded Bancroft  in  the  see  of 
Canterbury,  a  prelate  incom- 
parably better  suited  to  such 
a  preferment  than  Abbot. 
Though  a  good  man,  Abbot 
had  never  held  any  preferment 
in  the  church,  and  "  was  of  a 
"  morose  and  retiring  temper, 
"  and  wholly  devoted  to  the 
"  Calvinistic  party."  But  the 
interest  of  the  earl  of  Dunbar 
with  the  king  procured  Abbot 
this  promotion, — the  king  open- 
ly professing  that  it  was  the 

earl's  recommendation  which 
moved  him  to  prefer  that  pre- 
late "  before  the  rest  of  his 
•'  fellows."  See  Birch's  View 
of  the  Negotiations,  &c.  p.  338. 
The  archbishop's  character  is 
drawn  by  lord  Clarendon,  with 
his  usual  felicity  in  his  History 
of  the  Rebellion,  vol.i.  p.  156.] 
h  In  answer  to  Weldon's 
pamphlet  intituled,  The  Court 
and  Character  of  King  James, 
p.  132.  [This  answer  is  gene- 
rally attributed  to  William 
Saunderson,  author  of  a  His- 
tory of  the  Reign  of  James  I. 
and  Charles  I.] 

CENT.  XVI 1. 

of  Britain. 


him  called  themselves  Nicodemites  because  of  their  A*P- \62^ 

a  Charles  I. 

secret  addresses1.  But  a  credible  personk,  and  one 
of  his  nearest  relations,  knew  nothing  thereof,  which 
with  me  much  shaketh  the  probability  of  the  report. 
And  thus  we  leave  this  archbishop,  and  the  rest  of 
his  praises,  to  be  reported  by  the  poor  people  of 
Guildford  in  Surrey,  where  he  founded  and  endowed 
a  fair  almshouse  in  the  town  of  his  nativity. 

56.  The  king's  treasury  now  began  to  grow  low,  £  toleration 
and  his  expenses  to  mount  high.  No  wonder  then  Ireland. 
if  the  statesmen  were  much  troubled  to  make  up  the 
distance  betwixt  his  exchequer  and  his  occasions. 
Amongst  other  designs,  the  papists  in  Ireland, 
(taking  advantage  of  the  king's  wants,)  proffered 
to  pay  constantly  five  thousand  men  if  they  might 
but  enjoy  a  toleration.  But  that  motion  was  crushed 
by  the  bishops  opposing  it,  and  chiefly  by  bishop 
Downham's  sermon  in  Dublin,  on  this  text,  Luke  i. 
74,  That  we,  being  delivered  from  the  hands  of  our 
enemies,  might  serve  him  without  fear l. 

*  [And  so  it  is  stated  by  the 
noble  historian.  Indeed,  the 
archbishop  was  not  much  belov- 
ed by  the  clergy,  with  whom  he 
appears  to  have  had  but  little 
community  of  feeling.  For  he 
was  in  truth,  as  the  same  his- 
torian describes  him,  "  totally 
"  ignorant  of  the  true  consti- 
"  tution  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
"  land,  and  the  state  and  in- 
"  terest  of  the  clergy;  as  suffi- 
••"  ciently  appeared  throughout 
"  the  whole  course  of  his  life 
"  afterward."  Rebel,  vol.  i. 
p.  156.  John  Featley  also,  in 
his  Life  of  Dr.  Featley,  gives 
a  very  striking  instance  of  the 
morosenes*  and   uncharitable- 

ness  of  the  Archbishop,  whose 
anecdote  is  more  likely  to  be 
correct,  as  Featley  entertained 
the  same  sentiments  as  Abbot. 
To  this  may  be  added  the 
unquestionable  authority  of 
Hacket,  who,  speaking  of  the 
archbishop's  rigorous  conduct 
in  the  high  commission  court, 
observes,  that  "  sentences  of 
'*  great  correction,  or  rather  of 
"  destruction,  have  their  epocha 
"  from  his  predominancy  in 
"  that  court."  Life  of  Wil- 
liams, p.  97.] 

k  Dr.  Barnard  his  household 

1  [This  protest  of  the  Irish 
bishops  against  any  toleration  to 



The  Church  History 


A.D.  1626. 
1  Charles  I. 

Hopes  to 
spring  in 

But  is  re- 

57.  Many  a  man  sunk  in  his  estate  in  England 
hath  happily  recovered  it  by  removing  into  Ireland ; 
whereas,  by  a  contrary  motion,  this  project,  bank- 
rupt in  Ireland,  presumed  to  make  itself  up  in 
England :  where  the  papists  promised  to  maintain 
a  proportion  of  ships  on  the  aforesaid  condition,  of 
free  exercise  of  their  religion.  Some  were  desirous 
the  king  should  accept  their  tender,  who  might 
lawfully  take  what  they  were  so  forward  to  give, 
seeing  no  injury  is  done  to  them  who  are  willing. 

58.  It  was  urged  on  the  other  side,  that  where 
such  willingness  to  be  injured  proceeds  from  the 
principle  of  an  erroneous  conscience,  there  their 
simplicity  ought  to  be  informed,  not  abused.  Grant 
papists  so  weak  as  to  buy,  protestants  should  be 
more  honest  than  to  sell  such  base  wares  unto  them. 
Such  ships  must  needs  spring  many  leaks,  rigged, 
victualled  and  manned  with  ill-gotten  money  gained 

the  Roman  Catholics  is  printed 
in  Parr's  Life  of  Usher,  p.  28. 
They  state  that  the  religion  of 
the  papists  is  superstitious  and 
idolatrous,  their  faith  and  doc- 
trine erroneous  and  heretical, 
their  church,  in  respect  of  both, 
apostolical,  and  consequently 
that  to  grant  them  toleration 
is  a  grievous  sin;  1.  In  making 
ourselves  thereby  accessory  to 
their  superstition  and  idolatry, 
as  also  to  the  perdition  of  the 
people  that  perish  by  their  se- 
ductions; 2.  That  to  grant 
them  toleration  in  respect  of 
any  money  to  be  given,  is  to  set 
religion  to  sale,  and  with  it  the 
souls  of  the  people.  This  pro- 
testation Dr.  Downham,  bishop 
of  Derry,  published  at  Christ- 
Church  at  the  next  meeting  of 

the  assembly,  April  23,  1627, 
before  the  lord  deputy  and 
council  in  the  midst  of  his  ser- 
mon, in  which  he  spoke  much 
against  subordinating  religion, 
and  setting  souls  to  sale  for  the 
gain  of  earthly  matters.  The 
next  Sunday,  primate  Usher 
preached  before  the  same  audi- 
tory on  the  words,  Love  not  the 
world,  nor  the  things  that  are 
in  the  world,  1  John  v.  15. 
making  a  similar  application, 
and  rebuking  those  who,  like 
Judas,  would  sell  Christ  for 
thirty  pieces  of  silver.  These 
proceedings  of  the  bishops  pre- 
vailed so  far  that  the  proposal 
for  a  toleration  did  not  succeed, 
at  least  for  the  present.  See 
Parr,  ibid.  See  also  Usher's 
Letters,  p.  376.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  49 

by  the  sale  of  souls.     Add  here  all  the  objections  a.  d.  1618. 

were  revived  which  in  the  reign  of  king  James  were  4 " 

improved  against  such  a  toleration. 

59.  Here  sir  John  Savile  interposed,  that  if  tbe||'£j,?i 
king  were  pleased  but  to  call  on  the  recusants  to  motion. 
pay  thirds,  (legally  due  to  the  crown,)   it   would 
prove   a  way  more  effectual  and  less  offensive  to 
raise  a  mass  of  money ;   it  being  but  just,  who  were 

so  rich  and  free  to  purchase  new  privileges,  should 
first  pay  their  old  penalties.  This  motion  was  list- 
ened unto,  and  sir  John,  with  some  others,  appointed 
for  that  purpose  in  the  counties  beyond  Trent,  scarce 
a  third  of  England  in  ground,  but  almost  the  half 
thereof  for  the  growth  of  recusants  therein;  but 
whether  the  returns  seasonably  furnished  the  king's 
occasions  is  to  me  unknown. 

60.  It  is   suspicious   that  all   such   projects   toApa*%j 
quench  the  thirst  of  the  king's  necessities  proved  which 

no  better  than  sucking  bottles,  soon  emptied,  and  STuSubies. 
but  cold  the  liquor  they  afforded.  Nothing  so 
natural  as  the  milk  of  the  breast,  I  mean  subsidies 
granted  by  parliament,  which  the  king  at  this  time 
assembled.  But  alas,  to  follow  the  metaphor,  both 
the  breasts,  the  two  houses,  were  so  sore  with  several 
grievances,  that  all  money  came  from  them  with 
much  pain  and  difficulty;  the  rather,  because  they 
complained  of  doctrines  destructive  to  their  pro- 
priety lately  preached  at  court. 

61.  For  towards  the  end  of  this  session  of  par-  Mr.  Pym'§ 
liament,  Dr.  Main  waring  was  severely  censured  for  gainst  Dr. 
two  sermons  he  had  preached  and  printed  about  the  ri^Wft" 
power  of  the  king's  prerogative.     Such  is  the  preci- 
pice of  this  matter,   (wherein  each  casual   slip   of 

my  pen  may  prove  a  deadly  fall,)  that  I  had  rather 

VULLEft,  VOL.  VI.  E 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1628.  the  reader  should  take  all  from  Mr.  Pym's  mouth 

4  Charles  1. 

than  from  ray  hand,  who  thus  uttered  himself 


m  [This  speech  and  the 
proceedings  against  Dr.  Main- 
waring  have  been  published  at 
full  length  by  Rushworth,  in 
his  Collections,  vol.i.  p.  601. 
As  to  justice  in  these  proceed- 
ings there  was  none ;  and  while 
the  commons  thus  punished 
severely  the  indiscretion  of 
one  sermon,  where  the  author 
had  pushed  his  principles,  good 
in  themselves,  to  indiscreet 
lengths,  they  let  pass  without 
censure  hundreds  of  sermons 
in  which  seditious  principles 
and  far  worse  divinity  were 
inculcated  ;  thus  verifying  lord 
Clarendon's  observation  of  the 
sickly  humour  of  the  times, 
that  men  were  "  more  troubled 
"  at  that  they  called  the  viola- 
"  tion  of  one  law,  than  de- 
"  lighted  or  pleased  with  the 
"  observation  of  all  the  rest  of 
"  the  charter." 

But  the  reasons  which  drove 
on  both  houses  to  this  censure 
have  been  more  accurately  de- 
tailed by  bishop  Hacket  in  his 
Life  of  Archbishop  Williams : 
•'  When  the  commons,"  he  says, 
"  fell  roundly  to  sift  the  ex. 
"  acting  of  the  loan,  the  ill 
"  will  gotten  by  it  touched 
"  none  so  near  as  the  clergy; 
"  so  ill  was  it  taken  that  their 
"  pulpits  had  advanced  it,  and 
"  that  some  had  preached  a 
"  great  deal  of  crown-divinity, 
"  as  they  called  it.  And  they 
"  were  not  long  to  seek  for  one 
"  that  should  be  made  an  ex- 
"  ample  for  it.  But  to  make 
"  that   which  was  like  to  be 

by  consequent  less  offensive, 


"  they  unanimously  voted  a 
"  gift  of  five  subsidies,  before 
"  the  king's  servants  had 
"  spoken  a  word  unto  it. — 
"  Straightway  they  called  Dr. 
"  Mainwaring,  the  king's  chap- 
"  lain,  before  them,  for  preach- 
"  ing,  but  rather  for  printing, 
"  two  sermons  delivered  before 
"  the  king,  the  one  at  Oatlands, 
"  the  other  at  Alderton,  in  the 
"  progress  in  July  ;  neither  of 
"  them  at  St.  Giles'  in  the 
"  Fields,  as  Mr.  W.  S[ander- 
••  son]  might  have  found  in 
"  the  title-page  of  them  both. 
"  These  being  in  print  no  wit- 
"  nesses  needed  to  be  deposed, 
••  the  doctrine  was  above  the 
"  deck  sufficiently  discovered. 
"  The  sermons,  both  preached 
"  upon  one  text,  Eccl.  viii.  2, 
"  are  confessedly  learned,  ^v- 
"  tea  noWa  Xrya>v  ervpoicriv  opota, 
"  (Odys.  xxiii.)  wherein  art 
"  and  wit  have  gone  about  to 
"  make  true  principles  beget 
"  false  conclusions  It  was  not 
"  well  done  to  hazard  the  dan- 
"  gerous  doctrine  in  them,  for 
"  the  learning  sake,  to  the 
"  view  of  the  world;  for  not 
"  the  seeds  of  a  good  melon, 
"  but  the  good  seeds  of  a 
melon  should  be  preserved  to 
be  planted.  No  notice  was 
taken  of  the  king's  special 
"  command  to  publish  these 
"  tractates,  but  severing  the 
author  by  himself  he  is  de- 
signed to  be  censured,  as 
"  keepers  beat  whelps  before 
"  their  lions  to  make  them 
"gentler."  Part  ii.  p.  74.  Wil- 
liams publicly  reprehended  the 







of  Britain. 






" Master  Speaker",  I  am  to  deliver  from  the  sub- ad.  1628. 

committee   a  charge  against  Mr.  Mainwaring,  a 4 * 

preacher,  and  doctor  of  divinity,  but  a  man  so  cri- 
"  minou8  that  he  hath  turned  his  titles  into  accu- 
"  sations ;  for  the  better  they  are  the  worse  is  he  that 
"  hath  dishonoured  them.  Here  is  a  great  charge 
"  that  lies  upon  him ;  it  is  great  in  itself,  and  great 
because  it  hath  many  great  charges  in  it ;  serpens, 
qui  serpentem  devoraifit  draco;  his  charge,  having 
"  digested  many  charges  into  it,  is  become  a  monster 
"  of  charges.  The  main  and  great  one  is  this :  a 
"  plot  and  policy  to  alter  and  subvert  the  frame  and 
"  fabric  of  this  state  and  commonwealth.  This  is 
the  great  one,  and  it  hath  others  in  it  that  gains 
it  more  greatness ;  for  to  this  end  he  labours  to 
"  infuse  into  the  conscience  of  his  majesty  the  per- 
suasion of  a  power  not  bounding  itself  with  laws, 
which  king  James  of  famous  memory  calls,  in  his 
speech  in  parliament,  J  619,  tyranny,  yea,  tyranny 
"  accompanied  with  perjury. 

"  Secondly,  He  endeavours  to  persuade  the  con- 
u  sciences  of  the  subjects,  that  they  are  bound  to 
H  obey  illegal  commands ;  yea,  he  damns  them  for 
"  not  obeying  them. 

"Thirdly,  He  robs  the  subjects  of  the  propriety 
*'  of  their  goods. 

**  Fourthly,  He  brands  them  that  will  not  lose 
"  this   propriety  with  most  scandalous   and  odious 






sermons  in  the  upper  house, 
but  none  of  the  bishops  thought 
fit  to  defend  them. 

However,  let  Dr.  Mainwar- 
ing'8  faults  have  been  what  they 
might  theoretically,  in  practice 
he  was  a  truly  excellent  and 
pious  man.     Some  very  pleas- 

ing anecdotes  are  related  of  him 
in  Lloyd's  Memoirs,  p.  270. 
See  also  as  account  of  him  in 
Wood's  Athen.  ii.  p.  1 141.] 

n  Transcribed  ont  of  his  ma- 
nuscript speech.  But  by  Rush- 
worth,  (Coll.  i.  p.  593,)  attri- 
buted to  Rous.] 

E  2 

53  The  Church  History  book  x». 

a.  p.  1618. «  titles  to  make  them  hateful  both  to  prince  and 

"  people,  bo  to  set  a  division  between  the  head  and 

"  members,  and  between  the  members  themselves. 

44  Fifthly,  To  the  same  end  (not  mnch  unlike 
44  to  Faux  and  his  fellows)  he  seeks  to  blow  up  par- 
"  liaments  and  parliamentary  power.  These  five 
44  being  duly  viewed,  will  appear  to  be  so  many 
"  charges,  and  withal  they  make  up  the  main  and 
44  great  charge,  A  mischievous  plot  to  alter  and  sub- 
44  vert  the  frame  and  government  of  this  state  and 
44  commonwealth.  And  now  that  you  may  be  sure 
44  that  Mr.  Mainwaring,  though  be  leave  us  no  pro- 
44  priety  in  our  goods,  yet  he  hath  an  absolute  pro- 
"  priety  in  his  charge,  andite  ipsam  beUuamy  hear 
44  Mr.  Mainwaring  by  his  own  words  making  up  his 
a  own  charge." 

Here  he  produced  the  book,  particularly  insisting 
on  pag.  19,  29,  and  SO,  in  the  first  sermon,  pag.  3&, 
46,  and  48,  in  the  second  sermon.  All  which  pas- 
sages he  heightened  with  much  eloquence  and  acri- 
mony ;  thus  concluding  his  speech,  "  I  have  shewed 
"  you  an  evil  tree  thai  bringeth  forth  evil  fruit,  and 
44  now  it  rests  with  you  to  determine  whether  the 
44  following  sentence  shall  follow,  Cut  it  down  and 
44  cast  it  into  the  fire? 
Theae?ere  62.  Four  days  after  the  parliament  proceeded  to 
the  doctor,  his  censure,  consisting  of  eight  particulars,  it  being 
ordered  by  the  house  of  lords  against  him,  as 
followeth  : 

i.  To  be  imprisoned  during  the  pleasure  of  the 

ii.  To  be  fined  a  thousand  pounds. 

iii.  To  make  his  submission  at  the  bar  in  this 
house,  and  in  the  house  of  commons,  at  the  bar 

ckkt.  xvn.  of  Britain.  58 

there,  in  verbis  concept™  by  a  committee  of  this A- D-  «*«•. 


iv.  To  be  suspended  from  his  ministerial  function 
three  years,  and  in  the  mean  time  a  sufficient  preach- 
ing man  to  be  provided  out  of  the  profits  of  his 
living,  and  this  to  be  left  to  be  performed  by  the 
ecclesiastical  court. 

v.  To  be  disabled  for  ever  hereafter  from  preach- 
ing at  court. 

vi.  To  be  for  ever  disabled  of  having  any  eccle- 
siastical dignity  in  the  Church  of  England. 

vii.  To  be  uncapable  of  any  secular  office  or  pre- 

viii.  That  his  books  are  worthy  to  be  burned,  and 
his  majesty  to  be  moved  that  it  may  be  so  in  Lon- 
don, and  both  the  universities. 

But  much  of  this  censure  was  remitted,  in  con- 
sideration of  the  performance  of  his  humble  sub- 
mission at  both  the  bars  in  parliament: 

63.  Where  he  appeared  on  the  three  and  twen- His  humbte 
tieth  of  June  following,  and  on  his  knees,  before 
both  houses,  submitted  himself  as  fblloweth,  with 
outward  expression  of  sorrow : 

"  I  do  here,  in  all  sorrow  of  heart  and  true  re- 
"  pentance,  acknowledge  those  many  errors  and  in- 
"  discretions  which  I  have  committed  in  preaching 
and  publishing  the  two  sermons  of  mine,  which 
I  called  Religion  and  Allegiance,  and  my  great 
fault  in  falling  upon  this  theme  again,  and  hand- 
ling the  same  rashly,  scandalously,  and  unad- 
visedly in  my  own  parish  church  in  St.  Giles'  in 
the  fields,  the  fourth  of  May  last  past  I  do  hum- 
bly acknowledge  those  three  sermons  to  have  been 
full    of  dangerous  passages,  inferences,  and  scan- 




54  The  Church  Hut  tort/  book  xi. 

A.D.i6a8."  dalous  aspersions  in  most  part  of  the  same.     And 

— "  I  do  humbly  acknowledge  the  just  proceedings  of 

"  this  honourable  house  against  me,  and  the  just 
"  sentence  and  judgment  passed  upon  me  for  my 
great  offence.  And  I  do  from  the  bottom  of  my 
heart  crave  pardon  of  God,  the  king,  and  this 
a  honourable  house,  and  the  commonweal  in  general, 
and  those  worthy  persons  adjudged  to  be  reflected 
upon  by  me  in  particular,  for  those  great  offences 
"  and  errors." 

How  this  doctor,  Roger  Mainwaring,  (notwith- 
standing the  foresaid  censure,)  was  afterwards  pre- 
ferred, first  to  the  deanery  of  Worcester,  next  to 
the  bishopric  of  St.  David's,  God  willing  in  due  place 
The  acts  of     64.  On  Thursday,  the  26th  of  this  month,  ended 

this  parlia- 

ment.  the  session  of  parliament,  wherein  little  relating  to 
religion  was  concluded,  save  only  that  divers  abuses  on 
the  Lord's  day  were  restrained:  "All  carriers,  carters, 
"  waggoners,  wain-men,  drovers  of  cattle,  forbidden 
*•  to  travel  thereon,  on  the  forfeit  of  twenty  shillings 
"  for  every  offence."  Likewise,  "  Butchers  to  lose 
u  six  shillings  and  eight  pence  for  killing  or  selling 
any  victuals  on  that  day/'  A  law  was  also  made, 
That  whosoever  goeth  himself,  or  sendeth  others 
beyond  the  seas  to  be  trained  up  in  popery,  &c. 
"  shall  be  disabled  to  sue,  &c,  and  shall  lose  all 
"  his  goods,  and  shall  forfeit  all  his  lands,  &c.  for 

0  [His  vindictive  opponents,  cerning  Dr.  Mainwaring,  now 
however,  did  not  cease  from  bishop  of  St.  David's,  his  ma- 
persecuting  him,  although  many  jesty  had  given  command  that 
years  had  passed  away ;  for  the  bishop  should  not  come  to 
on  Tuesday,  April  28,  1640,  a  sit  in  parliament  or  give  any 
message  was  delivered  to  the  proxy.  See  Nalson's  Coll.  ii. 
lords  from  his  majesty,  that  p.  336.  Any  remarks  on  his 
there  being  some  question  con.  sentence  would  be  superfluous.] 


cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  55 

44  life.*     Five  entire  subsidies  were  granted  to  theA.p.i6a& 

king  by  the  spirituality,  and   the  said  grant  con * 

finned  by  the  act  of  this  parliament,  which  now 
was  first;  prorogued  to  the  twentieth  of  October 
following,  and  then  (on  some  intervening  obstruc- 
tions) put  off  to  the  twentieth  of  January,  when 
it  began  again. 

65.  As  for  the  convocation,  concurrent,  in  time,  Nothing 
with  this  parliament,  nothing  considerable  was  acted  oonvoca- 
therein.     Dr.  Thomas  Winniff,  dean  of  Gloucester, t,on* 
preached  the  Latin  sermon ;   his  text,  Acts  xx.  28, 
Attendite  ad  vos  ipsos,  et  totum  gregem>  Sjc.     Dr. 
Curie  was  chosen  prolocutor,  and  a  low  voice  would 
serve  the  turn  where  nothing  was  to  be  spoken. 

66.  On  the  twentieth  of  July  following,  Dr.  Pres-  Jh*  d«Jth 
ton  died  in  his  native  county  of  Northamptonshire,  ton. 
near  the  place  of  his  birth,  of  a  consumption,  and 

was  buried  at  Fauseley,  Mr.  Dodd  preaching  his 
funeral  sermon;  an  excellent  preacher,  of  whom 
Mr.  Noy  was  wont  to  say,  that  he  preached  as  if  he 
knew  God's  will ;  a  subtle  disputant  and  great  poli- 
tician ;  so  that  his  foes  must  confess,  that  (if  not 
having  too  little  of  the  dove)  he  had  enough  of  the 
serpent.  Some  will  not  stick  to  say  he  had  large 
parts  of  sufficient  receipt  to  manage  the  broad  seal 
itself,  which,  if  the  condition  had  pleased  him,  was 
proffered  unto  him,  for  he  might  have  been  the  duke's 
right  hand,  though  at  last  less  than  his  little  finger 
unto  him  ;  who,  despairing  that  this  patriarch  of  the 
presbyterian  party  would  bring  off  his  side  unto 
him,  used  him  no  longer  who  would  not  or  could 
not  be  useful  unto  him.  Most  of  this  doctor's  post- 
hume  books  have  been  happy  in  their  education, 
I  mean  in  being  well  brought  forth  into  the  world, 

£  4 

66  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1628.  though  all  of  them  have  not  lighted  on   so  good 

4.  Charles  L  00 

guardians;  but  his  life  is  so  largely  and  learnedly 

written  by  one  of  his  own  pupils^,  that  nothing  can 
be  added  unto  it. 

?b'1rA      ^'  About  this  time  George  Carleton,  that  grave 

Carieton.    and  godly  bishop  of  Chichester,  ended  his  pious  life. 

i6afiL]  He  was  born  at  Norham  %  in  Northumberland,  where 
his  father  was  the  keeper  of  that  important  castle  in 
the  marches,  an  employment  speaking  him  wise  and 
valiant  in  those  dangerous  and  warlike  days.  He 
was  bred  and  brought  up  under  Mr.  Bernard  Gilpin, 
that  apostolical  man,  (whose  life  he  wrote  in  grati- 
tude to  his  memory,)  and  retained  his  youthful  and 
poetical  studies  fresh  in  his  old  age.  He  was  se- 
lected by  king  James  one  of  the  five  divines  sent 
over  to  the  synod  of  Dort.  He  wrote  many  small 
tracts,  (one  against  sir  John  Heydon  about  judi- 
cial astrology,)  which  conjoined  would  amount  to 
a  great  volume.  Mr.  Richard  Mountague,  one  of  a 
different  judgment,  succeeded  in  his  see,  who  at  first 
met  with  some  small  opposition  on  the  following 

Mr.  Mount-     gg#   There  is  a  solemnity  performed  before  the 

ague  s  con-  J    r 

firmation    consecration  of  every  bishop  in  this  manner:    The 


royal  assent  being  passed  on  his  election,  the  arch- 
bishop's vicar-general  proceeds  to  his  confirmation, 
commonly  kept  in  Bow  church.  A  process  is  issued 
forth  to  call  all  persons  to  appear,  to  shew  cause 
why  the  elect  there  present  should  not  be  confirmed. 
For,  seeng  a  bishop  is  in  a  manner  married  to 
his  see,  (save  that  hereafter  he  taketh  his  surname 

P  Mr.  Tho.  Ball,  of  North-     Wood's  Athen.  i.  p.  517.] 
ampton.  [See  a  further  account        4  Camden  Brit,  in  Northum- 
of  him   and    his    writings   in     berland. 

.  xvii.  of  Britain.  57 

from  his  wife,  and  not  she  from  him,)  this  ceremony  a. n.  1628. 
is  a  kind  of  asking  the  banns,  to  see  if  any  can- — L!L-! 
allege  any  lawful  cause  to  forbid  them.  Now  at 
the  confirmation  of  Mr.  Mountague,  when  liberty  was 
given  to  any  objectors  against  him,  one  Mr.  Hum- 
phreys, (since  a  parliament  colonel,  lately  deceased,) 
and  William  Jones,  a  stationer  of  London,  (who 
alone  is  mentioned  in  the  record,)  excepted  against 
Mr.  Mountague,  as  unfitting  for  the  episcopal  office, 
chiefly  on  this  account,  because  lately  censured  by 
parliament  for  his  book,  and  rendered  uncapable  of 
all  preferment  in  the  church. 

69.  But  exception  was  taken  at  Jones  his  excep- Bu*  *•  °p- 

position  in* 

tions,  (which  the  record  calls  prtetensos  artictdos)  effectual. 
as  defective  in  some  legal  formalities.  I  have  been 
informed,  it  was  alleged  against  him  for  bringing  in 
his  objections  viva  voce,  and  not  by  a  proctor,  that 
court  adjudging  all  private  persons  effectually  dumb, 
who  speak  not  by  one  admitted  to  plead  therein. 
Jones  returned,  that  he  could  not  get  any  proctor, 
though  pressing  them  importunately,  and  proffering 
them  their  fee,  to  present  his  exceptions,  and  there- 
fore was  necessitated  ore  tenus  there  to  allege  them 
against  Mr.  Mountague.  The  register1"  mentioneth 
no  particular  defects  in  his  exceptions,  but  Dr.  Rives 
(substitute  at  that  time  for  the  vicar-general)  de- 
clined to  take  any  notice  of  them,  and  concludeth 
Jones  amongst  the  contumacious,  quod  nullo  modo 
legitime  comparuit,  nee  aliquid  in  hoe  parte  juxta 
juris  exigentiam  diceret,  ewcipereU  vel  opponeret.  Yet 
this  good  Jones  did  bishop  Mountague,  that  he 
caused  his  addresses  to  the  king  to  procure  a  par- 

r  Registrant  Cantuar.  fol.  140.  in  anno  1628. 

58  'Hie  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1618.  don,  which  was  granted  unto  him  in  form  like  those 
1 — are>  given  at  the  coronation,  save  that  some  particu- 
lars were  inserted  therein  for  the  pardoning  of  all 
errors  heretofore  committed,  either  in  speaking, 
writing,  or  printing,  whereby  he  might  hereafter  be 
questioned.  The  like  at  the  same  time  was  granted 
to  Dr.  Mainwaring,  on  whom  the  rich  parsonage  of 
Stanford  Rivers,  in  Essex,  was  conferred,  as  void 
by  bishop  Mountague's  preferment. 
Caution  70.  An  intention  there  was  for  the  bishop  and  all 

seasonably  , 

used.  the  company  employed  at  his  confirmation  to  dine 
at  a  tavern,  but  Dr.  Thomas  Rives  utterly  refused  it, 
rendering  this  reason;  that  he  had  heard  that  the 
dining  at  a  tavern  gave  all  the  colour  to  that  far- 
spreading  and  long-lasting  lie  of  Matthew  Parker 
his  being  consecrated  at  the  Nag's  Head  in  Cheap- 
side  ;  and  for  ought  he  knew  captious  people  would 
be  ready  to  raise  the  like  report  on  the  same  occa- 
sion. It  being  therefore  Christian  caution,  not  only 
to  quench  the  fire  of  sin,  but  also  (if  possible)  to 
put  out  the  smoke  of  scandal,  they  removed  their 
dining  to  another  place. 
Thepariia-  71.  On  the  twentieth  of  January  the  parliament 
solved.  was  reassembled,  which  died  issueless  (as  I  may  say) 
tl  *9'^  the  March  following,  leaving  no  acts  (abortions  are  no 
children)  completed  behind  it.  Let  the  reader  who 
desireth  further  instructions  of  the  passages  herein 
consult  the  historians  of  the  state.  Indeed,  if  the 
way  were  good  and  weather  fair,  a  traveller,  to  please 
his  curiosity  in  seeing  the  country,  might  adventure 
to  ride  a  little  out  of  the  road;  but  he  is  none 
of  the  wisest,  who,  in  a  tempest  and  miry  way,  will 
lose  time  and  leave  his  own  journey.  If  pleasant 
and  generally  acceptable  were  the  transactions  in  this 

cent,  xv  1 1 .  of  Britain.  59 

parliament,  it  might  have  tempted  me  to  touch  a  a.  0.16*9. 
little  thereon,  out  of  the  track  of  my  church  story ;  5Chark*  ■ 
but  finding  nothing  but  stirs  and  storms  therein,  I 
will  only  go  on  fair  and  softly  in  my  beaten  path  of 
ecclesiastical  affaire.  Bishop  Laud  had  no  great 
cause  to  be  a  mourner  at  the  funerals  of  this  parlia- 
ment, having  entered  it  in  his  diary,  that  it  endea- 
voured his  destruction8. 

72.  At  this  time  Richard  Smith*,  (distinct  from  Prociama- 
Henry  Smith,  alias  Lloyd,  a  Jesuit,  whom  some  con-  the  highop 
found  as  the  same  person,)  being  in  title  bishop  of S<       °°~ 


Chalcedon,  in  Greece,  in  truth,  a  dangerous  English 
priest11,  acted  and  exercised  episcopal  jurisdiction 
over  the  catholics  here,  by  commission  from  the 
pope,  appearing  in  his  pontificalibus  in  Lancashire, 
with  bis  mitre  and  crosier,  to  the  wonder  of  poor 
people,  and  conferring  orders  and  the  like.  This 
was  much  offensive  to  the  regulars,  as  entrenching 
on  their  privileges,  who  countermined  him  as  much 
as  they  might.  His  majesty,  having  notice  of  this 
Romish  agent,  renewed  his  proclamation  (one  of  a 
former  date  taking  no  effect)  for  his  apprehension, 
promising  an  hundred  pounds  to  be  presently  paid 
to  him  that  did  it,  besides  all  the  profits  which 
accrued  to  the  crown,  as  legally  due  from  the  person 
who  entertained  him  x. 
72.  However,   such   as   hid  and   harboured  him  Hefliethm 

to  France. 

*  [See  Laud's  Diary,  p.  44,         *  [He  was  originally  a  stu- 
and  p.  238.]  dent  of  Trin.  Coll.  in  Oxford. 

*  [The  best  account  of  this     See  Wood,  ib.] 

affair,  and  the  disputes  occa-  *   [Dr.  Bliss   has   reprinted 

sioned  by  Dr.  Smith's  appoint-  these  proclamations  in  his  edi- 

ment,  will  be  found  in  the  Me-  tion  of  Wood's  Athen.  iii.  384. 

moirs  of  Oregorio  Panzani,  the  The  first  bears  date  1  ith  Dec. ; 

papal  nuncio,   by  Berrington,  the  other  the  24th  of  March 

p.  108  and  119.]  following,  1629.] 


The  Church  History 



5  Charles 

p.  1629.  were  neither  frighted  with  the  penalty  nor  flattered 
with  the  profit  to  discover  him.  But  Smith,  con- 
ceiving his  longer  stay  here  to  be  dangerous,  con- 
veyed himself  over  into  France,  where  he  became 
a  confident  of  cardinal  Richelieu's.  The  conveni- 
ence and  validity  of  his  episcopal  power  was  made 
the  subject  of  several  books  which  were  written 

In  opposition  to  him. 

1.  Daniel,  a  Jesuit  \ 

2.  Horucan. 

3.  Lumley. 

4.  Nicholas  Smith  a. 

Injhvour  of  him. 

1.  Nicholas  le  Maitre,  a  Sorbonne 

priest,  in  his  book,  entitled 
De  Persecutione  EpUcoporum , 
et  dt  iUustrissimo  Antistite 

2.  The   faculty  of    Paris,    which 

censured  all  such  as  opposed 

This   Chalcedon  Smith  wrote   a  book  called  The 

Prudential  Balance,  much  commended  by  men  of 

his  own  persuasion ;  and,  for  aught  I  know,  is  still 

alive  b. 

The  death       74.  Within   the  compass  of  this  year  died  the 

terd<rfT^ reverend  Toby  Matthew,  archbishop  of  York.     He 

Matthew.   wag  born  jn  the  Somersetshire  side  of  Bristol,  and 

[Mar.  29, 

1 6«8.]       in  his  childhood  had  a  marvellous  preservation,  when 
with  a  fall  he  brake  his  foot,  ancle,  and  small  of  his 

y  [Pet.  Aurelius,  Opera,  I. 
prsef.  sub  init.  Other  authors 
besides  those  here  mentioned 
engaged  on  both  sides  in  this 
controversy.  See  Panzani,  ib.] 

*  [Daniel  a  Jesu,  or  proper- 
ly, father  John  Floyd,  an  Eng- 
lish Jesuit ;  his  book,  which  was 
printed  in  1631,  is  entitled: 
"  Apologia  Sanctie  Sedis  Apo- 
"  stolicae,  pro  modo  proceden- 

"  di,"  &c3 

a  ["  Brevis  et  modesta  dis- 
"  cussio  assertionum  Kellisoni, 
"  &c.  1 63 1."  His  real  name 
was  Edward  Knott,  the  supe- 
rior of  the  Jesuits,  Chilling- 
worth's  opponent.  See  Pan- 
zani, p.  124.] 

b  [He  died  March  8,  1655. 
See  Wood's  Athen.  ii.  p.  187.J 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  61 

leg,  which  were  so  soon  recovered  to  eyec,  use,  sight,  A-D-  ^q- 

service,  that  not  the  least  mark  remained  thereof. 

Coming  to  Oxford,  he  fixed  at  last  in  Christ  Church, 
and  became  dean  thereof.  He  was  one  of  a  proper 
person,  (such  people,  cisteris  paribus,  and  sometimes 
cater  is  im  paribus,  were  preferred  by  the  queen,) 
and  an  excellent  preacher,  Campian  himself  confess- 
ing that  he  did  in  concionibus  dominari*.  He  was 
of  a  cheerful  spirit,  yet  without  any  trespass  on 
episcopal  gravity,  there  lying  a  real  distinction  be- 
tween facetiousness  and  nugacity.  None  could  con- 
demn him  for  his  pleasant  wit,  though  often  he 
would  condemn  himself,  as  so  habited  therein  he 
could  as  well  not  be,  as  not  be  merry,  and  not  take 
up  an  innocent  jest  as  it  lay  in  the  way  of  his  dis- 

75.  One  passage  must  not  be  forgotten.     After  His  grati- 
he  had  arrived  at  his  greatness,  he  made  one  journey  <jk>d.un 
into  the  west  to  visit  his  two  mothers;  her  that 
bare  him  at  Bristol,  and  her  that  bred  him  in  learn- 
ing, the  university  of  Oxford.     Coming  near  to  the 
latter,  attended  with  a  train  suitable  to  his  present 
condition,  he  was  met  almost  with  an  equal  number, 
who  came  out  of  Oxford  to  give  him  entertainment. 
Thus  augmented  with  another  troop,  and  remember- 
ing he  had  passed  over  a  small  water  a  poor  scholar, 
when  first  coming  to  the  university,  he  kneeled  down 
and  took  up  the  expression  of  Jacob,  With  my  staff 
came  I  over  this  Jordan,  and  now  I  am  become  two 

«  Sir  John  Harington  in  his  preserved  some  instances  of  it. 

[Nngae  Antiques,  ii.  p.  258.]  See  his    Nugae    Antiquae,    ii. 

d  [See  Campian's  X  Ratio-  p.  259.      See  also  his  life  in 

ne»,  p.  70.]  Wood's  Athena;,  i.  p.  730.] 

e  fSir  John  Harington  has 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1619  bands.     I  am  credibly  informed  that,  mutatis  mutan- 

5  Charles  I.  J 

atsf  the  same   was  performed  by  his  predecessor, 

archbishop  Hutton,  at  Sophister's  Hill,  nigh  Cam- 
bridgea  and  am  so  far  from  distrusting  either,  that  I 
believe  both. 

pied  year.      yg#  jje  died  yearly  in  report,  and  I  doubt  not 

but  that  in  the  apostle's  sense  he  died  daily  in  bis 
mortifying  meditations.  He  went  over  the  graves 
of  many  who  looked  for  his  archbishopric ;  I  will 
not  say  they  catched  a  cold  in  waiting  barefoot  for 
a  living  man's  shoes.  His  wife,  the  daughter  of 
bishop  Barlow,  (a  confessor  in  queen  Mary's  days,) 
was  a  prudent  and  a  provident  matron.  Of  this 
extraction  came  sir  Toby  Matthew,  having  all  his 
father's  name,  many  of  his  natural  parts,  few  of  his 
moral  virtues,  fewer  of  his  spiritual  graces,  as  being 
an  inveterate   enemy   to  the    Protestant   religion f. 

f  [Being  a  person  of  con- 
siderable  attainments,  and  inti- 
mate with  most  of  the  wits  in 
that  wit-loving  age,  (among 
others,  with  Dr.  Donne  and  sir 
Francis  Bacon,)  he  was  taken 
notice  of  by  the  duke  of  Buck- 
ingham, and  employed  by  him 
in  various  capacities.  He  at- 
tended the  prince  and  the  duke 
into  Spain,  and  managed  part 
of  the  correspondence ;  (see 
the  Cabala  and  Goodman's  Me- 
moirs) .  When  the  duke  died, 
sir  Toby  (who  was  knighted 
in  1623  for  his  services  in 
Spain)  attached  himself  to  the 
celebrated  earl  of  Strafford, 
whom  he  attended  into  Ireland; 
but  to  neither  party  did  the 
intimacy  prove  advantageous; 
Strafford  especially  being  ex- 
posed, on  his  account,  to  the 

greatest  suspicions  of  the  pu- 
ritanical party.  He  died  at 
Ghent  in  1655,  in  a  house  be- 
longing to  the  Jesuits,  of  which 
fraternity  he  was  a  member. 
Wood  sums  up  his  character 
with  great  fairness :  "  He  had 
"  all  his  fathers  name  and 
"  many  of  his  natural  parts ; 
"  was  also  one  of  considerable 
"  learning,  good  memory,  and 
"  sharp  wit,  mixed  with  a  plea- 
"  sant  affability  in  behaviour, 
"  and  a  seeming  sweetness  of 
"  mind,  though  sometimes,  ac- 
"  cording  to  the  company  he 
"  was  in,  pragmatical  and  a 
?'  little  too  forward."  Athens, 
Oxon.  ii.  p.  195.  The  charac- 
ter of  the  celebrated  lady  Lucy 
Carlisle,  prefixed  to  his  letters, 
is  one  of  the  most  favourable 
specimens  of  his  ability. 


of  Britain. 


George  Mountain  succeeded  him,  scarce   warm  in  ad.  1619. 

his  church  before  cold  in   his  coffin,   as  not  con- 5 — 

tinuing  many  months  therein?. 

77.  I  humbly  crave  the  reader's  pardon  for  omit- The  death 
ting  due  time  of  the  death  of  reverend  Dr.  Nicholas  Feiton?P 
Felton,  bishop  of  Ely,  as  buried  before  (though 
dying  some  days  after)  bishop  Andrews ;  and  in- 
deed great  was  the  conformity  betwixt  them — 
both  being  sons  of  seafaring  menb,  (who,  by  God's 
blessing  on  their  industry,  attained  comfortable 
estates,)  both  scholars,  fellows,  and  masters  of  Pem- 
broke Hall,  both  great  scholars,  painful  preachers 
in  London  for  many  years,  with  no  less  profit  to 
others  than  credit  to  themselves,  both  successively 
bishops  of  Ely.  This  bishop  Felton  had  a  sound 
head  and  a  sanctified  heart,  beloved  of  God  and  all 
good  men,  very  hospitable  to  all,  and  charitable  to 
the  poor.  He  died  the  5th  of  October,  1626,  and 
lieth  buried  under  the  communion  table  in  St.  An- 
tholin's  in  London,  whereof  he  had  been  minister 
for  twenty-eight  years '.  One  (whilst  a  private  man) 
happy  in  his  curates,  (whereof  two,  Dr.  Bowles  and 
Dr.  Westfield,  afterwards  became  bishops,)  and  (when 
a  bishop)  no  less  happy  in  his  learned  and  religious 

His  father,  the  bishop,  was 
intimate  with  the  well-known 
sir  Thomas  Fairfax,  and  Henry 
Fairfax,  the  second  son,  was 
chaplain  to  the  archbishop.  See 
a  very  carious  anecdote  respect- 
ing the  two  sons  in  Goodman's 
Memoirs,  ii.  p.  269,  note.] 

?  [He  was  an  aged  man  when 

he  succeeded  to  the  see ;  which 
happened  in  July,  1628;  and 
before  the  end  of  the  year  he 
died.  See  Hacket's  Life  of 
Williams,  i.  p.  168.] 

h  Bishop  Andrews  in  Lon- 
don, and  Felton  in  Yarmouth. 

1  Attested  unto  me  by  John 
Norgate  his  son-in-law. 

SECT,  vir 


JOHN     C  A  R  Y% 


Rare  is  your  happiness  in  leaving  the  court  be/ore  it  left  you. 
Not  in  deserting  your  attendance  on  your  master,  (of  whom 
none  more  constantly  observant,)  but  in  quitting  such  vani- 
ties which  the  court  then  in  power  did  tender,  and  you,  then 
in  prime,  might  have  accepted.  Whilst  you  seasonably  re- 
trenched yourself  and  reduced  your  soul  to  a  holy  serious- 
ness, declining  such  expensive  recreations,  (on  principles  of 
piety  as  well  as  providence,)  wherewith  your  youth  was  so 
much  affected. 

And  now,  sir,  seeing  you  are  so  judicious  in  racing,  give  me 
leave  to  prosecute  the  apostle's  metaphor  in  applying  my  best 
wishes  to  you  and  to  your  worthy  lady,  which  hath  repaired 
the  losses  caused  by  loyalty,  so  thai  you  have  found  in  a 
virtuous  mate  what  you  have  lost  for  a  gracious  master. 

Heaven  is  your  mark,  Christ  your  way  thither,  the  Word 
the  way  to  Christ,  God's  Spirit  the  guide  to  both.  When 
in  this  race  impatience  shall  male  you  to  tire,  or  ignorance 

a  [Arms.  Argent,  on  a  bend 
sable  three  roses  of  the  field. 
Fifth  baron  of  Hunsdon ;  eldest 
son  of  Henry  Cary,  fourth  baron 
of  Hunsdon,  and  Judith,  daugh- 
ter of  sir  Thomas  Pelham  of 
Laughton,  in  Sussex,  bart.  He 
married  Abigail,  daughter  of 
the  celebrated  sir  William  Co- 
kaine,  knight,  and  alderman  of 

the  city  of  London.  Various 
members  of  this  family  were 
fined  by  the  parliament  for 
their  loyalty  to  king  Charles; 
among  the  rest  two  bearing  the 
same  Christian  name,  of  whom 
probably  this  person  was  one. 
He  died  in  1677,  at  tne  age  °f 
68.  See  Clutterbuck's  Herts, 
ii.  p.  181.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  65 

to  stray,  or  idleness  to  ttay,  or  weakness  to  stumble,  or  toil-  A.  D.  1619. 

fulness  to  fall;  may  repentance  raise  you,  faith  quiettm  you,  s     ' 

patience  strengthen  you,  till  perseverance  brina  you  both  to 
the  mart, 

|UEEN    MARY    surprised    with   some  The  birth 
fright,  (as  is  generally  believed,)  ante-" prinoe 
dated  the  time  of  her  travail  by  some rhar'™- 
weeks,  and  was  delivered  of  a  son  b. 
But  a  greater  acceleration  was  endea- 
voured in  his  baptism   than  what  happened  at  his 
birth,  such  the   forwardness  of  the  popish  priests 
to  snatch  him  from  the  hands  of  those  as  dressed 
him,  had  not  the  care  of  king  Charles  prevented 
them,  assigning  Dr.  Webbe  (then  waiting  his  month) 
to  christen  him.     He  died  about  an  hour  after,  the 
king  very  patiently  bearing  the  lose,  as  receiving  the 
first  fruits  of  some  of  his  subjects'  estates,  and  as 
willingly  paying  those  of  his  own  body  to  the  King 
of  heaven. 

2.  The  university  of  Oxford  (Cambridge  being  Oxford 
then  heavily  infected  with  the  plague)  at  once  in 
their  verses  congratulated  the  safe  birth,  and  con- 
doled the  short  life  of  this  prince;  and  a  tetrastich, 
made  by  one  of  Christ  Church,  (thus  in  making  bis 
address  to  the  queen,)  I  must  not  omit. 

Quod  Lucina  tuo*  semtl  estfruxlrata  laborer. 

Nee  forttm antes  prabuit  ilia  manvs, 
Ignosca*  regina:  una  molimine  ventrig, 

Non  potuit  prineeps  ad  tria  regno  dan. 

This  prince  the  next  day  after  was  buried  by  bishop 
Laud  in  the  chapel  at  Westminster. 

b   [From  some  fright  caused  by  u  irnstiff  utliicking  11  hpaiiiel 
iu  the  pretence- chamber.] 



The  Church  History 

BOOK    XI. 



.d.  1629.      3.  During  the  sitting  of  the  last  parliament,  one 
Leigh  ton b,  a  Scottish  man,  presented  a  book  unto 

Dr.  Leigh  • 

ton  his  mil-  them  :    had  he  been  an  Englishman  we  durst  call 
,ng  him   a   furious,   and   now   will  term   him   a   fiery, 

(whence  kindled  let  others  guess,)  writer.  His  book 
consisted  of  a  continued  railing  from  the  beginning 
to  the  end  ;  exciting  the  parliament  and  people  to 
kill  all  the  bishops,  and  so  smite  them  under  the 
fifth  rib.  He  bitterly  inveighed  against  the  queen, 
calling  her  a  daughter  of  Heth,  a  Canaanite  and 
idolatress;  and  "Zion's  Plea"  was  the  specious  title 
of  his  pamphlet ;  for  which  he  was  sentenced,  in 
the  Star-chamber,  to  be  whipped  and  stigmatized, 
to  have  his  ears  cropped  and  nose  slit c.  But  be- 
twixt the  pronouncing  and  inflicting  this  censure, 
he  makes  his  escape  into  Bedfordshire. 
Recovered       4#  The  warden  of  the  fleet  was  in  a  bushel  of 

(after  his 

escape)  and  troubles  about  his  escape,  though  alleging  that  some 
punished,  helped  him  over  the  wall,  and  that  he  himself  knew 
nothing  thereof  till  the  noon  after.  But  no  plea 
seemed  available  for  one  in  his  place,  but  either  the 
keeping  or  recovering  of  his  prisoner;  unfortunate 
in  the  former,  he  was  happy  in  the  latter,  and 
brought  him  back  into  his  custody,  so  that  the 
aforesaid  censure  was  inflicted  on  him d.     It  is  re- 

b  [Father  of  the  celebrated 
bishop  Leighton.  According 
to  the  indictment  and  the  re- 
port of  his  trial,  in  Rush  worth, 
Leighton  was  a  Roman  Catho- 
lic. If  this  be  true,  and  it 
seems  probable  from  what  is 
stated  below,  then  this  is  an- 
other instance  of  tracts  being 
circulated  by  the  Romanists 
against  the  church  in  the  name 
of  the  puritans.    Hist.  Coll.  iii. 

App.  p.  29.] 

c  [See  the  proceedings  a- 
gainst  him  in  the  Star-chamber, 
in  Rush  worth,  ii.  p.  55.] 

d  ["  He  was  taken  again  in 
"  Bedfordshire,  and  brought 
"  back  to  the  Fleet,  within  a 
•'  fortnight."  Laud's  Diary* 
p.  45.  Two  persons  named 
Livingston  and  Anderson,  who 
changed  clothes  with  him  and 
favoured  his  escape,  were  fined 


of  Britain. 


markable,  that  amongst  the  many  accusations  charged  * \^f7\ 

on   archbishop  Laud  at  his  trial,   the  severity  on 

Leighton  is  not  at  all  mentioned,  chiefly  because 
(though  he  might  be  suspected  active  therein)  his 
faults  were  of  so  high  a  nature,  none  then  or  since 
dare  appear  in  his  defence.  The  papists  boast  that 
they  have  beyond  the  seas,  with  them,  his  son  of 
another  persuasion. 

5.  Some  three  years  since,  certain  feoffees  were  Feoff**  to 
(though  not  incorporated  by  the  king's  letters  patent,  propria!"1 
or  any  act  of  parliament)   legally  settled  in  trust tlon8" 
to  purchase  in  impropriations  with  their  own  and 
other  well  disposed  persons'  money,  and  with  their 
profit  to  set  up  and  maintain  a  constant  preaching 
ministry  in  places  of  greatest  need,  where  the  word 
was  most  wanting.     These  consisted  of  a  number 
neither  too  few,  as  the  work  should  burthen  them, 
nor  so  many  as  might  be  a  burthen  to  the  work, 
twelve  in  all,  diversely  qualified. 

i  William  Gouge,  D.D. 

2  Richard  Sibbs,  D.D. 

3  C.  Offspring. 

4  J.  Davenport. 

5  Ralph  Eyre  of  Lincoln's  Inn. 

6  S.  Brown  of  Lincoln's  Inn. 

7  C.  Sherland  of  Gray's  Inn. 

8  JohnWhiteofMid.Temple. 

9  John  Geering,  citizen. 

10  Richard  Davis,  citizen. 

1 1  George  Harwood,  citizen. 

1 2  Francis  Bridges,  citizen. 

Here  were  four  divines  to  persuade  men's  con- 
sciences, four  lawyers  to  draw  all  conveyances,  and 
four  citizens  who  commanded  rich  coffers,  wanting 
nothing,  save  (which  since  doth  all  things)  some 
swordmen,  to  defend  all  the  rest.  Besides  these, 
the  Cape  merchants,  (as  I  may  term  them,)  there 
were  other  inferior  factors,  Mr.  Foxley,  &c,  who 

500/.  apiece.  See  Rush  worth's  Hist.  Coll.  iii.  App.  p.  32,  and 
ii.  p.  56.] 

F  2 


The  Church  History 


Begin  and 



A.  d.  1629.  were  employed  by  appointment,  or  of  officiousness 

5  "  employed  themselves  in  this  design. 

6.  It  is  incredible  what  large  sums  were  advanced 
in  a  short  time  towards  so  laudable  an  employment. 
There  are  indeed  in  England  of  parish  churches, 
nine  thousand  two  hundred  eighty-four,  endowed 
with  glebe  and  tithes;  but  of  these,  (when  these 
feoffees  entered  on  their  work,)  three  thousand 
eight  hundred  forty-five  were  either  appropriated  to 
bishops,  cathedrals,  and  colleges,  or  impropriated 
(as  lay-fees)  to  private  persons,  as  formerly  belong- 
ing to  abbeys.  The  redeeming  and  restoring  of  the 
latter  was  these  feoffees'  design,  and  it  was  verily 
believed,  (if  not  obstructed  in  their  endeavours,) 
within  fifty  years,  rather  purchases  than  money  would 
have  been  wanting  unto  them,  buying  them  generally 
(as  candle-rents)  at  or  under  twelve  years'  valuation. 
My  pen  passing  by  them  at  the  present  may  safely 
salute  them  with  a  God  speed,  as  neither  seeing  nor 
suspecting  any  danger  in  the  design e. 

e  [The  history  of  these  feof- 
fees is  described  rather  differ- 
ently, and  more  completely,  by 
Dr.  Heylin  in  "  The  Appeal," 
&c.  part  iii.  p.  13  ;  and  as  the 
justice  of  his  remarks  is  ac- 
knowledged by  Fuller,  we  shall 
present  them  to  the  reader. 
After  observing  that  they  were 
entirely  self-appointed,  and  only 
"  a  secret  combination  of  the 
•'  brotherhood  "  acting  for  their 
own  advantage,  "  not  laying 
"  the  impropriations  by  them 
"  purchased  to  the  church  or 
' '  chapelry  to  which  they  had  an- 
"  ciently  belonged,  nor  settling 
"  them  on  the  incumbent  of 
"  the  place,  as  nMUiy  hoped  they 

"  would ; "  he  proceeds  to  state 
that  their  object  "was  not  to 
"  advantage  the  regular  and 
"  established  clergy,  but  to  set 
"  up  a  new  body  of  lecturers 
"  in  convenient  places  for  the 
"  promoting  of  the  cause.  And 
"  therefore,  having  bought  an 
"  impropriation,  they  parcelled 
"  it  out  into  annual  pensions 
"  of  40/.  or  50/.  per  ann.  and 
14  therewith  salaried  some  lec- 
•*  turers  in  such  market  towns 
"  where  the  people  had  com. 
"  monly  less  to  do,  and  con- 
44  sequently  were  more  apt  to 
"  faction  and  innovation  than 
*(  in  other  places.  Our  author 
"  notes  it  of  their  predecessors 


of  Britain. 


7.  Richard  Smith,  titulary  bishop  of  Chalcedon, 
taking  his  honour  from  Greece,  his  profit  from  Eng- 




•  t 




•  ( 

in  Cartwright's  days,  that  they 
preached  most  diligently  in 
populous  places;  'it  being  ob- 
served in  England,  that  those 
who  hold  the  helm  of  the 
pulpit  always  steer  people's 
hearts  as  they  please," '  ix.  1 6. 
22.  "  And  he  notes  it  also 
of  these  feoffees,  that  in  con- 
formity hereunto  they  set  up  a 
preaching  ministry  in  places 
of  greatest  need,  not  in  such 
parish  churches  to  which  the 
tithes  properly  belonged,  but 
where  they  thought  the  word 
was  most  wanting  to  advance 
their  projects.  3rdly,  If  we 
behold  the  men  whom  they 
made  choice  of  and  employed 
in  preaching  in  such  market 
towns  as  they  had  an  eye  on, 
either  because  most  popu- 
lous, or  because  capable  of 
electing  burgesses  to  serve  in 
parliament,  they  were  for  the 
most  part  non-conformists, 
and  sometimes  such  as  had 
been  silenced  by  their  ordi- 
nary or  the  high  commission 
for  their  factious  carriage. 
And  such  a  one  was  placed 
by  Geering,  one  of  the  citi- 
zen feoffees,  in  a  town  of 
Gloucestershire ;  a  fellow 
who  had  been  outed  of  a 
lecture  near  Sandwich  by  the 
archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
out  of  another  in  Middlesex 
by  the  bishop  of  London,  out 
of  a  third  iu  Yorkshire  by 
the  archbishop  of  York,  out 
of  a  fourth  in  Hertfordshire 
by  the  bishop  of  Lincoln, 
and  finally  suspended  from 
his    ministry    by   the    high 



commission  ;  yet  thought  the 
fittest  man  by  Geering,  as 
indeed  he  was,  to  begin  this 
lecture.  4thly,  and  finally, 
These  pensions  were  neither 
so  settled,  nor  these  lectures 
so  well  established  in  their 
several  places,  but  that  the 
one  might  be  withdrawn  and 
the  other  removed  at  the  will 
and  pleasure  of  their  patrons, 
if  they  grew  slack  and  negli- 
gent in  the  holy  cause,  or 
abated  any  thing  at  all  of 
that  fire  and  fury  they  first 
brought  with  them.  Exam- 
ples of  which  I  know  some 
and  have  heard  of  more. 
And  now  I  would  fain  know 
of  our  author  whether  there 
be  no  danger  to  be  seen  or  sus- 
pected in  this  design,  whether 
these  feoffees  in  short  time 
would  not  have  had  more  chap- 
lains to  depend  upon  them 
than  all  the  bishops  in  the 
kingdom ;  and  finally,  whe- 
ther such  needy  fellows  de- 
pending on  the  will  and  plea- 
sure of  their  gracious  mas- 
ters, must  not  be  forced  to 
preach  such  doctrines  only 
as  best  please  their  humors. 
And  though  I  shall  say  no- 
thing here  of  their  giving 
underhand  private  pensions, 
not  only  unto  such  as  had 
been  silenced  or  suspended 
in  the  ecclesiastical  courts, 
but  many  times  also  to  their 
wives  and  children  after  their 
decease,  all  issuing  from  this 
common  stock  :  yet  others 
have  beheld  it  as  the  greatest 
piece  of  wit  and  artifice  both 

A.D.  1630. 
6  Charles  I. 

The  bishop 
of  Chalce- 
don his  epi- 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1630.  land,  (where  he  bishoped  it  over  all  the  Romish  Ca- 

6  Charles  I.         ,  r 

tholics,)  was  now  very  busy  in  his  employment ;  but 

when,  where,  and  how  oft  he  acted  here,  is  past  our 
discovery,  it  being  never  known  when  men  of  his 
profession  come  hither,  till  they  be  caught  here. 
Now  if  any  demand  why  the  pope  did  not  entitle 
him  to  some  English  rather  than  this  Grecian  bi- 
shopric, (the  grant  of  both  being  but  of  the  same 
price  of  his  holiness  his  breath,  and  the  confirmation 
equally  cheap  in  wax  and  parchment,)  especially 
seeing  that  in  Ireland  he  had  made  anti-bishops 
to  all  sees,  it  is  easy  for  one  (though  none  of  his 
conclave)  to  conjecture.  For  in  Ireland  he  had  in 
every  diocese  and  parish  a  counterpart  of  people  for 
number  and  quality,  which  he  had  not  in  England, 
and  therefore  to  entitle  bishops  here  had  but  ren- 
dered it  the  more  ridiculous  in  the  granter,  and 
dangerous  in  the  accepter  thereof. 

Opposed         g.  Nicholas  Smith,  a  regular,  (and  perchance  a 

by  Nioho-  «• 

las  Smith.  Jesuit,) f  much  stomached  the  advancement  and  ac- 

"  to  encourage  and  increase 
"  their  emissaries  which  could 
••  possibly  be  devised.  If,  as 
"  our  author  tells  us,  (.  30. 
"  the  design  was  generally  ap- 
"  proved,  and  that  both  dis- 
"  creet  and  devout  men  were 
"  doleful  at  the  ruin  of  so 
"  pious  a  project,  it  was  be- 
"  cause  they  neither  did  sus- 
"  pect  the  danger,  nor  foresee 
"  the  mischiefs  which  unavoid- 
'•  ably  must  have  followed,  if 
"  not  crushed  in  time." 

See  also  the  information  laid 
against  these  feoffees  in  the 
exchequer,  8  Charles  I.,  in 
Rush  worth,  ii.  p.  150.  Of  the 
divines  here  mentioned  Gouge 

was  afterwards  a  member  of  the 
Assembly  ;  Davenport  went  to 
New  England,  being  too  vio- 
lent a  puritan  for  this  country; 
White  was  the  author  of  that 
notorious  libel  against  the  cler- 
gy, called  "  A  Century  of  Ma- 
"  lignant  Priests,"  &c.  subse- 
quently a  member  of  parliament, 
and  a  witness  against  archbishop 
Laud.  One  of  their  first  acts 
was  to  appoint  Baxter  to  a  lec- 
tureship in  Kidderminster .] 

f  [Wood  tells  us  that  "  Edw. 
"  Knott,  a  Jesuit,  went  some- 
"  times  by  the  name  of  Nich. 
"  Smith;  Quare?"  The  mat. 
ter  is  past  doubt:  for  in  the 
"  Reply  to  M.  Nic.  Smith," 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  71 

tivity  of  Richard  Smith,  bishop  of  Chalcedon,  and  £15.1630. 

wrote   bitterly  against   him ;    the   hammer  of  one 

Smith  clashing  against  another.  He  fell  foul  also 
on  Dr.  Kellison,  president  of  the  college  of  Douay, 
who  lately  set  forth  a  treatise  of  the  dignity  and 
necessity  of  bishop  and  secular  clergy  e,  generally 
opposing  his  doctrine,  and  particularly  in  relation  to 
the  English  bishops,  instancing  in  the  following 
exceptions ; 

9-  First,  a  bishop  over  the  English  was  useless;  Alleging  a 

°  bishop  over 

and  might  well  be  spared  in  times  of  persecution,  English  ca- 
there   being   but   two   peculiar   performances  of  a  less  in  per- 
bishopb,  viz.  ordination  and  confirmation.     For  the860"11011* 
former  it  might  be  supplied  by  foreign  bishops,  the 
priests  of  our  English  nation  being  generally  bred 
beyond  the  seas.     As  for  confirmation  of  the  chil- 
dren  of  English   catholics,   he   much   decried   the 
necessity  thereof,  (though  not  so  far  as  to  un-seven 
the  sacraments  of  the  church  of  Rome,)  affirming 
it  out  of  St.  Thomas  of  Aquin1,  and  other  divines, 
that,  by  commission  from  the  pope,  a  priest,  though 
no  bishop,  might  confirm.     To  this  Dr.  Kellison  his 
scholar  (or  himself  under  the  vizard)  replied,  that  in 
the  definition  of  St.  Cyprian k,  a  church  was  a  people 

&c.  p.  1 2,  the  following  passage  *   [The  full  title  of  this  book 

occurs  :  ••  Why  should  I,  [Dr.  is  "  A   Reply  to  M.  Nicholas 

"Kellison;  for  the    writer  is  "  Smith  his  Discussion  of  Some 

quoting  his  words,]  encounter  '*  Points  of  M.  Doctor  Kelli- 

with  an  adversary  that  dareth  "  son  his  Treatise  of  the  Ilier- 

not  shew  himself  in  the  field,  "  archie.  By  a  Divine.  Printed 

"  and  therefore  goeth  masked  1C  at  Douay,  by  the  Widow  of 

"  under  another  man's  name;  "  Marke  Wyon,  1630."    12°.] 

■•  though  it  is  thought  he  walk-  h   ["  Reply    to    N.  Smith," 

"  eth  rather  in  a  net ;  the  ques-  &c.  p.  1 6  and  p.  21  sq.] 

"  tion  who  he  should  be  being  »  [Summa,  iii.  9  ;   lxxii.  art. 

**  not  so  hard  to  solve,  as  Gor.  1 1 .] 

•*  dins   his    Knotte  was  to   bo  k   [Cypr.  Epist.  69.  als.  66.] 
••  dissolved."] 

F  4 




The  Church  History 


And  bur- 



a.d.  1630.  united  to  its  bishop,  and  therefore  an  absolute  neces- 

6 Charles  I.    .  .x    . 

sity  of  that  function1. 

10.  Secondly,  he  was  burthensome  to  the  church, 
considering  the  present  pressures  of  poor  English 
catholics,  needing  now  no  unnecessary  expenses  for 
the  maintenance  of  the  bishop  and  his  agents00. 
To  this  it  was  answered,  that  Mr.  Nicholas  Smith 
and  his  brethren  regulars  "  daily  put  the  catholics 

to  for  greater  charges,  as  appeareth  by  the  stately 
houses,  purchases,"  &c.n  Indeed,  generally  the 
little  finger  of  a  Jesuit  was  conceived,  in  his  enter- 
tainment, heavier  than  the  loins  of  a  secular.  Mean- 
time, in  what  case  were  our  English  lay  catholics, 
with  Issachar  couching  down  between  two  burthens* \ 
bearing  the  weight  of  both  regulars  and  seculars? 
but  who  need  pity  them  who  will  not  pity  them- 
selves ? 

11.  Thirdly,  he  took  exceptions  at  the  person  of 
this  bishop  of  Chalcedon,  as  not  lawfully  called  in 
canonical  criticism  p.  First,  because  not  estated  in 
his  episcopal  inspection  over  England,  during  his 

And  this 
bishop  no 

1  [According  to  G .  Wright,  in 
his  preface  toNic.  Smith's  book, 
Kellison  gave  the  first  offence 
by  his  work  upon  the  Ecclesi- 
astical Hierarchy,  in  which  he 
took  occasion  to  glance  at  these 
proceedings  in  England.  Pref. 
p.  9.  The  principal  offence  on 
the  part  of  Kellison  was  doubt- 
less the  assertion  that  the  secu- 
lars vf  ere  jure  divino  governors 
of  the  church  and  part  of  the 
hierarchy,  but  the  regulars 
were  not,  being  only  their  as- 
sistants (iUorum  opitulatores) 
by  extraordinary  privilege.  lb. 


m  [According  to  Wright, 
this  appointment  of  the  bishop 
of  Chalcedon  was  vexatious 
to  the  Romanists  in  another 
way  ;  for  in  the  search  made 
for  him  by  the  officers  of 
the  government,  the  houses  of 
other  Roman  Catholics  were 
entered,  and  whilst  the  bishoo 
was  sought  for,  many  of  the 
same  persuasion  were  appre- 
hended. Pref.  p.  6.] 

n  "  Reply  to  Mr.  N.  Smith," 
p.  1 94. 

0  Gen.  xlix.  14. 

P  ["  Reply  to  Nic.  Smith," 
&c.  p.  287,  sq.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  78 

life,  (as  a  bishop  ought  to  be,)  but  only  constituted  a. p.  1630. 

ad  beneplacitum  papa,  at  the  pleasure  of  the  pope ; ■ 

which  restriction  destroyeth  his  being  a  lawful  ordi- 
nary. Secondly,  he  carpeth  at  him  as  made  by 
delegation  and  commission,  and  therefore  a  delegate, 
not  an  ordinary.  To  which  the  other  replied,  that 
even  legates  have  that  clause  in  their  commission, 
limited  to  the  pope's  pleasure,  and  yet  no  catholic 
will  question  them  to  be  lawful  ordinaries.  As  to 
the  second  exception,  the  same,  saith  he,  doth  not 
destroy  his  ordinaryship,  but  only  sheweth  he  was 
made  an  ordinary  in  an  extraordinary  manner :  which 
distinction,  how  far  it  will  hold  good  in  the  canon 
law,  let  those  inquire  who  are  concerned  therein. 

12.  Notwithstanding  Dr.  Kellison  his  confutation,  RegwW 
the  insolency  of  the  regulars  daily  increased  in  proposition 
England,  so  that  they  themselves  may  seem  the  2?  °mn" 
most  seculars ;  so  fixed  were  they  to  the  wealth 
and  vanity  of  this  world.  The  Irish  regulars  ex- 
ceeded the  English  in  pride,  maintaining  (amongst 
other  printed  propositions)  that  the  superiors  of 
regulars  are  more  worthy  than  bishops  themselves, 
because  the  honour  of  the  pastor  is  to  be  measured 
from  the  condition  of  the  flock,  quemadmodum  opilio 
dignior  est  subtdco,  as  a  shepherd  is  of  more  esteem 
than  a  hoggard.  In  application  of  the  first  to  them- 
selves, the  last  to  the  seculars,  it  is  hard  to  say 
whether  their  pride  was  more  in  their  own  praise, 
or  charity  less  in  condemning  of  others.  It  was 
therefore  high  time  for  the  doctors  of  Sorbonne,  in 
Paris,  (who  for  many  ages  have  maintained  in 
their  college  the  hereditary  reputation  of  learning,) 
to  take  these  regulars  to  task.  Sixty  of  the  Sor- 
bonne doctors   censured  the   aforesaid  proposition, 

74  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1630.  and  the  archbishop  of  Paris  condemned  the  book  of 

—  Nicholas  Smith,  as  also  another  tending  to  the  same 

subject,  made  by  one  Daniel,  a  Jesuit  \ 
Querewhe-      13.  On  what  terms  the  regulars  and  seculars  stand 
reconciled,  in  England  at  this  day,  I  neither  know  nor  list  to 
inquire.      Probably  they  have  learned  wit  from  our 
woes,  and  our  late  sad  differences  have  occasioned 
their  reconcilement.     Only  I  learn  this  distinction 
from  them ;  the  "  catholics,  as  catholics,  agree  al- 
"  ways  in  matters  of  faith,  and  good  catholics  never 
"  break  charity,  but  the  best  catholics,  as  men,  may 
••  vary  in  their  opinions1"."     I  hope  they  will  allow 
to  us  what  liberty  they  assume  to  themselves8. 
Bishop  Da-      14.  Dr.   John   Davenant,    bishop    of    Salisbury, 
sermon  at  preached  his  course  on  a  Sunday  in  Lent,  at  White- 
oaarU        hall,  before  the  king  and   court,   finishing  a  text 
Rom.  vi.  23,  the  former  part  whereof  he  had  handled 
the  year  before.     In  prosecution  whereof  it  seems 
he  was  conceived  to  fall  on  some  forbidden  points, 
insomuch  that  his  majesty  (whether  at  first  by  his 
own  inclination,  or  others'  instigation,  is  uncertain) 
manifested  much  displeasure  thereat.     Sermon  end- 
ing, his  adversaries  at  court  hoped  hereby  to  make 
him  fall  totally  and  finally  from  the  king's  favour, 
though  missing  their  mark  herein,  as  in  fine  it  did 
For  which       15.  Two  days  after  he  was  called  before  the  privy 
vented  be-  council,  where  he  presented  himself  on  his  knees, 
cwnciL      and  so  had  still  continued  for  any  favour  he  found 

q  [Entitled  "Apologia Sane-  *  "  Reply  to  AJr.N. Smith," 

"  fcc     Sedis     Apostolica*    pro  Pref.  p.  20. 

"  modo  procedendi  circa  regi-  8  [Berrington,  in  his  Preface 

men    Cathnlicorum    Angliae  to    Panzani's     Memoirs,     has 


tempore    persecutions,  cum     treated   this  subject  at  consi 
"  defensione  religiosi   status."     derable  length.  See  also  Rush- 
Rothomagi,  163  1 .]  worth's  Collections,  ii.  p.  15.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  75 

from  any  of  his  own  function  there  present.     But  the  £.  d.  1630. 

6  Charles  I. 

temporal  lords  bade  him  arise  and  stand  to  his  own 

defence,  being  as  yet  only  accused,  not  convicted. 
Dr.  Harsnet,  archbishop  of  York,  managed  all  the 
business  against  him,  (bishop  Laud  walking  by  all 
the  while  in  silence  spake  not  one  word,)  making 
a  long  oration  uttered  with  much  vehemency  to  this 
effect : 

First,  He  magnified  king  James  his  bounty  unto 
him,  who,  from  a  private  master  of  a  college  in 
Cambridge,  (without  any  other  immediate  prefer- 
ment,) advanced  him  by  an  unusual  rise  to  the  great 
and  rich  bishopric  of  Salisbury. 

Secondly,  He  extolled  the  piety  and  prudence 
of  king  Charles  in  setting  forth  lately  an  useful 
declaration,  wherein  he  had  commanded  that  many 
intricate  questions,  tending  more  to  distraction  than 
edification  of  people,  should  utterly  be  forborne  in 
preaching,  and  which  had  already  produced  much 
peace  in  the  church. 

Thirdly,  He  aggravated  the  heinousness  of  the 
bishop's  offence,  who  so  ill  requited  his  majesty's 
favour  unto  him,  as  to  offer  in  his  own  presence, 
in  so  great  an  auditory,  to  break  his  declaration, 
inviting  others  by  his  example  to  do  the  like. 

Fourthly,  That  high  contempt  was  the  lowest 
term  could  be  given  to  such  an  offence,  seeing  igno- 
rance could  in  no  probability  be  pretended  in  a 
person  of  his  reputed  learning  and  eminent  pro- 

What  the  other  answered  hereunto  will  best  appear 
by  his  own  letter  written  to  his  worthy  friend, 
doctor  Ward,  giving  him  an  exact  account  of  all 
proceedings  herein  in  manner  as  followeth  : 

76  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1630.      16.  *" As  for  my  court  business,  though  it 

.* «  grieved  me  that  the  established  doctrine  of  our 

Darenant  "  church  should  be  distasted,  yet  it  grieved  me  the 
of'th^hote"  'e88»  because  the  truth  of  what  I  delivered  was 
STkueTto  "  acknowledged  even  by  those  which  thought  fit  to 
Dr.  Ward.  "  have  me  questioned  for  the  delivery  of  it.  Pre- 
"  sently  after  my  sermon  was  ended,  it  was  signified 
"  unto  me  by  my  lord  of  York,  and  my  lord  of 
"  Winchester,  and  my  lord  chamberlain,  that  his 
"  majesty  was  much  displeased  that  I  had  stirred 
"  this  question,  which  he  had  forbidden  to  be 
"  meddled  withal,  one  way  or  other:  my  answer 
"  was,  that  I  had  delivered  nothing  but  the  received 
"  doctrine  of  our  church  established  in  the  17th 
"  Article,  and  that  I  was  ready  to  justify  the  truth 
"  of  what  I  had  then  taught.  Their  answer  was, 
"  the  doctrine  was  not  gainsaid,  but  his  highness 
"  had  given  command  these  questions  should  not 
"  be  debated,  and  therefore  he  took  it  more  offen- 
"  sively  that  any  should  be  so  bold,  as  in  his  own 
"  hearing  to  break  his  royal  commands.  And  here 
"  my  lord  of  York  aggravated  the  offence  from 
"  many  other  circumstances.  My  reply  was  only 
"  this :  That  I  never  understood  that  his  majesty 
"  had  forbid  handling  of  any  doctrine  comprised  in 
"  the  Articles  of  our  church,  but  only  •  raising  of 
*•  new  questions,  or  adding  new  sense  thereunto,' 
"  which  I  had  not  doner  nor  ever  should.  This  was 
"  all  that  passed  betwixt  us  on  Sunday  night  after 
"  my  sermon.  The  matter  thus  rested,  and  I  heard 
"  no  more  of  it,  till  coming  unto  the  Tuesday 
"  sermon,  one  of  the  clerks  of  the  council  told  me, 
"  that  I  was  to  attend  at  the  council-table  the  next 

'  [Original  holograph,  Tanner's  MSS.  lxxi.  39.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  77 

w  day  at  two  of  the  clock.     I  told  him  I  would  wait  a.  d.  1630. 

"  upon  their  lordships  at  the  hour  appointed.    When ' 

**  I  came  thither,  my  lord  of  York  made  a  speech 
wellnigh  half  an  hour  long,  aggravating  the  bold- 
ness of  my  offence,  and  shewing  many  inconve- 
**  niences  that  it  was  likely  to  draw  after  it.  And 
•*  he  much  insisted  upon  this,  what  good  effect  his 
**  majesty's  declaration  had  wrought,  how  these  con- 
«*  troversies  had  ever  since  been  buried  in  silence, 
**  no  man  meddling  with  them  one  way  or  other. 
**  When  his  grace  had  finished  his  speech,  I  desired 
"  the  lords,  that  since  I  was  called  thither  as  an 
offender,  I  might  not  be  put  to  answer  a  long 
speech  upon  the  sudden,  but  that  my  lord's  grace 
**  would  be  pleased  to  charge  me  point  by  point, 
44  and  so  to  receive  mine  answer,  for  I  did  not  yet 
"  understand  wherein  I  had  broken  any  command- 
ment of  his  majesty,  which  my  lord  in  his  whole 
discourse  took  for  granted.  Having  made  this 
motion,  I  gave  no  further  answer;  and  all  the 
"  lords  were  silent  for  a  while.  At  length  my  lord's 
grace  said  I  knew  well  enough  the  point  which 
was  urged  against  me,  namely  the  breach  of  the 
king's  declaration.  Then  I  stood  upon  this  de- 
"  fence ;  That  the  doctrine  of  predestination  which 
**  I  taught  was  not  forbidden  by  the  declaration. 
*•  First,  because  in  the  declaration  all  the  Articles 
are  established,  amongst  which,  the  Article  of 
predestination  is  one.  Secondly,  because  all  min-  . 
isters  are  urged  to  subscribe  unto  the  truth  of 
that  Article,  and  all  subjects  to  continue  in  the 
profession  of  that  as  well  as  of  the  rest.  Upon 
**  these  and  such  like  grounds,  I  gathered  it  could 
"  not  be  esteemed  amongst  '  forbidden,  curious,  or 




78  7%e  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1630. "  needless  doctrines.'     And  here  I  desired  that  out 

' "  of  any  clause  in  the  declaration  it  might  be  shewed 

"  me  (that  keeping  myself  within  the  bounds  of  the 
"  Article)  I  had  transgressed  his  majesty's  command. 
"  But  the  declaration  was  not  produced,  nor  any 
particular  words  in  it;  only  this  was  urged,  that 
the  king's  will  was,  that  for  the  peace  of  the 
"  church  these  high  questions  should  be  forborne. 
"  My  answer  then  was,  that  I  was  sorry  I  under- 
"  stood  not  his  majesty's  intention,  which  if  I  had 
"  done  before,  I  should  have  made  choice  of  some 
"  other  matter  to  entreat  of,  which  might  have 
given  no  offence;  and  that  for  the  time  to  come 
I  should  conform  myself  as  readily  as  any  other  to 
his  majesty's  commands.  The  earl  of  Arundel 
seemed  to  approve  of  this  my  answer,  and  withal 
"  advised  me  to  proceed  no  further  in  my  defence. 
"  This  is  in  substance  all  which  was  done  or  said  in 
"  this  matter,  and  so  I  was  dismissed.  The  lords 
"  said  nothing  either  in  approbation  of  what  I  had 
alleged,  to  shew  that  I  had  not  wittingly  broken 
the  king's  known  command,  or  in  confirmation  of 
the  contrary,  urged  against  me  by  my  lord's  grace. 
"  At  my  departure  I  entreated  their  lordships  to  let 
his  majesty  understand  that  I  had  not  boldly,  or 
wilfully  and  wittingly,  against  his  declaration, 
"  meddled  with  the  forenamed  point ;  and  that  now 
"  understanding  fully  his  majesty's  mind,  and  inten- 
"  tion,  I  should  humbly  yield  obedience  thereunto. 
"  This  business  thus  ended,  I  went  the  next  day  to 
"  my  lord  chamberlain,  and  intreated  him  to  do  me 
"  the  favour  that  I  might  be  brought  to  kiss  the 
king's  hand  before  I  went  out  of  town,  which  his 
lordship  most   readily  promised   and  performed. 


cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  79 

"  When  I  came  in,  his  majesty  declared  his  resolu-A.n.  1630. 

"  tion   that   he    would   not   have    this    high    point " 

"  meddled  withal  or  debated,  either  the  one  way  or 

"  the  other ;  because  it  was  too  high  for  the  people's 
understanding,   and   other   points  which  concern 

"  reformation  and  newrness  of  life  were  more  needful 
and  profitable.  I  promised  obedience  herein,  and 
so  kissing  his  majesty's  hand  departed.  I  thought 
fit  to  acquaint  you  with  the  whole  carriage  of  this 
business,  because  I  am  afraid  many  false  reports 
will  be  made  of  it,  and  contrary  one  to  another,  as 
men  stand  contrarily  affected.  I  shewed  no  letter 
or  instructions ;  neither  have  any,  but  those  general 
instructions,  which  king  James  gave  us  at  our 
going  to  Dort,  which  make  little  or  nothing  to 
this  business.     I  sought  amongst  my  papers,  but 

"  could  not  find  them  on  the  sudden,  and  I  suppose 
you  have  them  already.  As  for  my  sermon,  the 
brief  heads  were  these :  •  Eternal  life  is  the  gift 
of  God,  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord  V  As  in 
the  former  part  I  had  spoken  of  the  threefold 
misery  of  the  wicked,  so  here  I  propounded  the 
threefold  happiness  of  the  godly  to  be  considered. 
i.  Happy  in  the  Lord  whom  they  serve:   God 

u  or  Christ  Jesus. 

"  ii.  Happy  in  the  reward  of  their  service :  Eternal 

«  life. 

u  iii.  Happy  in  the  manner  of  their  reward :  x«- 
picrjia,  or  gratuitum  donum  in  Christo. 

The   two    fbrmer   points   were    not    excepted 
against.    In  the  third  and  last  I  considered  eternal 

"  life  in  three  diverse  instances.    In  the  eternal  des- 

"  tination  thereunto,  which  we  call  election.     In  our 

*  Rom.  vi.  33. 





80  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1630."  conversion,  regeneration,  or  justification,  which  I 

" "  termed  the  embryo  of  eternal  life.  (John  iv.  14.) 

"  And  last  of  all  in  our  coronation,  when  full  pos- 
"  session  of  eternal  life  is  given  us.     In  all  these  I 

"  shewed  it  to  be  xaV>l(r^a»  or  *he  ^ree  S^  °^  God, 
through  Christ,  and  not  procured  or  promerited,  by 
any  special  good  acts  depending  upon  the  free  will 
of  men.  The  last  point,  wherein  I  opposed  the 
popish  doctrine  of  merit,  was  not  disliked.  The 
second,  wherein  I  shewed  that  effectual  vocation 
or  regeneration  (whereby  we  have  eternal  life 
inchoated  and  begun  in  us)  is  a  free  gift,  was  not 
expressly  taxed.  Only  the  first  was  it  which  bred 
the  offence;  not  in  regard  of  the  doctrine  itself, 
but  because  (as  my  lord's  grace  said)  the  king  had 
prohibited  the  debating  thereof.  And  thus  having 
let  you  understand  the  carriage  of  this  business  I 
commit  you  to  the  protection  of  the  Almighty, 

"  And  rest  always 

"  Your  very  loving  friend, 

"  Jo.  Sarum." 

The  death  17.  This  year  Thomas  Dove,  bishop  of  Peter- 
Dore.  ^  borough,  ended  his  life.  He  was  bred  in  Pembroke 
hall  in  Cambridge:  chosen  tanquam  therein,  which 
it  seems  is  a  fellow  in  all  things  save  the  name 
thereof.  Afterwards  chaplain  to  queen  Elizabeth, 
who  made  him  dean  of  Norwich,  being  much 
affected  with  his  preaching,  as  wont  to  say  that 
"  the  Holy  Ghost  was  again  descended  in  this 
"  Dove u."  He  was  a  constant  housekeeper  and 
reliever  of  the  poor,  so  that  such  who  in  his  life- 

11  Godwin  De  Presul.  Angl.  p.  559,  and  sir  John  Haringtou 
in  his  Nugae  Antiq.  ii.  p.  209. 




of  Britain. 


time  condemned  him  for  covetousness,  have  since  a.  d.  163 1. 

justly  praised  his  hospitality.     Now  though  doves- ' 

are  generally  said  to  want  gall,  yet  the  noncon- 
formists in  his  diocese  will  complain  of  his  severity 
in  asserting  ecclesiastical  discipline,  when  he  silenced 
five  of  them  in  one  morning,  on  the  same  token  that 
king  James  is  said  to  say  "  it  might  have  served  for 
44  five  years."  He  was  an  aged  man,  being  the  only 
queen  Elizabeth's  bishop  of  that  province  which  died 
in  the  reign  of  king  Charles,  living  in  a  poor 
bishopric,  and  leaving  a  plentiful  estate;  to  shew 
that  it  is  not  the  moisture  of  the  place,  but  the 
long  lying  of  the  stone,  which  gathereth  the  great 
moss  therein.  In  a  word,  had  he  been  more  careful 
in  conferring  of  orders  (too  commonly  bestowed  by 
him)  few  of  his  order  had  exceeded  him  for  the 
unblamableness  of  his  behaviour  x. 

18.  Now  began  great  discontents  to  grow  up  in  Trouble 
the  university  of  Oxford  on  this  occasion.     Manyo§br<i? 
conceived  that  innovations  (defended  by  others  for 
renovations,  and  now  only  reduced,  as  used  in  the 

*  [Mr.  Gunton  sap  that  the 
queen  had  so  good  an  esteem 
for  him  on  account  of  his  ex- 
cellency in  preaching,  reverend 
aspect  and  deportment,  that 
she  was  wont  to  call  him  the 
Dove  with  silver  wings.  He 
was  consecrated  bishop  of  Pe- 
terborough April  26,  1 60 1. 
Mr.  Isaackson  in  his  Life  of 
Bishop  Andrews  says,  that  as 
soon  as  Dove  was  B.  A.,  and 
so  capable  of  a  fellowship  in 
Pembroke  hall,  there  being 
then  but  one  place  void  in  the 
college,  and  Dove  being  one  of 


its  scholars  and  well  approved 
by  many  of  the  society,  the 
warden  and  fellows  put  him 
and  Andrews  to  a  trial  before 
them  by  some  scholastical 
exercises,  upon  performance 
whereof  they  preferred  sir  An- 
drews, though  they  liked  sir 
Dove  so  well  also,  that  being 
loth  to  lose  him,  they  made 
him  some  allowance  for  his 
present  maintenance,  under  the 
title  of  a  tanquam  socius.  See 
Gunton'B  Hist,  of  Peterb.  p. 
8i.  Wood's  Athen.  I.  697.] 



The  Church  History 


a. d.  1631.  primitive  times)  were  multiplied  in  divine  service. 
— ?L!!!Ll  Offended  whereat,  they  in  their  sermons  brake  out 
into  (what  was  interpreted)  bitter  invectives.  Yea 
their  very  texts  gave  some  offence,  one  preaching 
on  Numbers  xiv.  4,  Let  us  make  us  a  captain,  and  let 
us  return  into  Egypt.  Another  on  1  Kings  xiii.  2, 
And  he  cried  against  tlie  altar  in  the  word  of  the 
Lord,  and  said,  0  altar,  altar,  &c.  In  prosecution 
whereof  they  had  not  only  tart  reflection  on  some 
eminent  persons  in  the  church,  but  also  were  appre- 
hended to  violate  the  king's  declaration  for  the 
sopiting  of  all  Arminian  controversies. 
An  appeal  19.  Dr.  Smith,  warden  of  Wadham,  con  vented  the 
vice-chan-  principal  persons,  (viz.  Mr.  Thorn  of  Balliol  College, 
J^HS^and  Mr.  Ford  of  Magdalen  Hall,)  as  offenders  against 
the  king's  instructions,  and  ordered  them  to  bring 
in  the  copies  of  their  sermons.  They,  suspecting 
partiality  in  the  vice-chancellor,  appealed  from  him 
to  the  proctors,  two  men  of  eminent  integrity  and 
ability,  Mr.  Atherton  Bruch,  and  Mr.  John  Doughty, 
who  received  their  appeal,  presuming  the  same  jus- 
tifiable by  the  Statutes  of  tbe  university.  But  it 
seems  the  proctors  were  better  scholars  than  lawyers, 
except  any  will  say  both  law  and  learning  must 
submit,  when  power  is  pleased  to  interpose  v. 

7  [The  vice-chancellor  ap- 
pealed to  the  king,  according 
to  the  Statutes.  See  Laud's 
Diary,  p.  46.  Rushworth, 
though  not  inclined  to  favour 
the  authorities  of  the  univer- 
sity, with  much  more  fairness 
implies  that  these  proceedings 
on  the  part  of  the  proctors 
were    illegal   and   unwarrant- 

able :  "  The  chief  ringleaders/' 
he  says,  ••  were  the  said  Mr. 
"  Ford  and  Mr.  Thorn.  And 
"  the  proctors,  Mr.  Bruch  and 
"  Mr.  Doughty,  received  their 
"  appeals,  as  if  it  had  not  been 
"  perturbatio  pads.  The  vice- 
"  chancellor  was  forced  in  a 
"  statutable  way  to  appeal  to 
"  the  king,  who  with  all  the 


of  Britain. 


20.  Archbishop  Laud  did  not  like  these  retrograde  a.  d.  163  r. 
appeals,  but  sensible  that  his  own  strength  moved — ' 


rather  ascendendo  than   descendendo,  procured   the  punished, 
cause  to  be  heard  before  the  king  at  Woodstock, 
where  it  was  so  ordered,  that  *, 

i.  The  preachers  complained  of  were  expelled  the 

ii.  The  proctors  were  deprived  of  their  places  for 
accepting  their  appeal. 

iii.  Dr.  Prideaux  and  Dr.  Wilkinson  were  shrewdly 
checked  for  engaging  in  their  behalf. 

The  former  of  these  two  doctors  ingenuously  con- 
fessing to  the  king,  Nemo  mortalium  omnibus  horis 
sapit,  wrought  more  on  his  majesty's  affections,  than 
if  he  had  harangued  it  with  a  long  oration  in  bis 
own  defence. 

21.  The  expulsion  of  these  preachers  expelled  And  m 
not,  but  increased  the  differences  in  Oxford,  which Pe8Cn 
burnt  the  more   for  blazing  the   less,  many  com- 
plaining that  the  sword  of  justice  did  not  cut  indif- 
ferently on  both  sides,  but  that  it  was  more  penal 

for  some  to  touch  than  others  to  break  the  king's 

22.  This  year  ended  the  days  of  Mr.  Arthur  Hil-  The  death 
dershama,  born  at  Stitchworth  in  the  county,  bred  demham.  " 
in  Christ  College  in  the  university  of  Cambridge, 
whose  education  was  an  experimental  comment  on 



"  lords  of  the  council  then 
"  present,  heard  the  cause  at 
Woodstock.  Aug.  23,  1631, 
being  Tuesday  in  the  after- 
'*  noon."  Rushworth,  ii.  1 10.] 
»  [Hodges  on  his  submission 
seems  to  have  been  restored: 
Ford  refused  "  to  make  any 
"  address  to  be  restored ;"  ex. 

pecting  to  be  chosen  lecturer 
in  Plymouth,  but  the  trustees 
of  the  place  "  were  required 
"  not  to  choose  him  upon  pain 
"  of  his  majesty's  displeasure." 
Rushworth,  ib.] 

a  [See  the  Life  of  Hilder- 
sham  in  Clark's  Martyrology, 
App.  p.  1 14.] 

84  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

A.d.  163 1.  the  word 8  of  David,   When  my  father  and  mother 
forsake  me,  then  the  Lord  taketh  me  up  b. 

My  father — Thomas  Hildersham,  a  gentleman  of  an 
ancient  family. 

And  mother — Anne  Pole,  daughter  to  sir  Jeffery, 
niece  to  cardinal  Pole,  grandchild  to  sir  Richard 
Pole,  and  Margaret  countess  of  Salisbury,  who 
was  daughter  to  George  duke  of  Clarence. 

Forsake  me, — quite  casting  him  off,  because  he 
would  not  be  bred  a  papist  and  go  to  Rome. 

Then — an  emphatical  monosyllable,  just  in  that  nick 
of  time. 

The  Lord  taketh  me  up — not  immediately  (miracles 
being  ceased),  but  in  and  by  the  hands  of  Henry 
earl  of  Huntingdon0  (his  honourable  kinsman) 
providing  plentiful  maintenance  for  him. 

Often  si-        23.  However,  after  he  was  entered  in  the  min- 
rortored?    i8try,  he  met  with  many  molestations,  as  hereby  doth 

i.  Silenced  by  the  high  commission,  1590,  in  June. 

ii bishop  Chaderton,  1605,  April  24. 

iii bishop  Neile,  1611,  in  November. 

i v the  court  at  Leicest.  1 630,  March  25. 

i.  Restored  by  the  high  commission,  1591, in  January. 

ii bishop  Barlow,  1608,  in  January. 

iii Dr.  Ridley d,  1625,  June  20. 

iv the  same  court,  1631,  August  2. 

And  now  methinks  I  hear  the  Spirit  speaking  unto 
him,  as  once  to  the  prophet  Ezekielc,  Thou  shalt 
speak  and  be  no  more  dumb,  singing  now  with  the 

t>  Psalm  xxvii.  i  o.  d  Vicar  gen.  to  archbishop  Abbot. 

c  [Henry  Hastings.]  •  Ezek.  xxiv.  27. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  85 

celestial  quire  of  saints  and  angels.     Indeed,  though  a.  d.  1631. 

himself  a  nonconformist,  he  loved  all  honest  men,  I **     . 

were  they  of  a  different  judgment,  minded  like 
Luther  herein,  who  gave  for  his  motto,  In  quo  ali- 
quid  Christi  video,  ilium  diligo. 

24.  He  was  minister  of  Ashby  de  la  Zouch  forty  His  kmg 
and  three  years.     This  putteth  me  in  mind  of  Tbeo-  duoiiT*' 
dosius  and  of  Valentinian,  (two  worthy  Christian preftching- 
emperors,)  their  constitutions  making  those  readers 

of  the  civil  law  counts  of  the  first  order,  cum  ad 
mginti  anno*  observatione  jugi,  ac  sedido  docendi 
labore  pervenerint f,  "  when  with  daily  observation 
and  diligent  labour  of  teaching  they  shall  arrive  at 
twenty  years."  Surely  the  readers  of  God's  law 
which  double  that  time  shall  not  lose  their  reward. 

25.  The  same  year  died  Robert  Bolton,  born  in  The  death 
Lancashire,  bred  in  Brasennose  College  in  Oxford,0        "* 
beneficed  at  Broughton  in  Northamptonshire.     An 
authoritative  preacher,  who  majestically  became  the 
pulpit,  and  whose  life  is  exactly  written  at  large  *, 

to  which  I  refer  such  as  desire  further  satisfaction h. 
And  here  may  the  reader  be  pleased  to  take  notice, 
that  henceforward  we  shall  on  just  grounds  forbear 
the  description  of  such  divines  as  yearly  deceased. 
To  say  nothing  of  them  save  the  dates  of  their 
deaths,  will  add  little  to  the  reader's  information,  to 
say  much  in  praise  or  dispraise  of  them  (wherein 
their  relations  are  so  nearly  concerned)  may  add  too 

'  C.  Theod.  lib.  6.  tit.  21.  "  Assize-sermons,  and  Notes  on 

£  By  my  good  friend  Mr.  "  Justice  Nicolls  his  funeral. 

Bagshaw.  "  Together  with  the  Life  and 

k  [See  "  Mr.  Bolton's   last  "  Death  of  the  Author.    Pub- 

"  and  learned  work  of  the  four  "  lished  by  £.  B.  &c."  Lond 

**  last  things,  Death,  Judgment,  1639.  40.  4th  ed.] 

"  Hell,  and  Heaven.  With  his 


86  7%i  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  163a.  much  to  the  writer's  danger.    Except  therefore  they 

8  Charles  I.,  .  ?        .     .      .    r     .  . 

be  persons  so  eminent  for  their  learning,  or  active 

for  their  lives,  as  their  omission  may  make  a  maim 
in  our  history,  we  shall  pass  them  over  in  silence 

,-mpP2£*a-      26.  Archbishop  Laud  began  to  look  with  a  jealous 

questioned,  eye  on  the  feoffees  for  impropriations,  as  who  in 
process  of  time  would  prove  a  thorn  in  the  sides  of 
episcopacy,  and  by  their  purchases  become  the  prime 
patrons  for  number  and  greatness  of  benefices.  This 
would  multiply  their  dependants,  and  give  a  secret 
growth  to  nonconformity.  Whereupon  by  the  arch- 
bishop's procurement  a  bill  was  exhibited  in  the  ex- 
chequer chamber,  by  Mr.  Noy  the  attorney  general, 
against  the  feoffees  aforesaid,  and  that  great  lawyer 
endeavoured  to  overthrow  (as  one  termed  it)  their 
apocrypha  incorporation. 

Tbdr  first  27.  It  was  charged  against  them,  first,  that  they 
diverted  the  charity,  wherewith  they  were  intrusted, 
to  other  uses1,  when  erecting  a  lecture  every  morning 
at  St.  Antholine's  in  London k.  What  was  this  but 
lighting  candles  to  the  sun,  London  being  already 
the  land  of  Goshen,  and  none  of  those  dark  and  far 
distant  corners,  where  souls  were  ready  to  famish 
for  lack  of  the  food  of  the  word  ?  What  was  this  but 
a  bold  breach  of  their  trust,  even  in  the  eye  of  the 
kingdom  ? 

Andanswer  28.  They  answered  that  London  being  the  chief 
staple  of  charity,  and  the  place  where  the  principal 
contributors  to  so  pious  a  work  did  reside,  it  was 
but  fit  that  it  should  share  in  the  benefit  of  their 

*  Being  by  their  feoffment         k  [The  stronghold  of  Puri- 
to  erect  them  where  preaching     tnnism.] 
was  wanting. 


of  Britons 


bounty.     That  they  were  not  so  confined  to  the  uses  a.  d.  1632. 

in  their  feoffment,  but  that   in    their  choice  they " 

might  reflect  as  well  on  the  eminency  as  necessity 
of  the  place ;  that  they  expended  much  of  their  own 
(as  well  as  other  men's)  money,  and  good  reason 
they  should  do  therewith  as  they  pleased. 

29.  It  was  pressed  against  them,  that  they  gene-  a  Moond 
rally  preferred   nonconformists   to   the   lectures  ofagwrt 
their  erection.     To  this  it  was  answered,  that  nonethem# 
were  placed  therein  but  such  whose  sufficiency  and 
conformity  were  first  examined  and  approved  by  the 
ordinary  to  be  to   such  a  degree   as  the   law  re- 
quired.    Yea  it  is  said  that  Mr.  White,  one  of  the 
feoffees,  privately  proffered  bishop  Laud  at  his  house 

in  Fulham,  that  if  he  disliked  either  the  persons 
who  managed,  or  order  which  they  took  in  this 
work,  tbey  would  willingly  submit  the  alteration  to 
his  lordship's  discretion. 

30.  In  conclusion  the  court  condemned  their  They  are 
proceedings,  as  dangerous  to  the  church  and  state,  thrown. 
pronouncing  the  gifts,  feoffments,  and  contrivances 
made  to  the  uses  aforesaid  to  be  illegal,  and  so  dis- 
solved the  same,  confiscating  their  money  unto  the 
king's  use.  Their  criminal  part  was  referred  to,  but 
never  prosecuted  in,  the  Star-chamber,  because  the 
design  was  generally  approved,  and  both  discreet  and 
devout  men  were  (as  desirous  of  the  regulation,  so) 
doleful  at  the  ruin  of  so  pious  a  project  K 

1  [The  appointment  of  feof- 
fees had  been  one  of  the  pro- 
jects of  abp.  Laud ;  when  St. 
Paul's  was  completely  repaired, 
it  was  his  intention  "  to  move 
"  his  majesty  for  the  like  grant 
"  from    the    high   commission 

44  for  the  bringing  in  of  impro- 
"  priations."  (Diary,  p.  69.) 
But  these  feoffees,  as  may  be 
seen  by  the  list  of  those  who 
were  the  chief  managers,  (some 
of  whom  were  afterwards  lead- 
ing members  of  the  Assembly 



The  Church  HUtory 


a.  i).  163a.     SI.  Samuel  Harsnet  about  this  time  ended  his 
-  life,  born  in  Colchester,  bred  scholar,  fellow,  master 

Th«  death 

of  arch-  of  Pembroke  Hall  in  Cambridge,  afterwards  bishop 
Hanmet.  °f  Chichester  and  Norwich,  archbishop  of  York,  and 
privy  councillor.  He  was  a  zealous  asserter  of  cere- 
monies, using  to  complain  of  (the  first  I  believe  who 
used  the  expression)  conformable  puritans,  who 
practised  it  out  of  policy,  yet  dissented  from  it  in 
their  judgments.  He  lieth  buried  in  Chigwell  church 
in  Essex,  (where  he  built  a  school,)  with  this  epitaph, 
Indignus  episcopus  Cicestrensis,  indignior  Norvicensis, 
et  indignissimus  archiepiscopus  Eboracensis  m. 

32.  Now  the  Sabbatarian  controversy  began  to  be 
revived,  which  brake  forth  into  a  long  and  hot  con- 
tention.    Theophilus  Bradborn  D,  a  minister  of  Suf- 

his  erro- 

of  Divines),  were,  as  Laud 
truly  states  of  them,  "  main 
"  instruments  for  the  puritan 
"  faction  to  undo  the  church" 
(lb.  p.  47.) ;  and  the  erection 
of  a  daily  lecture  at  S.  Antho- 
line's,  always  noted  as  a  fa- 
vourite place  of  resort  for  the 
party,  as  it  was  contrary  to  the 
principles  of  their  incorporation, 
so  does  it  afford  a  presumptive 
proof  of  their  intentions  to  ad- 
vance puritan  principles.] 

m  [Composed  by  himself. 
See  Godwin,  Praesul.  p.  713.] 

n  ["  An  old  and  zealous  pu- 
"  ritan,  named  Theophilus  Bra- 
"  bourne,  an  obscure  school- 
"  master,  or,  as  some  say,  a 
"  minister  of  Suffolk,  was  very 
"  stiff  for  a  Sabbath,  in  his 
"  books  published  1628  and 
"31,  and  endeavoured  to  take 
"  off  all  objections  that  might 
"  be  said  against  one;  yet  by 

"  maintaining  the  indispensable 
"  morality  of  the  fourth  com- 
"  mandment,  and  consequently 
"  the  necessary  observation  of 
"  the  Jewish  sabbath,  did  in- 
"  cline  several  of  his  readers  to 
"  Judaism.  Thomas  Broad, 
"  who  was  esteemed  an  anti- 
"  Sabbatarian,  did  write  almost 
"  to  the  same  effect  that  Brere- 
"  wood  did,  though  Brer e wood  8 
"  first  book  did  dissent  from  his 
'*  opiuions  in  those  points,  op- 
"  posed  by  George  Abbot  in  his 
"  Vindxcict  Sabbat  hi,  wherein 
'*  are  also  surveyed  all  the  rest 
"  that  then  had  lately  written 
"  on  that  subject  concerning 
"  the  Sabbath  :  viz.  Francis 
"  White  bishop  of  Ely,  Pet. 
"  Heylyn,  D.  D.,  and  Christo- 
*'  pher  Dowe,  whose  several 
"  treatises  on  the  said  subject 
"  he  calls  anti-  Sabbatarian." 
Wood's   Athen.   i.  391.       Of 


of  Britain. 


folk,  sounded  the  first  trumpet  to  this  fight,  who  a.  d.  1633. 
some  five  years  since,  namely  anno  1628,  set  forth  ft8Charlc,L 
book,  dedicated  to  his  majesty,  entitled,  "  A  defence 



this  man  Dr.  White  gives  the 
following  account  in  the  pre- 
face to  his  book  on  the  Sabbath. 
"  A  certain  minister  of  Nor- 
"  folk,  where  I  myself  of  late 
"  years  was  bishop,  published 
"  a  tractate  of  the  Sabbath ; 
"  and  proceeding  after  the  rule 
"  of  presbyterian  principles, 
"  among  which,  this  was  prin- 
"  cipal :  That  all  religious  06- 
"  serrations  and  actions,  and 
"  among  the  restt  the  ordaining 
"  and  keeping  of  holy  days, 
"  must  have  a  special  warrant 
"  and  commandment  in  holy 
"  scripture,  otherwise  the  same 
is  superstitious :  concluded 
from  thence,  by  necessary  in- 
**  ference,  that  the  seventh  day 
••  of  every  week,  to  wit,  Satur- 
day, having  an  express  com. 
mand  in  the  Decalogue,  by  a 
precept  simply  and  perpetu- 
ally moral,  (as  the  Sabbata- 
rians teach,)  and  the  Sunday, 
or  the  Lord's  day,  being  not 
**  commanded,  either  in  the 
44  Law  or  in  the  Gospel,  the 
"  Saturday  must  be  the  Christ- 
44  tans  weekly  sabbath,  and  the 
"  Sunday  ought  to  be  a  work' 

"  i*g  day. 

'*  This  man  was  exceeding 
*'  confident  in  his  way,  and  de- 
"  lied  his  puritan  adversaries, 
"  and  loaded  them  with  much 
"  disgrace  and  contempt.  Be- 
"  aides,  he  dedicates  his  book 
*4  to  the  king's  majesty  him. 
"  self;  he  implores  his  princely 
"  aid  to  set  up  his  old  new 
"  sabbath;  he  admonisheth  the 






4*  reverend  bishops  of  the  king- 
"  dom,  and  the  temporal  state 
••  likewise,  to  restore  the  fourth 
44  commandment  of  the  Deca- 
"  logue  to  his  ancient  posses- 
44  sion  ;  and  professeth  that  he 
44  would  rather  suffer  martyr- 
"  dom  than  betray  such  a 
"  worthy  cause,  so  firmly  sup- 
44  ported  by  the  common  prin- 
"  ciples  of  all  our  new  men, 
**  who  have  in  preaching  or 
"  writing  treated  of  the  Sabbath. 
"  But  while  he  was  in  this 
"  heat,  crying  in  all  places 
••  where  he  came,  Victoria,  vie- 
"  toria,  he  chanced  to  light 
"  upon  an  unkind  accident : 
"  which  was  to  be  con  vented 
44  and  called  to  an  account 
"  before  your  grace"  (that  is, 
the  archbishop)  "  and  the 
"  honourable  court  of  high 
44  commission. 

M  At  his  appearance  your 
44  grace  did  not  confute  him 
"  with  fire  and  fagot,  with 
••  halter,  axe,  and  scourging, 
(as  a  certain  Hotspur,  a  libel- 
ling disciple  of  Thomas  Cart- 
wright's,  traduceth  the  judges 
*'  of  that  honourable  court,)  but 
"  according  to  the  usual  pro- 
44  ceedings  of  your  grace  and 
44  of  that  court  with  delinquents, 
••  which  are  overtaken  with 
"  error,  in  simplicity,  there 
"  was  yielded  unto  him  a  deli- 
berate, patient,  and  full  hear- 
ing, together  with  a  satis- 
"  factory  answer  to  all  his  main 
44  objections. 

44  The  man  perceiving  that 







The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1631. "  of  the  most  ancient  and  sacred  ordinance  of  God, 
1 "  The  Sabbath  day :"  maintaining  therein, 

i.  The  fourth  commandment  simply  and  entirely 

ii.  Christians,  as  well  as  Jews,  obliged  to  the  ever- 
lasting observation  of  that  day. 

iii.  That  the  Lord's  day  is  an  ordinary  working 
day,  it  being  will-worship  and  superstition  to  make 
it  a  sabbath  by  virtue  of  the  fourth  commandment. 

But  whilst  Mr.  Bradbora  was  marching  furiously, 
and  crying  victoria  to  himself,  he  fell  into  the  ambush 
of  the  high  commission,  whose  well  tempered  severity 
herein  so  prevailed  upon  him,  that,  submitting  him- 
self to  a  private  conference,  and  perceiving  the  un- 
soundness of  his  own  principles,  he  became  a  con- 
vert, conforming  himself  quietly  to  the  Church  of 
Habbata-  38.  Francis  White,  bishop  (formerly  of  Norwich) 
then  of  Ely,  was  employed  by  his  majesty  to  confute 
Mr.  Bradborn  his  erroneous  opinion.  In  the  writing 
whereof  some  expressions  fell  from  his  pen,  whereat 
many  strict  people  (but  far  enough  from  Bradborn's 
conceit)  took  great  distaste.     Hereupon  books  begat 

nan  contro- 
versies re- 

"  the  principles  which  the  sab- 
*•  batarian  dogmatists  had  lent 
"  him  were  not  orthodoxal,  and 
"  that  all  which  were  present 
"  at  the  hearing  (of  which 
"  number  there  were  some 
"  honourable  lords  of  his  ma- 
"  jesty's  privy  council,  and 
"  many  other  persons  of  qua- 
"  lity)  had  approved  the  con- 
"  futation  of  his  error ;  the 
"  man  began  to  suspect  that 
"  the  holy  brethren,  who  had 
44  lent  him  his  principles,  and 

"  yet  persecuted  his  conclusion, 
"  might  |>erhaps  be  deceived  in 
"  the  first,  as  he  had  been  in 
"  the  latter.  And  therefore 
"  laying  aside  his  former  con- 
"  tidence,  he  submitted  him- 
"  self  to  a  private  conference, 
"  which  by  God's  blessing  so 
"  far  prevailed  with  liim,  that 
44  he  became  a  convert,  and 
"  freely  submitted  himself  to 
44  the  orthodoxal  discipline  of 
"  the  Church  of  England."] 


of  Britain. 


books,  and  controversies  on  this  subject  were  inulti-A.D.  163a. 
plied,  reducible  to  five  principal  heads.  — I 

i.  What  is  the  fittest  name  to  signify  the  day  set 
apart  for  God's  public  service  ? 

ii.  When  that  day  is  to  begin  and  end  ? 

iii.  Upon  what  authority  the  keeping  thereof  is 
bottomed  ? 

iv.  Whether  or  no  the  day  is  alterable  ? 

v.  Whether  any  recreations,  and  what  kinds  of 
them,  be  lawful  on  that  day  °  ? 

And  they  are  distinguishable  into  three  several 
opinions : 

0  [Upon  these  controversial 
writings  Heylyn  makes  the  fol- 
lowing observations.  "  The  ar- 
"  gumentative  and  scholastical 
"  part  was  referred  to  the  right 
"  learned  Dr.  White,  then  bi- 
"  shop  of  El y,  who  had  given 
"  good  proof  of  his  ability  in 
"  polemical  matters  in  several 
"  books  and  disputations  against 
"  the  papists.  The  practical 
**  and  historical,  by  Heylyn  of 
"  Westminster,  who  had  gained 
"  some  reputation  for  his  8tu- 
"  dies  in  the  ancient  writers  by 
"  asserting  the  history  of  St. 
*'  George,  maliciously  impugn. 
"  ed  by  those  of  the  Calvinian 
"  party  upon  all  occasions. 
"  Both  of  them  being  enjoined 
"  their  tasks,  were  required  to 
"  be  ready  for  the  press  against 
"  Michaelmas  term ;  at  the  end 
"  whereof  both  books  came 
out :  the  bishop's  under  the 
title  of,  A  Treatise  of  the  Sab- 
"  bath  Day,  containing  a  Defence 
*'  of  the  orthodox  a  I  Doctrine  of 





•*  the  Church  of  England  against 
••  Sabbatarian  Novelty.  The 
"  other,  called  the  History  of 
"  the  Sabbath,  was  divided  into 
"  two  books  or  parts ;  the  first 
44  whereof  began  with  the  crea- 
"  tion  of  the  world,  and  carried 
"  on  the  story  till  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  temple.  The 
second  beginning  with  our 
"  Saviour  Christ  and  his  apo- 
"  sties,  was  drawn  down  to  the 
"  year  1633,  when  the  publish- 
"  ing  of  this  declaration  was 
"  required.  The  bishop's  book 
"  had  not  been  extant  any  long 
"  time,  when  an  answer  was 
"  returned  unto  it  by  Byfield 
"  of  Surrey,  which  answer  occa- 
"  sioned  a  reply,  and  that  reply 
"  begat  a  rejoinder.  To  Hey- 
"  lyn's  book  there  was  no 
"  answer  made  at  all."  Life  of 
Abp.  Laud,  p.  296.  This  trea- 
tise of  Dr.  Heylyn's  was  re- 
printed in  the  collection  of  his 
miscellaneous  works,  p.  316.] 


The  Church  History 


A.  D.i  639. 
8  Charles  1. 


Are  charged  to  af- 
fect the  word  Sab- 
bath as  a  shibboleth 
in  their  writing, 
preaching,  and  dis- 
counting, to  distin- 
guish the  true  Israel- 
ites from  lisping 
Ephraimites,  as  a 
badge  of  more  [pre- 
tended] purity.  As 
for  Sunday,  some 
would  not  have  it 
mentioned  in  Christ- 
ian mouths,  as  re- 
senting of  Saxon  ido- 
latry, so  called  from, 
and  dedicated  to  the 
sun,  which  they 

Moderate  men. 


Some  make  the 
Sabbath  to  begin  en 
Saturday  night,  (the 
evening  and  the 
morning  were  the 
first  day,)  and  others 
on  the  next  day  in 
the  morning,  both 
agreeing  on  the  ex- 
tent thereof  for  four 
and  twenty  hours. 

They  found  it  part- 
ly on  the  law  and 
light  of  nature,  de- 
riving some  coun- 
tenances for  the  sep- 
tenary number  out 
of  heathen  authors : 
and  partly  on  the 
fourth  command- 
ment, which  they 
avouch  equally  moral 
with  the  rest. 


Sabbath  (especially  if  Christian  be 
premised)  may  inoffensively  be  used,  as 
importing  in  the  original  only  a  rest. 
And  it  is  strange  that  some  who  have  a 
dearness,  yea  fondness,  for  some  words 
of  Jewish  extraction  (altar,  temple,  &c.) 
should  have  such  an  antipathy  against 
the  Sabbath.  Sunday  may  not  only  safely 
be  used  without  danger  of  paganism,  but 
with  increase  of  piety,  if  retaining  the 
name,  we  alter  the  notion,  and  therewith 
the  notion  thereof,  because  on  that  day 
the  Sun  of  Righteousness  did  arise  with 
healing  in  his  wings  P.  But  the  most 
proper  name  is  the  Lord's  day,  as  ancient, 
used  in  the  apostles'  time  4;  and  most 
expressive,  l»eing  both  an  historian,  and 
preacher.  For  the  Lord's  day,  looking 
liackward,  mindeth  us  what  the  Ix>rd  did 
for  us  thereon,  rising  from  the  dead: 
and,  looking  forward,  it  monisheth  us 
what  we  ought  to  do  for  him  on  the 
same,  spending  it  to  his  glory,  in  the 
proper  duties  thereof. 


The  question  is  not  of  so  great  con- 
cernment. For,  in  all  circular  motions, 
it  matters  not  so  much  where  one  begin  - 
neth,  so  be  it  he  continueth  the  same, 
until  he  return  unto  that  point  again. 
Either  of  the  aforesaid  computations  of 
the  day  may  be  embraced. 

Diesque  quiesque  redibit  in  orbem. 

In  the  Lord's  day  three  things  are 
considerable:  1.  A  day,  founded  on  the 
light  of  nature;  pure  impure  pagans 
destining  whole  days  to  their  idolatrous 
service.  2.  One  day  in  seven,  grounded 
on  the  moral  equity  of  the  fourth  com- 
mandment, which  is  like  the  feet  and 
toes  of  Nebuchadnezzar's  imager,  part  of 
potter's  clay,  and  part  of  iron.  The  clay 
part,  and  ceremonial  moiety  of  that  com- 
mandment (viz.  that  seventh  day,  or 
Jewish  Sabbath)  is  mouldered  away,  and 
buried  in  Christ's  grave.  The  iron  part 
thereof,  viz.  a  mixture  of  morality  there- 
in, one  day  in  seven,  is  perpetual  and 
everlasting.  3.  This  seventh  day  (being 
indeed  the  eighth  from  the  creation,  but 
one  of  the  seven  in  the  week)  is  built  on 
divine  right  in  a  larger  sense,  having  an 
analogy  in  the  Old,  and  insinuations  in 
the  New  Testament,  with  the  continued 
practice  of  the  church. 


The  word  Sabbath 
(as  now  used)  con- 
taineth  therein  a  se- 
cret magazine  of  Ju- 
daism, as  if  the  af- 
fecters  thereof  by 
spiritual  necromancy 
endeavoured  the  re- 
viving of  dead  and 
rotten  Mosaical  cere- 


They  confine  the 
observation  of  the 
day  only  to  the  few 
hours  of  public  ser- 

These  unhinge  the 
day  off  from  any 
divine  right,  and 
hang  it  merely  on 
ecclesiastical  author- 
ity first  introducing 
it,  as  custom  and 
consent  of  the  church 
had  since  established 

P  Mai.  iv.  2. 

q  Revel,  i.  10 

r  Dan.  ii.  41. 


of  Britain. 



The  church,  no  not 
ex  piemtmthu  tu* 
potnimhs,  may,  or 
cut,  alter  the  tame. 

N«>  exercises  at  all 
(walking  excepted, 
with  which  strictness 
itself  cannot  lie  of- 
fended) are  lawful 
no  this  day.  Inso- 
much as  some  of 
them  hare  been  ac- 
cused of  turning  the 
day  of  rest  into  the 
day  «f  torture  and 
•elf -maceration . 

Moderate  men. 

Would  be  right  glad  of  the  general 
agreement  of  the  Christian  church ;  but, 
withal,  right  sorry  that  the  same  should 
be  abused  for  the  alteration  of  the  Ix>rd's 
day.  But,  as  there  is  but  little  hope  of 
the  former,  so  is  there  no  fear  of  the 
latter,  it  being  utterly  (inexpedient  to  at- 
tempt the  altering  thereof. 

Anti+abbatarian*.   Aj>.  i6u. 

The  universal  con- 
sent of  the  Christian 
church  may  alter  it. 
Yea,  one  saith  «,  that 
the  church  of  Geneva 
went  about  to  trans- 
late it  to  Thursday, 
but,  it  seems,  it  was 
carried  in  the  nega- 

Mixed    dancings, 

masques,  interludes, 
revels,  &c  are  by 
them  permitted  in 
the  intervals  be- 
twixt, but  generally 
after  evening  service 


The  Sabliath  (in  some  sort)  was  lord 
(yea,  tyrant)  over  the  Jews ;  and  they  by 
their  superstition  contented  vassals  under 
it.  Christ  was  Lord  of  the  Sabbath  t, 
and  struck  out  the  teeth  thereof.  Indeed 
such  recreations  as  are  unlawful  on  any 
day,  are  most  unlawful  on  that  day; 
yea,  recreations  doubtful  on  other  days, 
are  to  be  forliorne  on  that  day,  on  the 
suspicion  of  unlawfulness.  So  are  all 
those,  which,  by  their  over  violence,  put 
people  past  a  praying  capacity.  Add  also 
those,  which,  though  acted  after  evening 
service,  must  needs  be  preacted  by  the 
fancy  (such  the  volatility  thereof)  all  the 
day  twfore,  distracting  the  mind,  though 
the  body  lie  at  church.  These  recrea- 
tions forbidden,  other  innocent  ones  may 
be  permitted. 

A  worthy  doctor™,  who  in  his  sermons  at  the  temple 
no  less  piously  than  learnedly  handled  the  point  of 
the  Lord's  day,  worthily  pressed,  that  gentlefolk 
were  obliged  to  a  stricter  observation  of  the  Lord's 
day  than  labouring  people.  The  whole  have  no  need 
of  the  physician,  but  those  who  are  sick.  Such  as 
are  not  annihilated  with  labour  have  no  title  to  be 
recreated  with  liberty.  Let  servants,  whose  hands 
are  ever  working  whilst  their  eyes  are  waking;  let 
such  who  all  the  foregoing  week  have  their  cheeks 
moistened  with  sweat  and  hands  hardened  with  la- 
bour; let  such  have  some  recreation  on  the  Lord's 

*  [Dr.  John]  Pocklington  in 
his  "Sunday  no  Sabbath/'  p.  9. 
[A  sermon  preached  and  printed 

in  the  year  1636.] 
t  Matth.  xii.  8. 
a  Dr.  Paul  Micklethwaite. 


The  Church  Htetory 


Ach'  kf  l  ^ay  indulged  unto  them :  whilst  persons  of  quality, 

who  may  be  said  to  keep  sabbath  all  the  week  long, 

I  mean,  who  rest  from  hard  labour,  are  concerned 
in  conscience  to  observe  the  Lord's  day  with  the 
greater  abstinence  from  recreations*. 

*  [Of  all  the  multitudinous 
writings  on  this  fiercely  dis- 
puted subject,  Dr.  White's 
work,  entitled  "  A  Treatise  of 
"  the  Sabbath  Day,  containing 
"  a  Defence  of  the  orthodoxal 
"  Doctrine  of  the  Church  of 
"  England  against  Sabbatarian 
**  Novelty,"  is  by  far  the  most 
learned,  as  it  is  the  most  im- 
portant. This  work,  which  was 
dedicated  to  Laud,  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  and  was  under- 
taken by  his  desire  and  direc- 
tion, may  be  considered  as  a  fair 
exposition  of  their  sentiments, 
who  were  undoubtedly  the  most 
learned  and  most  catholic  por- 
tion of  the  Church  of  England. 

Like  various  other  questions 
disputed  during  these  times, 
this  was  no  more  than  the 
legitimate  fruit  of  that  prin- 
ciple, so  strenuously  advocated 
by  the  opponents  of  church 
authority,  that  scripture  alone, 
or  rather  every  man's  private 
interpretation  of  it,  is  the  only 
warrant  for  any  observances 
whether  civil  or  ecclesiastical. 
Undervaluing  all  human  learn- 
ing, and  rejecting  from  the  first 
the  testimony  and  tradition  of 
the  church ;  private  judgment 
became  their  only  standard  by 
which  they  could  test  the  truth, 
and  all  things  stood  or  fell  ac- 
cordingly as  they  were  found  to 
tally  with  it.  The  same  test 
which  required  the  Jewish 
observance  of  the  Sabbath,  in 

aftertimes  rejected  infant  bap- 
tism and  set  open  the  door  to 
heresy  in  all  its  shapes ;  the 
same  private  judgment  which 
exaggerated  the  holiness  of  the 
Sunday,  and  would  have  bound 
it  on  the  necks  of  Christians 
with  an  iron  yoke,  soon  set  men 
above  it  altogether.  The  Jew- 
ish observance  of  the  Sunday 
became  the  touchstone  of  a 
man's  election ;  "  To  do  any  ser- 
"  vile  work  or  business  on  the 
••  Lord's  day,  (says  one  of 
"  them,)  is  as  great  a  sin  as  to 
"  kill  a  man  or  commit  adul- 
"  tery ;" — "  to  make  a  feast  on 
*'  the  Lord's  day  (says  another) 
"  is  as  great  a  sin  as  for  a  fa- 
"  ther  to  take  a  knife  and  cut 
"  his  child's  throat,"  (Heylyn's 
Tracts,  p.  490) ;  so  hard  is  it 
for  men  who  forsake  the  truth 
in  one  point  to  keep  it  in  an- 
other :  or  even  when  advocat- 
ing that  which  is  good  and 
excellent  in  itself,  if  dislo- 
cated from  that  body  of  the 
truth  once  delivered  to  the 
saints,  to  avoid  distorting  its 
proportions  and  robbing  it  of 
its  true  life  and  spirituality. 
Thus  these  men  in  defending 
the  perpetual  morality  of  the 
fourth  commandment,  lost  sight 
of  those  objects  for  which  that 
commandment  was  given ; 
taught  men  to  dislike  and  hate 
the  services  of  the  church,  the 
administration  of  her  sacra- 
ments, the  ordination   of  her 


of  Britain. 


84.  Pass  we  now  from  the  pen  to  the  practical  a.  d.  163.1. 

r  *  9  Charl»  I. 

part  of  the  Sabbatarian  difference.     Somersetshire 

was  the  stage  whereon  the  first  and  fiercest  scene  b^hT 
thereof  was  acted.  Here  wakes  (much  different,  I  jj^1"**" 
dare  say,  from  the  watching  prescribed  by  our  Sa- 
viour) were  kept  on  the  Lord's  day,  with  church- 
ales,  bid-ales,  and  clerks-ales.  If  the  reader  know 
not  the  critical  meaning  and  difference  of  these 
words,  I  list  not  to  be  the  interpreter ;  and  his  igno- 
rance herein  neither  is  any  disgrace  nor  can  be  any 
damage  unto  him.  The  gentry  of  that  county,  per- 
ceiving such  revels  the  cause  of  many  and  occasion 
of  moe  misdemeanours,  (many  acts  of  wantonness 
bearing  their  dates  from  such  meetings,)  importuned 
ar  Thomas  Richardson  T,  lord  chief  justice,  and  baron 

ministers ;  quenched  the  devo- 
tion of  the  people  towards 
God's  service  by  persuading 
them  that  it  was  profane  and 
superstitious;  and  outwardly, 
most  earnest  in  demanding  obe- 
dience to  the  letter  of  God's 
word,  became,  in  fact,  its  great, 
est  transgressors,  the  most  dis- 
obedient to  its  spirit. 

"  Such  (says  even  our  own 
"  author)  who  at  the  time  of 
"  the  Sabbatarian  controversy 
"  were  the  strictest  observers 
"  of  the  Lord's  day,  are  now 
"  reeled  by  their  violence  into 
"another  extreme,  to  be  the 
"  greatest  neglect  era,  yea,  con- 
M  temners  thereof.  These  tran- 
"  scendenta,  accounting  them- 
"  selves  mounted  above  the 
"  predicament  of  common  piety, 
M  aver  they  need  not  keep  any, 
"  because  they  keep  all  days 
"  Lord's  days  in  their  elevated 
"  holiness,"  &c.  §.  44-] 

7  [This  was  "  that  jeering 
••  judge,"  (of  whom  Evelyn 
speaks  in  his  diary)  who  "  un- 
"  justly  and  spitefully  molest- 
•'  ed"  Evelyn's  father,  a  man 
universally  esteemed  by  all  who 
knew  him.  Evelyn's  Diary,  ii. 
10.  So  also  G.  Garrard,  in  a 
letter  to  lord  Strafforde,  speak- 
ing of  the  death  of  this  judge 
and  of  sir  Robert  de  Grice  who 
died  at  the  same  time,  observes, 
that  both  of  them  were  "  little 
"  missed  in  the  commonwealth. 
"  Never  ( he  continues)  sat  there 
"  a  judge  in  that  court  that  was 
"  less  respected.  He  desired 
"  to  be  buried  in  Westminster, 
"  and  was  so  poorly  and  mean- 
"  ly  attended  only  with  hack- 
"  ney  coaches,  and  scarce  a 
"  jua*ge>  or  any  of  his  own  pro- 
"  fession,  to  attend  him  to  his 
"  grave ;  yet  he  hath  left  be- 
"  hind  him  an  estate  better 
M  than  three  thousand  pounds 

96  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  i>.  1633.  Denham,  then  judges,  riding  the  western  circuit  in 

9  Charles  I.    __  .  ,  ,         -         , 

the  lent  vacation,  to  make  a  severe  order  for  the 

suppressing  of  all  ales  and  revels  on  the  Lord's  day. 
judge  ri-       35.    In  compliance  with   their  desire,  the  afore- 
order ™*  s&id  judges  made  an  order  on  the  19th  day  of  March, 
KrdWay  (founded  on  former  precedents  signed  by  judge  Pop- 
revel8-       ham,  lord  chief  justice  in  the  latter  end  of  queen 
Elizabeth  her  reign,)  therein  suppressing  such  revels, 
in  regard  of  the  infinite  number  of  inconveniences 
daily  arising  by  means  thereof,  enjoining  the  con- 
stables to  deliver  a  copy  thereof  to  the   minister 
of  every  parish,  who,  on  the  first  Sunday  in  Feb- 
ruary, and  likewise  the  two  first   Sundays  before 
Easter,  was  to  publish  the  same  every  year. 
Which  he       86.  The  archbishop  of  Canterbury  beheld  this  as 

would  not  .  _      .        .      .  .      ,    ,.      . 

revoke,  an  usurpation  on  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction,  and  com- 
plained of  the  judges  to  his  majesty,  procuring  a 
commission  to  bishop  Pierce  and  other  divines  to 
inquire  into  the  manner  of  publishing  this  order, 
and  the  chief  justice  bis  carriage  in  this  business. 
Notwithstanding  all  which,  the  next  assize  judge 
Richardson  gave  another  strict  charge  against  these 
revels,  required  an  account  of  the  publication  and 
execution  of  the  aforesaid  order,  punishing  some 
persons  for  the  breach  thereof.  After  whose  return 
from  London,  the  archbishop  sent  for  him,  and  com- 
manded him  to  revoke  his  former  order  as  he  would 
answer  the  contrary  at  his  peril,  telling  him  it  was  his 
majesty's  pleasure  he  should  reverse  it.  The  judge 
alleged  it  done  at  the  request  of  the  justices  of  the 
peace  in  the  county,  with  the  general  consent  of 

"  a-year." — Straffbrde's    Let-    able  as  he  was  inclined  to  pu- 
ters,  i.  p.  373.     This  writer's     ritanism.] 
testimony  is  the  more  remark. 


<jf Britain. 


tbe  whole  bench,  on  the  view  of  ancient  precedents  a.  d.  1633. 
in  that  kind.  However,  the  next  assize  he  revoked9 — ^-' 
his  order  with  this  limitation,  as  much  as  in  him 
lay1.  At  what  time  also  the  justices  of  the  peace 
in  Somersetshire  (who  in  birth,  brains,  spirit,  and 
estate,  were  inferior  to  no  county  in  England)  drew 
up  an  humble  petition  to  his  majesty,  for  the  sup- 
pressing of  the  aforesaid  unlawful  assemblies8,  con- 
curring with  the  lord  chief  justice  therein,  sending 
it  up  by  the  hand  of  the  custos  rotuhrum  to  deliver 
it  to  the  earl  of  Pembroke,  lord  lieutenant  of  their 
county,  to  present  it  to  his  majesty5. 

[Rush worth,  ib.  192.] 
It  might  be  supposed 
from  Fuller's  language  that  this 
was  the  act  of  the  county  in 
general.  The  same  statement 
was  made  against  the  archbi- 
shop by  Prynne;  whereupon 
he  says  at  his  trial :  "  Mr. 
"  Prynne  says ;  that  all  the 
M  gentlemen  in  the  country  pe- 
*•  titioned  on  the  judge's  behalf. 
No ;  there  was  a  great  faction 
in  Somersetshire  at  that  time, 
"  and  sir  Robert  Philips  and  all 
his  party  wrote  up  against  the 
judge  and  the  order  he  made, 
as  was  apparent  by  the  certifi- 
M  cates  which  he  returned.  And 
**  sir  Robert  was  well  known 
in  his  time  to  be  neither 
popish  nor  profane." — Trou- 
bles, p.  343.  Afterwards  they 
were  made  friends,  as  we  learn 
from  a  letter  of  Garrard  to  the 
earl  of  Strafforde :  '  •  Sir  Robert 
Philips  (he  says)  and  the 
chief  justice  Richardson  have 
"  been  made  friends  of  late, 
"  before  a  committee  of  the 
"  Lords.  Their  difference  arose 










"  in  the  country,  at  the  assizes, 
"  about  these  wakes  and  love- 
*•  feasts  in  the  country,  as  they 
"  call  them  ;  against  which  the 
"  judge  was  very  bitter  in  his 
"  charge,  many  misdemeanors 
"  being  presented  by  the  grand 
"  inquest,  which  were  done  at 
"  those  meetings ;  and  the  like 
"  did  most  of  the  judges  on 
%t  their  circuits.  But  now  this 
"  new  declaration  shuts  their 
"  mouths  for  the  future.  Sir 
"  Robert  Philips  complains  of 
"  him  to  the  king ;  his  majesty 
"  refers  it  to  the  archbishop, 
"  lord  keeper,  lord  treasurer, 
"  and  the  earl  marshal ;  they 
"  hear  them  both,  and  thought 
"it  fitter  to  reaccord  them,  than 
"  to  trouble  the  king  further 
"  about  it.n— Strafforde's  Lett, 
i.  p.  167.] 

o  [The  truth  of  this  matter 
will  be  better  understood  by 
the  following  letter  which  arch, 
bishop  Laud  wrote  to  the  bishop 
of  Bath  and  Wells  on  this  occa- 

"  There  hath  been  of  late 




The  Church  History 


A.D.163.;.     87.  Just  in  this  juncture  of  time  a  declaration  for 

"  sports,  set  forth  the  fifteenth  of  king  James,  was 

decLr^tlon.  revi ved  and  enlarged c ;  for  his  majesty,  being  trou- 
bled with  petitions  on  both  sides,  thought  good  to 
follow  his  father's  royal  example,  upon  the  like 
occasion  in  Lancashire ;  and  we  refer  the  reader 
to  what  we  have  written  befored,  for  arguments 






some  noise  in  Somersetshire 
about  the  feasts  of  the  dedi- 
cations of  churches,  common- 
ly called  wakes,  and  it  seems 
the  judges  of  assize  formerly 
made  an  order  to  prohibit 
them,  and  caused  it  to  be 
published  in  some  or  most  of 
the  churches  there  by  the 
ministers,  without  my  lord  the 
bishop's  consent  or  privity. 
The  pretence  of  this  hath 
been,  that  some  disorders  de- 
rogatory from  God's  service 
and  the  government  of  the 
commonwealth  are  commit- 
ted  at  those  times :  by  which 
argument  any  thing  that  is 
abused  may  quite  be  taken 
away.  It  seems  there  hath 
been  some  heat  struck  in  the 
country  about  this,  by  the 
carriage  of  the  lord  chief  jus- 
tice Richardson  at  the  two 
last  assizes,  especially  the 
last,  with  which  his  majesty 
is  not  well  pleased.  And  for 
the  preventing  of  outrages  or 
disorders  at  those  feasts,  no 
man  can  be  more  careful  than 
his  majesty ;  but  he  con- 
ceives, and  that  very  rightly, 
that  all  these  may  and  ought 
to  be  prevented  by  the  care 
of  the  justices  of  peace,  and 
leave  the  feasts  themselves  to 
be  kept  for  the  neighbourly 
meeting  and  recreation  of  the 

"  people,  of  which  he  would 
••  not  have  them  debarred  un- 
'•  der  any  frivolous  pretences. 
"  And  further,  his  majesty  hath 
"  been  lately  informed  by  men 
"  of  good  place  in  that  county, 
"  that  the  humorists  increase 
"  much  in  these  parts,  and 
"  unite  themselves  by  banding 

"  against  the  feasts. Yet  for 

"  his  better  satisfaction,  he  hath 
"  commanded  me  to  require  you 
"  to  inform  yourself,  and  give 
"  a  speedy  account  how  these 
"  feasts  have  been  ordered." 
See  Rush.  Coll.  ii.  p.  192. 

To  this  subject  the  arch- 
bishop, again  making  reference 
at  his  trial,  observes,  "  Under 
your  lordship's  favour  I  am 
still  of  opinion,  that  there  is 
"  no  reason  the  feasts  should 
"  be  taken  away  for  some 
"  abuses  in  them ;  and  those 
"  such  as  every  justice  of  peace 
"  is  able  by  law  to  remedy,  if 
"  he  will  do  his  duty.  Even 
"  by  this  kind  of  proceeding, 
"  we  may  go  back  to  the  old 
cure,  and  remedy  drunken- 
ness by  rooting  out  all  the 
"  vines,  the  wine  of  whose 
"  fruit  causes  it." — Troubles, 
p.  269.] 

c  [See  king  Charles's  decla- 
ration in  Wilkins'  Concil.  iv. 

P-  483O 

d  Seethe  15th  of  king  James. 






of Britain. 


pro  and  con  about  the  lawfulness  of  public  reading  A.n.  1634. 

-  n  10  Chai.  I. 


38.    It  was  charged  at  his  trial  on  the  archbishop  The  arch- 
of  Canterbury,  that  he  had  caused  the  reviving  and  cu«S  hlm- 
enlarging  of  this  declaration,  strong  presumptions  "^ 
being  urged  for  the  proof  thereof.     He  denied  it, 
jet  professing  his  judgment  for  recreations  on  that 
day,  alleging  the  practice  of  the  church  of  Geneva, 
allowing  shooting  in  long  bows,  &c.  thereon.     Add- 
ing also,  that  though  indulging  liberty  to  others, 
in  his  own  person  he  strictly  observed  that  day.     A 
self-praise,  or  rather  self-purging,  because  spoken  on 
his  life,  which  seemed  uttered  without  pride,  and  with 
truth,  and  was  not  clearly  confuted.     Indeed,  they 
are  the  best  carvers  of  liberty  on  that  day,  who  cut 
most  for  others  and  leave  least  for  themselves6. 






c  [The  passage   alluded   to 
runs  as  follows : 

44  The  fourth  charge  was  the 
"  publishing  The  Book  of  Re- 
"  creations:  and  it  was  ushered 
"  in  with  this  scorn  upon  me, 
"  that  I  labored  to  put  a  badge 
of  holiness  by  my  breath  upon 
places;  and  to  take  it  away 
from  days.  But  I  did  nei- 
ther ;  the  king  commanded 
the  printing  of  it,  as  is  therein 
"  attested,  and  the  warrant 
••  which  the  king  gave  me  they 
have ;  and  though  at  conse- 
crations I  read  the  prayers. 
M  yet  it  was  God's  blessing,  not 
"  my  breath,  that  gave  the  ho- 
"  lines* 

"  And  first  it  was  said,  that 
this  was  done  of  purpose  to 
take  away  preaching.  But 
"  first,  there  is  no  proof  offered 
for  this ;  and  secondly,  it  is 
impossible.  For  till  the  after- 







•  « 




noon  service  and  sermon  were 
done,  no  recreation  is  allow- 
ed by  that  book  ;  nor  then  to 
any  but  such  as  have  been  at 
both  :  therefore  it  could  not 
be  done  to  take  it  away. 
Thirdly,  the  book  names  none 
but  lawful  recreations,  there- 
fore if  any  unlawful  be  used, 
the  book  gives  them  no  war- 
rant. And  that  some  are 
lawful  (after  the  public  ser- 
vice of  God  is  ended)  appears 
by  the  practice  of  Geneva, 
where,  after  evening  prayer, 
the  elder  men  bowl  and  the 
younger  train.  And  Calvin 
say 8  in  express  terms,  that 
one  cause  of  the  institution 
of  the  Sabbath  was,  that  ser- 
vants might  have  a  day  of 
rest  and  remission  from  their 
labour.  And  what  time  of 
the  day  fit,  if  not  after  even- 
ing prayer  ?     And  what  rest 

H  2 


The  Church  History 




.d.  1634.     39,  However,  there  was  no  express  in  this  decla- 

D  Chan.  I.  f 

ration,  that  the  minister  of  the  parish  should  be 

tim'tHfe  pressed  to  the  publishing.  Many  counted  it  no 
ministers,  m^j^r's  WOrk,  and  more  proper  for  the  place  of 
the  constable  or  tythiug-man  to  perform  it.  Must 
they,  who  were  (if  not  worst  able)  most  unfitting, 
bold  the  candle  to  lighten  and  let  in  licentiousness  ? 
But  because  the  judges  had  enjoined  the  ministers 
to  read  their  order  in  the  church,  the  king's  de- 
claration was  enforced  by  the  bishops  to  be  published 
by  them  in  the  same  place. 
Yetwrne        49.  As  for  such  whose  consciences  reluctated  to 

silenced  for 

refusal  to    publish  the  declaration,  various  were  their  evasions. 

book.  Some  left  it  to  their  curates  to  read.  Nor  was  this 
the  plucking  out  of  a  thorn  from  their  own,  to  put  it 
in  another  man's  conscience,  seeing  their  curates 
were  persuaded  of  the  lawfulness  thereof.  Others 
read  it  indeed  themselves,  but  presently  after  read 
the  fourth  commandment.  And  was  this  fair  play, 
setting  God  and  their  king  (as  they  conceived)  at 
odds,  that  so  they  themselves  might  escape  in  the 
fray  ?  Others  pointblank  refused  the  reading  thereof, 
for  which  some  of  them  were  suspended  ab  officio  et 
beneficio,  some  deprived,  and  moe  molested  in  the 
high  commission:  it  being  questionable,  whether 
their  sufferings  procured  more  pity  to  them,  or  more 
hatred  to  the  causers  thereof. 

*•  is  there  for  able  young  men 
"  if  they  may  use  no  recreation  ? 
'"  Then  it  was  urged,  that  there 
"  was  great  riot  and  disorder 
"  at  wakes  kept  on  the  Lord's 
"  day.  That  is  a  very  sufficient 
"  cause  to  regulate  and  order 
"  those  feasts,  but  not  quite 
"  to  take  them  away.     I  make 

44  no  doubt  for  my  part  but  that 
"  the  feast  of  the  dedication 
"  was  abused  by  some  among 
"  the  Jews;  and  yet  Christ 
"  was  so  far  from  taking  it 
"  away  for  that,  as  that  he  ho- 
"  noured  it  with  his  own  pre- 
"  sence."— Troubles,  p.  343.] 


of  Britain. 


41.  All  bishops  urged  not  the  reading  of  the  book  a.d.  1634. 

r         °  °  ioChas.1. 

with  rigour  alike,  nor  punished  the  refusal  with  equal 

.  111  1  i     1  •   1  Moderation 

seventy.     I  hear  the  loudest,  longest,  and  thickest  of  some 
complaints  come  from  the  diocese  of  Norwich,  and  therein. 
of  Bath  and  Wells.     I  knew  a  bishop  in  the  west, 
(to  whom  I  stood  related  in  kindred  and  service1,) 

f  [Most  probably  Dr.  John 
Davenant,  bishop  of  Salisbury, 
Fuller's  uncle.  Several  letters 
of  this  bishop  are  still  preserv- 
ed iu  the  Bodleian,  written  to 
different  Cambridge  friends  in 
behalf  of  his  nephew.  Of  the 
state  of  his  diocese  this  year, 
archbishop  Laud  made  the  fol- 
lowing report  to  the  king:  — 
"  I  found  that  the  bishop  had 
"  taken  a  great  deal  of  care 
"  about  your  majesty's  instruc- 
"  tions ;  and,  that  they  might 
"  be  the  better  both  known 
"  and  obeyed,  he  hath  caused 
**  copies  of  them  to  be  sent  to 
"  most  of  the  ministers  in  his 
"  diocese ;  which  hath  done  a 
"  great  deal  of  good.  And 
"  though  it  be  not  amongst 
"  your  instructions,  yet  I  am 
"  bold  to  signify  unto  your 
"  sacred  majesty,  that  I  find 
M  the  greatest  part  of  Wiltshire 
"  overgrown  with  the  humors 
"  of  those  men  that  do  not 
"  conform,  and  are  as  back- 
"  ward,  both  clergy  and  laity, 
"  towards  the  repairs  of  St. 
"  Paul's  church,  as  any  part 
"  of  England  that  I  have  ob- 
"  served.*' 

The  archbishop  further  adds, 
"  Concerning  Bath  and  Wells," 
(then  governed  by  Dr.  Pierce, 
who  was  afterwards  fiercely 
persecuted  by  the  parliament,) 
"  I  must  needs  return  to  your 
"  majesty  that  which  I  would 

"  to  God  I  could  do  of  all  the 
"  rest,  namely,  that  all  your 
"  instructions  are  punctually 
"  observed  ;  and  the  lectures 
"  (as  many  as  are  in  that  dio- 
"  cese)  read  not  by  any  parti- 
"  cular  factious  persons,  but 
"  by  a  company  of  learned 
"  neighbouringministers, which 
"  are  every  way  conformable  to 
"  the  church." — Diary,  p.  53 1 . 

Much  the  same  testimony  is 
given  of  Norwich,  only  that 
there  the  bishop  found  great 
trouble  in  carrying  out  the 
archbishop's  injunctions,  owing 
to  the  hostility  of  the  puritan 
clergy,  who  were  in  great  num. 
bers  in  that  diocese. 

During  the  time  that  Dave- 
nant  was  bishop  of  Salisbury, 
Henry  Sherfteld,  the  recorder, 
wantonly  destroyed  the  "  fair 
"  and  costly  glass  window  in 
"  the  church  of  St.  Edmund's, 
"  containing  the  history  of  the 
"  creation  of  the  world,  (paint- 
•'  ed  in  seven  compartments)  ; 
"  which  had  stood  there  for 
0  hundreds  of  years,  and  was 
"  a  great  ornament  to  the 
"  church."  When  he  was  called 
to  his  answer,  among  other 
things,  he  justified  himself, 
"  upon  the  doctrine  of  his 
"  learned  diocesan,  the  now 
"  lord  bishop  of  Sarum,  in  his 
"  Exposition  on  the  Epistle  to 
"  the  Colossians,  p.  97  and  98." 
— See  Rushworth,  ii.  p.  155.] 


108  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1634.  who,  being  pressed  by  some  to  return  the  names 
— — — '  of  such  as  refused  to  read  the  book,  to  the  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  utterly  denied ;  and  his  words 
to  me  were  these :  "  I  will  never  turn  an  accuser  of 
"  my  brethren,  there  be  enough  in  the  world  to  take 
"  that  office."     As  for  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
much  was  his  moderation  in  his  own  diocese,  silenc- 
ing but  three  (in  whom  also  a  concurrence  of  other 
nonconformities)  through  the  whole  extent  thereof. 
But  oh,  the  necessity  of  the  general  day  of  judg- 
ment, wherein  all  men's  actions  shall  be  expounded 
according  to  their  intentions,  which  here  are  inter- 
pretable  according  to  other  men's  inclinations  !     The 
archbishop's   adversaries  imputed   this,   not   to   his 
charity,  but  policy ;   fox-like,  preying  farthest  from 
his  own  den,  and  instigating  other  bishops  to  do 
more  than  he  would  appear  in  himself.     As  for  his 
own  visitation  articles,  some  complained  they  were 
but  narrow  as  they  were  made,  and  broad  as  they 
were  measured ;   his  under  officers  improving  and 
enforcing  the  same,  by  their  inquiries,  beyond  the 
letter  thereof. 
Licentious-      42.  Many  complain  that  man's  badness  took  occa- 
creaseth.     si  on  to  be  worse,  under  the  protection  of  these  sports 
permitted  unto  them.     For  although  liberty  on  the 
Lord's  day  may  be   so   limited   in   the   notions  of 
learned  men,  as  to  make  it  lawful,  it  is  difficult  (if 
not  impossible)  so  to  confine  it  in  the  actions  of 
lewd  people,  but  that  their  liberty  will  degenerate 
into  licentiousness. 
Conceived       43.  Many  moderate  men  are  of  opinion,  that  this 

by  some  a  "  * 

concurring  abuse  of  the  Lord's  day  was  a  principal  procurer 

cause  of  our         ^     lt  .  1  .      1        ,     . 

civil  wan.  of  God  s  anger,  since  poured  out   on  this  land,  m 
a  long  and  bloody  civil  war.     Such  observe,  that 

cent,  xvii.  of  Britain.  108 

our  fights  of  chief  concernment  were  often  fought  a.d.  1634. 

on  the  Lord's  day,  as  pointing  at  the  punishing  of — 

the  profanation  thereof.  Indeed,  amongst  so  many 
battles  which  in  ten  years'  time  have  rent  the  bowels 
of  England,  some  on  necessity  would  fall  on  that  day, 
(seeing  we  have  be-rubrick'd  each  day  in  the  week, 
almost  in  the  year,  with  English  blood,)  and  there- 
fore to  pick  a  solemn  providence  out  of  a  common 
casualty  savours  more  of  curiosity  than  conscience. 
Yet,  seeing  Edge  Hill  fight  (which  first  brake  the 
peace,  and  made  an  irreconcilable  breach  betwixt 
the  two  parties)  was  fought  on  that  day,  and  some 
battles  since  of  greatest  consequence,  there  may  be 
more  in  the  observation  than  what  many  are  willing 
to  acknowledge.  But  whatsoever  it  is  which  hence 
may  be  collected,  sure  I  am  those  are  the  best 
Christians  who  least  censure  others  and  most  reform 

44.  But  here  it  is  much  to  be  lamented,  that  A,8ad  Or- 

such  who  at  the  time  of  the  Sabbatarian  controversy 
were  the  strictest  observers  of  the  Lord's  day,  are 
now  reeled  by  their  violence  into  another  extreme, 
to  be  the  greatest  neglecters,  yea,  contemners  there- 
of. These  transcendents,  accounting  themselves 
mounted  above  the  predicament  of  common  piety, 
aver  they  need  not  keep  any,  because  they  keep  all 
Lord's  days  in  their  elevated  holiness.  But  alas! 
Christian  duties  said  to  be  ever  done  will  prove 
never  done,  if  not  sometimes  solemnly  done.  These 
are  the  most  dangerous  levellers,  equalling  all  times, 
places,  and  persons,  making  a  general  confusion  to 
be  gospel  perfection ;  whereas,  to  speak  plainly,  we 
in  England  are  rebus  sic  stantibus,  concerned  now 
more  strictly  to  observe  the  Lord's  day  than  ever 



The  Church  History 


a.d.  i6.h.  before.  Holy  days  are  not,  and  holy  eves  are  not, 
™ — !^Lland  Wednesday  and  Friday  litanies  are  not,  and 
Lord's  day  eves  are  not,  and  now  some  (out  of  error, 
and  others  out  of  profaneness)  go  about  to  take 
away  the  Lord's  day  also ;  all  these  things  make 
against  God's  solemn  and  public  service.  Oh,  let 
not  his  public  worship,  now  contracted  to  fewer 
channels,  have  also  a  shallower  stream.  But  enough 
of  this  subject;  wherein,  if  I  have  exceeded  the 
bounds  of  an  historian  by  being  too  large  therein, 
such  will  pardon  me,  who  know  (if  pleasing  to  re- 
member) that  divinity  is  my  proper  profession  «. 

45.  At  this  time  miserable  the  maintenance  of 
the  Irish  clergy,  where  scandalous  means  made 
scandalous  ministers.  And  yet  a  popish  priest  would 
grow  fat  in  that  parish  where  a  protestant  would  be 
famished,  as  have  not  their  livelihood  on  the  obla- 
tions of  those  of  their  own  religion.  But  now  such 
impropriations  as  were  in  the  crown,  by  the  king 
were  restored  to  the  church,  to  a  great  diminution 
of  the  royal  revenue,  though  his  majesty  never  was 
sensible  of  any  loss  to  himself,  if  thereby  gain  might 
redound  to  God  in  his  ministers.  Bishop  Laud  was 
a  worthy  instrument  in  moving  the  king  to  so  pious 
a  work,  and  yet  this  his  procuring  the  restoring  of 
Irish  did  not  satisfy  such  discontented  at  his  ob- 
structing the  buying  in  of  English  impropriations: 
thus  those  conceived  to  have  done  hurt  at  home 

Irish  im- 
tions re- 

g  [This  is  a  very  remarkable 
passage,  and  the  best  comment 
on  the  effects  which  the  ex- 
cesses of  the  different  religious 
factions  had  produced.  The 
cautious  manner  in  which  our 
author  speaks  sufficiently  war- 
rants the  truth  of  his  assertion. 

That  he  did  not  speak  out  all 
that  he  thought  of  the  charac- 
ter and  proceedings  of  the  pu- 
ritan party,  we  might  gather 
from  this  passage  ;  but  he  has 
himself  further  assured  us  of  it 
in  his  "  Appeal  of  Injured  In- 




of  Britain. 


will  hardly  make  reparations  with  other  good  deeds  a.  p.  1634. 

1#    ,  10  Chaa.  I. 

at  distance.  

46.  A  convocation  (concurrent  with  a  parliament)  The  Thirty. 
was  called  and  kept  at  Dublin  in  Ireland,  wherein  Scieir£ 
the  Thirty-nine  Articles  of  the  Church  of  England  J*^11 
were  received  in  Ireland  for  all  to  subscribe  unto. 
It  was  adjudged  fit,  seeing  that  kingdom  complies 
with  England  in  the  civil  government,  it  should  also 
conform  thereto  in  matters  of  religion.     Meantime 
the  Irish  Articles11  concluded  formerly  in  a  synod 
1613  (wherein  Arminianism  was  condemned  in  ter- 
minis    terminantibus,   and    the    observation   of   the 
Lord's  day  resolved  jure  divino)  were   utterly  ex- 
cluded !. 

47-  A  cardinal's  cap  once  and  again  offered  byBwhop 
the  pope  to  bishop  Laud,  was  as  often  refused  byfu^tha 
him.     The  fashion  thereof  could  not  fit  his  head,££inar8 
who  had  studied  and  written  so  much  against  the 
Romish  religion.     He  who  formerly  had  foiled  the 
Fisher  himself  in  a  public  disputation,  would  not 
now  be  taken  with  so  silly  a  bait,  but  acquainted 
the  king  therewith :  timuit  Romam  vel  dona  ferentem, 
refusing  to  receive  anything  from  Rome  till  she  was 
better  reformed  k. 

48.  Dr.  William  Juxon,  bishop  of  London,  was  Bishop 
by  bishop  Laud's  procurement  made  lord  treasurer  made  lord 


h  [These  articles  were  drawn 
up  by  Usher,  and  he  inserted 
them  among  the  celebrated 
Lambeth  Articles.] 

i  [See  the  "  Constitutions 
"  and  Canons  ecclesiastical 
"  treated  upon  by  the  Arch- 
"  bishops  and  Bishops  and  the 
"  rest  of  the  Clergy  of  Ireland ; 

and    agreed    upon    by    the 


"  King's  Majesty's  License  in 
"  their  Synod  begun  and  holden 
"  at  Dublin,  A.  D.  1634." 
Printed  in  Wilkins'  Concil.  iv. 
p.  496.  See  Cox's  Hist,  of  Ire- 
land, ii.  55,  and  a  letter  ad- 
dressed by  the  earl  of  Strafford 
to  archbishop  Laud  in  his  Let- 
ters and  Dispatches,  i.  342.] 
k  [See  his  Diary,  p.  49.] 


The  Church  History 


A,?:,6-Y* °f  England,  entering  on  that  office  with  many  and 

great  disadvantages.     First,  because  no  clergyman 

had  executed  the  same  since  William  Grey,  bishop 
of  Ely,  almost  two  hundred  years  ago,  in  the  reign 
of  king  Edward  the  Fourth.  Secondly,  because  the 
treasury  was  very  poor,  and  if  in  private  houses 
bare  walls  make  giddy  housewives,  in  princes' 
palaces  empty  coffers  make  unsteady  statesmen. 
Thirdly,  because  a  very  potent  (I  cannot  say  com- 
petitor, the  bishop  himself  being  never  a  petitor  for 
the  place,  but)  desirer  of  this  office  was  frustrated 
in  bis  (almost  assured)  expectation  of  the  same  to 

1  [This  promotion  of  Juxon 
gave  great  offence  to  the  no- 
bility, who  looked  upon  this 
office  as  a  prize  for  one  of 
themselves,  particularly  since 
the  bishop  was  a  man  entirely 
unknown  till  this  time.  As 
lord  Clarendon  observes :  "This 
"  inflamed  more  men  than  were 
"  angry  before,  and  no  doubt 
"  did  not  only  sharpen  the 
"  edge  of  envy  and  malice 
"  against  the  archbishop,  (who 
"  was  the  known  architect  of 
"  this  new  fabric,)  but  most 
"  injustly  undisposed  many  to- 
"  wards  the  church  itself;  which 
"  they  looked  upon  as  the  gulf 
"  ready  to  swallow  all  the  great 
"  offices,  there  being  others  in 
'•  view  of  that  robe,  who  were 
"  ambitious  enough  to  expect 
"  the  rest."  Rebel,  i .  1 75 .  Per- 
haps the  historian  refers  more 
particularly  to  the  known  dis- 
seusion  which  happened  at  this 
time  between  Laud  and  his 
former  friends  Wardebank  and 
Cottington.  See  Laud's  Diary, 
p.  51.  Strafforde's  Lett.  i.  449, 




479.  Mr.  Garrard  in  a  letter 
to  the  earl  of  Strafforde  ob- 
serves upon  this  appointment : 
The  clergy  are  so  high  here 
since  the  joining  of  the  white 
sleeves  with  the  white  staff, 
"  that  there  is  much  talk  of 
"  having  a  secretary  a  bishop, 
"  Dr.  Wren,  bishop  of  Norwich, 
"  and  a  chancellor  of  the  ex- 
"  chequer,  Dr.  Bancroft,  bishop 
"  of  Oxford ;  but  this  comes 
"  only  from  the  young  fry  of 
,( the  clergy,  little  credit  is 
*'  given  to  it,  but  it  is  observed 
"  they  swarm  mightily  about 
"  the  court."  Strafforde's  Let- 
ters, ii.  2.  Sanderson  tells  us 
that  one  of  the  great  motives 
which  induced  the  king  to  de- 
sire the  promotion  of  the  dig- 
nified clergy  to  such  posts  was 
economy,  they  having  no  fami- 
lies to  provide  for,  and  there- 
fore more  frugal,  as  undoubt- 
edly more  honest,  dispensers 
of  the  king's  revenues.  A  re- 
mark which  I  do  not  remember 
to  have  been  made  elsewhere.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  107 

49.   Howsoever,  so  discreet  his  carriage  in  that  a.  d.  1635. 

place,  it  procured  a  general  love  unto   him,  and—; — 

politic  malice,  despairing  to  bite,  resolved  not  toraendabU» 
bark  at  him.  He  had  a  perfect  command  of  hiscarnage' 
passion,  (an  happiness  not  granted  to  all  clergymen 
in  that  age,  though  privy  counsellors  m,)  slow,  not  of 
speech  as  a  defect,  but  to  speak,  out  of  discretion, 
because  when  speaking  he  plentifully  payed  the 
principal  and  interest  of  his  auditors'  expectation. 
No  hands,  having  so  much  money  passing  through 
them,  had  their  fingers  less  soiled  therewith.  It  is 
probable  his  frugality  would  have  cured  the  con- 
sumption of  the  king's  exchequer,  had  not  the  (un- 
expected) Scotch  commotion  put  it  into  a  desperate 
relapse.  In  this  particular  he  was  happy  above 
others  of  his  order,  that  whereas  they  may  be  said 
in  some  sort  to  have  left  their  bishoprics,  (flying 
into  the  king's  quarters  for  safety,)  he  staid  at  home 

m  [He  glances  at  Laud,  who  "  sweeten  many  of  them  again 

was  somewhat  warm  and  hasty:  "  when  they  least  looked  for  it." 

"  He  had  indeed/'  says  Heylin,  Examen  Historicum,  p.  218. 

"  no  such  command  upon  his  An   admirable    anecdote    is 

"  passions  as  to  be  at  all  times  preserved  by  lord  Clarendon  in 

"  of  equal  temper ;  especially  the  History  of  his  own  Life, 

"  when  wearied  with  the  bust-  which  shews  how  sensible  Laud 

"  ness  of  the  council  table  and  was  of  this  constitutional  in- 

"  the  high  commission.   But  as  (trinity,  and  how  ready  to  make 

"  he  was  soon  hot,  so  was  he  reparation  when  he  had  given 

"  soon  cooled.    And  so  much/'  offence.    The  manner  in  which 

he  continues,  "  is  observed  by  he  received  Mr.  Hyde's  expos- 

••  sir  Edward  Deering,  though  tulation,  then  but  a  very  young 

"  his   greatest  adversary,  and  man,  is  very  creditable  to  the 

"  the  first  that  threw  dirt  in  his  archbishop's    moderation    and 

"  face  in  the  late  long  parlia-  temper,  and  must  give  every 

ment ;  who  telleth  us  of  him,  unprejudiced  reader  a  very  high 

"  that  the  roughness  of  his  imi-  opinion  of  the  excellence  of  his 

courtly  nature  sent  most  men  disposition  and  the  greatness 

discontented  from  him,  but  so  of  his  moral  courage.    See  the 

that  he  would  often  of  himself  Life  of  Clarendon,  i.  70.] 
find    ways    and    means    to 



The  Church  History 


A.  D.  1635.  till  bis  bishopric  left  him,  roused  from  bis  swan's 
'  *""    nest  at  Fulham  for  a  bird  of  another  feather  to 
build  therein. 
Archbishop      so.  Dr.  Laud,  formerly  archbishop  in  power,  now 
presses  con-  so  in  place,  after  the  decease  of  bishop  Abbot,  this 
onmty.     ^^^  ]nept  his  metropolitical  visitation,  and  hence- 
forward  conformity   was   more   vigorously  pressed 
than  before.     Insomuch  that  a  minister  was  cen- 
sured in  the  high  commission  for  this  expression  in 
a  sermon,  "That  it  was  suspicious  that  now  the 
night  did  approach,  because  the  shadows  were  so 
much  longer  than  the  body,  and  ceremonies  more 
in  force  than  the  power  of  godliness."     And  now 
many  differences    about   divine   worship   began   to 
arise,  whereof  many  books  were  written  pro  and 
con.     So  common  in  all  hands,  that  my  pains  may 
be  well  spared  in  rendering  a  particular  account  of 
what  is  so  universally  known.     So  that  a  word  or 
two  will  suffice  n. 




n  [And  yet  it  is  said  in  "The 
"  Appeal"  &c.  p.  iii.  p.  8,  that 
Laud  s  articles  of  visitation 
were  observed  to  be  so  mode- 
rate  that  "  there  was  a  design 
"  of  the  thirty-six  dissenters 
"  ....  in  the  convocation  to 
44  obtain  that  these  articles  of 
"  his  visitation  might  be  pre- 
"  c?dential  to  all  the  bishops 
"  in  England,  as  being  in  them  - 
••  selves  inoffensive,  and  con- 
"  taining  no  innovations.  This 
"  was  by  some  communicated 
'*  to  archbishop  Laud,  who  at 
"first  seemed  to  approve 
"*  thereof,  and  how  it  came 
"  afterwards  to  miscarry  I  am 
•'  not  bound  to  discover."  To 
this  the  archbishop  alludes  in 

his  trial :  4<  My  articles  gave  so 
"  good  content,  that  while  the 
"  convocation  was  sitting,  Dr. 
"  Brownrigg  and  Dr.  Holds- 
'*  worth  came  to  me,  and  de- 
"  sired  me  to  have  my  book 
"  confirmed  in  convocation,  to 
"  be  general  for  all  bishops  in 
"  future,  it  was  so  moderate 
"  and  according  to  law.  But 
"  why  then  (say  they)  were 
"  other  articles  thought  on,  and 
"  a  clause  that  none  should  pass 
"  without  the  approbation  of 
"  the  archbishop?  Why:  other 
"  were  thought  on,  because  I 
"  could  not  in  modesty  press 
'*  the  confirmation  of  my  own 
"  though  solicited  to  it."  Trial, 


cekt.  xvn.  of  Britain.  109 

51.  One  controversy  was  about  the  holiness  of  a.  0.1636. 

our  churches,  some  maintaining  that  they  succeed — — 

to  the  same  degree  of  sanctity  with  the  tabernacle  churches 
of  Moses  and   temple   of  Solomon,  which  others  "J*^^ 
flatly  denied.      First,  because   the   tabernacle  andp,e',mt 

J  7  synagogues. 

temple  were  and  might  be  but  one  at  a  time, 
whilst  our  churches,  without  fault,  may  be  multi- 
plied without  any  (set)  number.  They  both  for 
their  fashion,  fabric,  and  utensils,  were  jure  divino, 
their  architects  being  inspired,  whilst  our  churches 
are  the  product  of  human  fancy.  Thirdly,  God 
gloriously  appeared  both  in  the  tabernacle  and 
temple,  only  graciously  present  in  our  churches. 
Fourthly,  the  temple  was  a  type  of  Christ's  body, 
which  ours  are  not.  More  true  it  is,  our  churches 
are  heirs  to  the  holiness  of  the  Jewish  synagogues, 
which  were  many,  and  to  whom  a  reverence  was 
due,  as  publicly  destined  to  divine  service. 

52.  Not  less  the  difference  about  the  manner  of  Adoration 
adoration  to  be  used  in  God's  house,  which  some^r.  " 
would  have  done  towards  the  communion  table,  as 

the  most  remarkable  place  of  God's  presence.  Those 
used  a  distinction  between  bowing  ad  aitare  towards 
the  altar,  as  directing  their  adoration  that  way,  and 
ad  aitare  to  the  altar,  as  terminating  their  worship 
therein ;  the  latter  they  detested  as  idolatrous,  the 
former  they  defended  as  lawful  and  necessary ;  such 
a  slovenly0  unmannerliness  had  lately  possessed 
many  people  in  their  approaches  to  God's  house 
that  it  was  high  time  to  reform. 

53.  But  such  as  disliked  the  gesture,  could  not  Disliked  hy 
or  would  not  understand  the  distinction,  as  in  themany* 
suburbs  of  superstition.     These  allowing  some  cor- 

°  Mai.  i.  7. 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  i6j6.poral   adoration   lawful,   yea    necessary,   seeing  no 

'.  reason  the  moiety  of  man,  yea  the  total  son  of  him, 

which  is  visible,  his  body,  should  be  exempted 
from  God's  service,  except  such  a  writ  of  ease  could 
be  produced  and  proved  from  scripture.  But  they 
were  displeased  with  this  adoration,  because  such  as 
enjoin  it  maintain  one  kind  of  reverence  due  to  the 
very  place,  another  to  the  elements  of  the  sacra- 
ments, if  on  the  table,  a  third  to  God  himself :  these 
several  degrees  of  reverence  ought  to  be  railed  about 
as  well  as  the  communion  table,  and  clearly  distin- 
guished, lest  that  be  given  to  the  creature  which 
belongs  to  the  Creator,  and  such  as  shun  profanation 
run  into  idolatry. 

54.  A  controversy  was  also  started  about  the 
posture  of  the  Lord's  board,  communion  table,  or 
altar,  the  last  name  beginning  now  in  many  men's 
mouths  to  out  the  two  former.  Some  would  have 
it  constantly  fixed  with  the  sides  east  and  west,  ends 
north  and  south,  on  a  graduated  advance  next  the 
east  wall  of  the  chancel,  citing  a  canon  and  the 
practice  in  the  king's  chapel  for  the  same.  Others 
pressed  the  queen's  injunctions  that  (allowing  it  at 
other  times  to  stand,  but  not  altarwise  in  the 
chancel)  it  ought  to  be  set  in  the  body  of  the 
church  when  the  sacrament  is  celebrated  thereon  p. 

P  ["  The  question  was,  whe- 
"  ther  it  ought  to  stand  in  the 
"  middle  of  the  church  or 
"  chancel,  with  one  end  toward 
"  the  east  great  window,  like 
44  a  common  table,  or  close  up 
"  to  the  eastern  wail,  with  ends 
"  north  and  south,  according 
"  as  the  altars  had  been  placed 
€(  in  the  former  times.     They 

"  that  maintained  the  last  opin- 
"  ion  had  authority  for  it ;  that 
"  is  to  say,  the  injunctions  of 
"  the  queen,  anno  1599,  the 
"  orders  and  advertisements  of 
"  the  year  1562  and  1565,  the 
"  constant  practice  of  the  cha- 
"  pels  in  his  majesty's  houses, 
"  most  of  the  cathedrals, 
"  and   some  of  the   parochial 


of  Britain. 


55.  Such  the  heat  about  this  altar  till  both  sides  a.  d.  1636. 

had  almost  sacrificed  up  their  mutual  charity  thereon, 1 

and  this  controversy  was  prosecuted  with  much 
needless  animosity.  This  mindeth  me  of  a  passage 
in  Cambridge,  when  king  James  was  there  present, 

"  churches  :  and,  finally,  a  de- 
"  claration  of  the  king,  anno 
"  '^33,  commending  a  con- 
••  formity  in  the  parish  churches 
"  to  their  own  cathedrals.  They 
•'  on  the  other  side  stood  chiefly 
"  upon  discontinuance,  hut 
"  urged  withal,  that  some  ru- 
"  brie*  in  the  Common  Prayer 
"  Book  seemed  to  make  for 
'•  them."  Examen  Hist.  p.  215. 
The  chief  writers  in  this  con- 
troversy were  archbishop,  then 
bishop,  Williams,  in  a  short 
tract  entitled,  "A  Letter  to  the 
"  Vicar  of  Grantham  against 
"  the  Communion-table  stand- 
••  ing  altar-ways ;"  first  printed 
in  1 627,  (Hacket's  Life  of  Wil- 
liams, ii.  p.  100,)  but  revived 
at  this  time,  and  reprinted  by 
Dr.  Heylyn  at  the  end  of  his 
tract,  "  A  Coal  from  the  Altar, 
"  or  an  Answer  to  a  Letter  not 
"  long  since  written  to  the 
"  Vicar  of  Gr.  against  the 
44  placing  of  the  Communion- 
4<  table  at  the  East  end  of  the 
Chancel ;  and  now  of  late 
dispersed  abroad  to  the  Dis- 
'  turbanceof  the  Church.  Lond. 
1636."  To  this  the  arch- 
bishop  replied  in  a  pamphlet 
entitled,  "The  Holy  Table, 
"  Name  and  Thing,  more  an- 
"  ciently,  properly,  and  literal- 
••  ly  used  in  the  New  Testa- 
"  ment  than  that  of  an  Altar : 
"  written  long  ago  by  a  minis- 
"  ter  in  Lincolnshire,  in  answer 




"  to  Dr.  Coal ;  a  judicious  di- 
"  vine  of  queen  Mary's  days. 
"  Printed  for  the  diocese  of 
"  Lincoln.  1637."  This  was 
immediately  answered  by  Dr. 
Heylyn  in  his  Antidotum  Lin- 
coln i  en  se  printed  the  same 
year.  In  Bp.  Hacket's  Life  of 
Williams,  besides  an  account 
of  this  controversy,  will  be 
found  a  copious  abstract  and 
defence  of  Williams*  writings 
in  defence  of  his  views,  part  ii. 
p.  99,  and  for  the  other  side  of 
the  question  see  Heylyn's  Life 
of  Laud,  pp.  285,  3 14. 

Besides  these,  Dr.  Heylyn's 
views  were  supported  by  Dr. 
John  Pocklington,  in  a  tract 
called,  "  Altare  Christ ianum, 
"  or  the  dead  Vicar's  Plea. 
"  Lond.  1637."  By  the  learned 
Joseph  Mede,  in  a  pamphlet 
which  he  put  forth  the  same 
year,  "The  Name  Altar  an- 
"  tiently  given  to  the  Holy 
"  Altar.  Lond.  1637."  After- 
wards  the  same  controversy 
was  continued  by  R.  Day,  in 
his  "  Two  Looks  over  Lincoln. 
"  1 641."  By  Shelford,  Reeve, 
and  others,  to  whom  the  noto- 
rious Prynne  replied  in  his 
tract  called,  "  A  quench  Coal ; 
"  or  a  brief  Disquisition  and 
"  Inquiry  in  what  place  of  the 
"  Church  or  Chancel  the  Lord's 
"  Table  ought  to  be  situated, 
"  &c.  Lond.  1637."] 

112  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  16.16.  to  whom  a  great  person  complained  of  the  inverted 
— ■ — ~  situation  of  a  college  chapel,  north  and  south,  out 
of  design  to  put  the  house  to  the  cost  of  new  build- 
ing the  same.  To  whom  the  king  answered,  "  It 
"  matters  not  how  the  chapel  stands,  so  their  hearts 
"  who  go  thither  be  set  aright  in  God's  service.*' 
Indeed  if  moderate  men  had  had  the  managing  of 
these  matters,  the  accommodation  had  been  easy, 
with  a  little  condescension  on  both  sides.  But  as  a 
8m all  accidental  heat  or  cold  (such  as  a  healthful 
body  would  not  be  sensible  of)  is  enough  to  put 
him  into  a  fit  who  was  formerly  in  latitudine  febris, 
so  men's  minds,  distempered  in  this  age  with  what  I 
may  call  a  mutinous  tendency,  were  exasperated 
with  such  small  occasions  which  otherwise  might 
have  been  passed  over,  and  no  notice  taken  thereof. 
Mr.Wii-        56.   For  now  came  the  censure  of  Mr.  Prynne, 


Prynne.  Dr.  Bastwick,  and  Mr.  Burton ;  and  we  must  go  a 
little  backwards  to  take  notice  of  the  nature  of  their 
offences.  Mr.  William  Prynne  born  (about  Bath)  in 
Gloucestershire,  bred  some  time  in  Oxford,  after- 
wards utter-barister  of  Lincoln's  Inn,  began  with 
the  writing  of  some  useful  and  orthodox  books  <*. 
I  have  heard  some  of  his  detractors  account  him  as 
only  the  hand  of  a  better  head,  setting  forth  at  first 
the  endeavours  of  others.  Afterwards  he  delighted 
more  to  be  numerous  with  many  than  ponderous 
with  select  quotations,  which  maketh  his  books  to 
swell,  with  the  loss  ofttimes  of  the  reader,  some- 
times of  the  printer,  and  his  pen  generally  querulous 
hath  more  of  the  plaintiff  than  of  the  defendant 
therein  r. 

4  The  Perpetuity  of  the  Re-         r  [An  admirable  account  of 
generate  Man  his  Estate.  Prynne,  who  was  a  student  in 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  113 

57.  Some  three  years  since  he  set  forth  a  book  ^-  ^iilJ.3/" 
called  Histriom astir,  or  the  Whip  of  Stage-players.  Acctlied  for 
A  whip  so  held  and  used  by  his  hand,  that  some  libelling 

againitt  the 

conceived  the  lashes  thereof  flew  into  the  lace  of  the  bishops. 
queen  herself,  as  much  delighted  in  masques.  For 
which  he  was  severely  censured  to  lose  his  ears  on 
the  pillory,  and  for  a  long  time  (after  two  removals 
to  the  fleet)  imprisoned  in  the  tower.  Where  he 
wrote,  and  whence  he  dispersed  new  pamphlets, 
which  were  interpreted  to  be  libels  against  the 
established  discipline  of  the  Church  of  England,  for 
which  he  was  indited  in  the  Star-chamber. 

58.  Dr.  John  Bastwick  (by  vulgar  error  generally  Dr.  Bast- 

wick  his  ac* 

mistaken  to  be  a  Scotchman)  was  born  at  Writtle  cusarion. 
in  Essex,  bred  a  short  time  in  Emmanuel  College, 
then  travelled  nine  years  beyond  the  seas,  made  Dr. 
of  physic  at  Padua.  Returning  home  he  practised 
it  at  Colchester,  and  set  forth  a  book  in  Latin 
(wherein  his  pen  commanded  a  pure  and  fluent 
style)  entitled,  Flagellum  pontificis,  et  episcoporum 
Latialium •.  But  it  seems  he  confined  not  his  cha- 
racter so  to  the  Latian  bishops  beyond  the  Alps, 
but  that  our  English  prelates  counted  themselves 
touched  therein.  Hereupon  he  was  accused  in  the 
high  commission,  committed  to  the  gate-house, 
where  he  wrote  a  second  book,  taxing  the  injustice 
of  the  proceedings  of  the  high  commission,  for  which 
he  was  indited  in  the  Star-chamber. 

59.  Mr.  Henry  Burton,  minister,  rather  took  a  Mr.  Burton 

his  cha- 

snap  than  made  a  meal  in  any  university;  was  first  meter. 

Oriel  College  in  Oxford,  will  his    letter    to    "  Mr.  Aquila 

be  found  in  Wood's  Athen.  ii.  "  Wycks,  Keeper  of  the  Gate 

434.]  "  House,"  in  Nal son's  Coll.  i. 

■  [A  tolerable  specimen  of  500.     Our  honest  historian  is 

this  purity  will  be   found  in  laughing  in  his  sleeve.] 


The  cause 
of  hit  dia- 

114  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1637.  schoolmaster  to  the  sons  of  the  lord  Cary  (afterwards 

"  earl  of  Monmouth),  whose  lady  was  governess  to 

king  Charles  when  prince  *.  And  this  opportunity 
(say  some),  more  than  his  own  deserts,  preferred  him 
to  the  service  of  prince  Charles,  being  designed  (as  I 
have  heard)  to  wait  on  him  in  Spain,  but  afterwards 
(when  part  of  his  goods  were  shipped  for  the  voyage) 
excluded  the  attendance.  Whether  because  his  parts 
and  learning  were  conceived  not  such  as  to  credit 
our  English  church  in  foreign  countries,  or  because 
his  principles  were  accounted  uncomplying  with  that 

60.  The  crudity  of  this  affront  lay  long  on  his 

content,  mind,  hot  stomachs  (contrary  to  corporal  concoction) 
being  in  this  kind  the  slowest  of  digestion.  After 
the  venting  of  many  mediate  discontents,  on  the  last 
fifth  of  November  he  took  for  his  text  Prov.  xxiv. 
21,  My  son,  fear  thou  (he  Lord  and  the  king :  and 
meddle  not  with  them  that  are  given  to  change.  This 
sermon  was  afterwards  printed,  charging  the  prelates 
for  introducing  of  several  innovations  into  divine 
worship,  for  which,  as  a  libel,  he  was  indited  in  the 

Thdr  fault  61.  But  the  fault  general,  which  at  this  day  was 
charged  on  these  three  prisoners  at  the  bar  in  the 
Star-chamber,  was  this :    That  they  had  not  put  in 

*  [But  according  to  his  own  curious  tract  entitled,  "A  Nar- 
account  he  resided  long  enough  "  rative  of  the  Life  of  Mr. 
in  St.  John's  College,  in  the  "  Henry  Burton,  wherein  is 
university  of  Cambridge,  to  "  set  forth  the  various  and  re- 
take his  degree  of  M.  A.  He  "  niarkable  passages  thereof, 
was  at  first  '*  sole  officer  of  the  *'  Now  published,  according 
"  closet/'  as  he  styles  it,  to  "to  a  copy  written  with  his 
prince  Henry,  (according  to  "  own  hand.  Lond.  1643."  At 
Sanderson,  "  clerk  of  the  cha-  the  time  of  his  writing  this 
"  pel-closet,")  and  after  his  book  he  was  certainly  mad.] 
death  to  prince  Charles.    See  a 


of  Britain. 


their  effectual  answer  into  that  court  wherein  they  a.  d.  1637. 

were   accused,  though  sufficient   notice  and   com--- 1 

petent  time  was  allowed  them  for  the  performance 
thereof.  The  lord  keeper  Coventry  minded  them, 
that  for  such  neglect  they  had  a  precedent,  wherein 
the  court  after  six  days  had  taken  a  cause  pro  con- 
fesso,  whereas  the  favour  of  six  weeks  was  allowed 
unto  them,  and  now  leave  given  them  to  render 
reason  why  the  court  should  not  proceed  to  present 
censure  u. 

u  [The  official  account  of  the 
trial  of  these  men  will  be  found 
in  Rush  worth,  ii.  380 ;    their 
own  report  is  contained  in  a 
tract  reprinted  in  the  Harleian 
Miscellany,  entitled,  "  A  brief 
M  Relation   of  certain    special 
"  and  most  material  Passages 
"  and  Speeches   in  the   8tar- 
"  chamber,  occasioned  and  de- 
"  livered  June  14th,  1637,  at 
"  the  censure  of  those  three 
"  worthy  gentlemen,  Dr.  Bast- 
"  wick,  Mr.  Burton,  and  Mr. 
"  Prynne,  as  it  hath  been  truly 
"  and  faithfully  gathered  from 
"  their   own   mouths,   by  one 
"  present  at  the  said  censure." 
Fuller's  narrative  is  abridged 
from   this   tract.      As   to   the 
justice  of  their  censure,  they 
were  scarcely  punished  above 
their  deserts,  but  as  to  the  ex- 
pediency of  their  being  thus 
made    an   example  to  others, 
this  is  another  question.     As 
far  as  Laud  himself  was  con- 
cerned, he  neither  proposed  nor 
assisted  at  the  sentence;   and 
of  this  charge  even  his  bitterest 
enemies   have   acquitted   him. 
The  reasons  for  this  forbearance 
lie    has    stated    himself,   con- 
cluding his  celebrated  speech 

in  the  Star-chamber  with  these 
words:  " But  because  the  busi- 
"  ness  hath  some  reflection 
•*  upon  myself,  I  shall  forbear 
"  to  censure  them,  and  leave 
"  them  to  God's  mercy  and 
"  the  king's  justice." 

In  his  trial,  the  archbishop 
thus  tells  us  what  share  he  took 
in  the  proceedings  against  these 
men,  and  the  malice  and  the 
fury  with  which  he  was  perse- 
cuted by  them  and  their  faction : 
"  In  the  giving  of  this  sen- 
"  tence,"  he  says,  •'  I  spake  my 
"  conscience ;  and  was  after 
"  commanded  to  print  my 
"  speech.  But  I  gave  no  vote; 
"  because  they  had  fallen  so 
"  personally  upon  me,  that  I 
44  doubted  many  men  might 
"  think  spleen,  and  not  justice, 
"  led  me  to  it.  Nor  was  it  my 
'*  counsel  that  advised  their 
"  sending  into  those  remote 
"  parts.  The  Brown  ists  and 
'•  the  preciser  part  of  the  king- 
"  dom  were  nettled  at  this ; 
"  and  the  anger  turned  upon 
"  me,  though  I  were  the  pa- 
••  tient  all  along.  For  they 
had  published  most  enor- 
mous libels  against  me ;  and 
"  I  did  but  shew  such  as  came 

I  2 





•  T 

ii    Tfun    Mr:  ^ 

Tn»   irsc  moved  that   they 

-ir*ud  "ie  ntsae*  ~o   a 

L._jt  a  ana  bfil  (which  he 

^usc£-HtE?n:  acscw 

lie  iresaEe^w     Th»  die  lord 

«p*qig>  ^rasw  "u   srre 

gr  if  it  :ne  present,  as  not 

lent  tie  toshhs*  7  "in*  car.     Tbesi  he  moved  that 

:he  TiPMxe*  Tiicnr  'je 

iismisKd  :ae  court :  it  being 

vn^esbie  n??nxty  :u  3a 

rare.  TseonL  nor  justice,  that 

iuma?  -rtiM   tpp!  -nt»r 

■■Minum  h*  should  be  their 

inu?s.     T!ns  liaM  i» 

^ffiw  by  the  lord  keeper, 

leemse   "jv   ^le    «ne 


imwmiJD.  bad  he  libelled 

ncimst  :ae  Knwnu  Lumsv  jmisest  and  prHr  coun- 

cilor* n  rh**  liar**,  "ly 

-  "hi*  piea.  sone  shoald  pass 

cerare  to«ii  zha*m~  "Moaa?  ill  were  made  parties. 

<&>   Mr.  Ptyine  irwwnw  ?>  shew  be  had  done 

lis  znthaamixr  ^  prepare  ib*  answer,  being  hindered 

arse  by  iis  not*  imocisunimaic  ♦fcmed  pea.  ink,  and 

paper :  ami  by  :ie  impRMamefic  also  of  hi?  servant, 

wbi>  was  ri>  sotiesc  lis 

basnet     That  the  council 

aas^riett   5:m    vraaie    ti 

?ry   -are.   aad  thoogh  twice 

paje«i  5>r  lieir  pains 

ieKrrec  die  drawing  up  of 


*i  it  isuuia  si  zx  icine. 
ixut  su»r»  jgf:  tie-n  *f  if 
wimt  taev  jitKiaeii  rn.  x.  B*rc 
char    cor    ^rim^i    roer   ^nsn? 

br  Mr.  Barton,  xad 
and  tens  by  knnseif  ti>  cite 
Lords  •J^Hmg  ia  council :  sad 
a  Ktazxr  and  other  «cammltias 


by  Dr.  Bastwick ;  and  things 
of  like  nature  br  Mr.  Prr ime. 
And  be  was  thought  to  de- 
terre  less  fiTour  than  the 
rem,  became  he  had  been 
censured  before  in  that  great 
or/art,  for  grots  abases  of  the 
queen's  gracious  majesty  and 
the  government,  in  his  book 

*  xjca  taese   men,  though  I 

-  in£  ao  mere  than  is  before 
~  oendootftL  ret  thev  and  that 
~  csctiua  contnned  all  manner 

*  or  malice  against  me:  and  I 
~  kid  Lfbei  upon  fibel  scattered 

-  in  the  *tic«is  and  pasted 
"~  upon  posts.  And  upon  Fri- 
**  day.  July  7,  1637,  a  note 
*%  w*s  brought  to  me  of  a  short 
**  Hbel  pasted  on  the  cross  in 

Cheapsade,  that  the  arch- wolf 
of  Canterbury  had  his  hand 
"  in  persecuting  the  saints  and 
"  shedding  the  blood  of  the 
••  martyrs."  Troubles  and 
Trid*  p.  .44.] 



cent.  xvii.  •  of  Britain.  117 

his  answer,  and  durst  not  set  their  hands  tin  to  it.  a.  d.  1637. 

13  Chas.  I. 

Mr.  Hole,  one  of  his  council,  being  present,  confessed 

that  he  found  his  answer  would  be  very  long,  and 
of  such  a  nature  as  he  durst  not  subscribe  it,  fearing 
to  give  their  lordships  distaste. 

64.  Dr.  Bastwick  being  spoken  to,  to  speak  for  Sou  Dr. 
himself,  why  he  brought  not  in  his  answer  before, 

hud  the  blame  on  the  cowardice  of  his  counsel,  that 
durst  not  sign  it  for  fear  of  the  prelates.  He  there 
tendered  his  answer  on  oath  with  his  own  hand, 
which  would  not  be  accepted.  He  spake  much  of 
his  own  abilities,  that  he  had  been  a  soldier  able  to 
lead  an  army  of  men  into  the  field,  and  now  was  a 
physician  able  to  cure  kings,  princes,  and  emperors ; 
and  therefore  how  unworthy  it  was  to  curtailize  his 
ears,  generally  given  out  by  the  bishops'  servants  as 
a  punishment  intended  unto  him.  He  minded  them 
of  the  mutability  of  all  earthly  things,  and  chiefly 
of  the  changes  in  the  court ;  where  he x,  lately  the 
chief  judge  therein,  was  the  next  day  to  have  his 
own  cause  censured :  wishing  them  seriously  to 
consider,  that  some  who -now  sat  there  on  the  bench, 
might  stand  prisoners  at  the  bar  another  day,  and 
need  the  favour  which  now  they  denied. 

65.  Mr.  Burton  being  asked  what  he  could  allege  Mr.  Bur- 
why  the  court  should  not  take  his  fault  pro  confesso,  out  for  im- 
pleaded that  he  had  put  in  his  answer,  drawn  upper^" 
with  great  pains  and  cost,  signed  by  his  council,  and 
received  into  the  court.     The  lord  keeper  rejoined, 

that  the  judges  had  cast  his  answer  out  as  imperfect. 
Judge  Finch  affirming  that  they  did  him  a  good 
turn  in  making  it  imperfect,  being  otherwise  as  li- 
bellous as  his  book,  and  deserving  a  censure  alone. 

z  The  bishop  of  Lincoln. 

118  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a,  d.  1637.     66.   Here  the  prisoners  desiring  to  speak  were 
1  commanded  silence,  and  the  premises  notwithstand- 

Til©  BCV6T6    •  1  11  11 

censure,  ing,  the  court  proceeded  to  censure:  namely,  that 
they  should  lose  their  ears  in  the  palace  yard  at 
Westminster,  fining  them  also  five  thousand  pounds 
a  man  to  his  majesty,  and  perpetual  imprisonment 
in  three  remote  places.  The  lord  Finch  added  to 
Mr.  Prynne's  censure,  that  he  should  be  branded 
in  each  cheek  with  S.  L.  for  slanderous  libeller,  to 
which  the  whole  court  agreed.  The  archbishop  of 
Canterbury  made  a  long  speech,  since  printed,  to 
excuse  himself  from  the  introducing  of  any  innova- 
tions in  the  church,  concluding  it,  that  he  left  the 
prisoners  to  God's  mercy  and  the  king's  justice  y. 

^^y       67.  It  will  be  lawful  and  safe  to  report  the  dis- 

■o™6-  course  of  several  persons  hereon.  This  censure  fell 
out  scarce  adequate  to  any  judgment,  as  conceiving 
it  either  too  low  or  too  high  for  their  offence.  High 
conformists  counted  it  too  low,  and  that  it  had  been 
better  if  the  pillory  had  been  changed  into  a  gallows. 
They  esteemed  it  improvident  (but  by  their  leaves 
more  of  Machiavel  than  of  Christ  in  such  counsel) 
to  kindle  revenge,  and  not  to  quench  life  in  such 
turbulent  spirits.  The  only  way  with  them,  had 
been  to  rid  them  out  of  the  way. 

by  most  68.  Most  moderate  men  thought  the  censure  too 
sharp,  too  base  and  ignominious  for  gentlemen  of 
their  ingenuous  vocation.  Besides,  though  it  be 
easy  in  the  notion,  it  is  hard  in  the  action  to  fix 
shame  on  the  professors,  and  sever  it  from  the  pro- 
fessions of  divinity,  law,  and  physic1.     As  for  the 

y    [Printed    in    Rush  worth,     and  is  borne  out  by  the  obser- 

vol.  iii,  App.  p.  1 16.]  vation  of  lord  Clarendon.    For 

*  [This  remark  is  very  just,     although  these  men  were  very 


of  Britain. 


former,  though  Burton  was  first  degraded a,  yet  such  A%-  qJ£3/' 
who  maintain  an  indelible  character  of  priesthood  - 

contemptible,  and  none  of  them 
either  esteemed  or  regarded  by 
the  worthy  part  of  their  several 
professions,  "  yet  when  they 
*'  were  all  sentenced,  and  for 
"  the  execution  of  that  sen. 
"  tence  brought  out  to  be 
M  punished  as  common  and 
*'  signal  rogues,  exposed  upon 
"  scaffolds  to  have  their  ears 
"  cut  off,  and  their  faces  and 
"  foreheads  branded  with  hot 
"  irons,  (as  the  poorest  and 
"  most  mechanic  malefactor 
"  used  to  be,  when  they  were 
"  not  able  to  redeem  them- 
selves by  any  fine  for  their 
trespasses,  or  to  satisfy  any 
damages  for  the  scandals  they 
"  had  raised  against  the  good 
"  name  and  reputation  of 
'*  others,)  men  began  no  more 
"  to  consider  their  manners 
"  but  the  men ;  and  each  pro- 
"  fession,  with  anger  and  in- 
"  dignation  enough,  thought 
"  their  education,  and  degrees, 
"  and  quality,  would  have  se- 
"  cured  them  from  such  in. 
"  famous  judgment,  and  trea- 
"  sured  up  wrath  for  the  time 
"  to  come."  Rebeli.  i.  167. 

It  must  always  indeed  be  a 
matter  of  regret,  that  the  arch- 
bishop permitted  his  name  to 
be  mixed  up  so  much  with 
proceedings  of  this  kind  ;  and 
that  having  a  work  truly 
mighty  and  important  to  per- 
form, he  should  have  increased 
the  obstacles  already  sufficient- 
ly numerous,  and  wasted  his 
energies  on  things  unworthy  of 
him.  It  might  be  hard  for  one 
of  his  temperament  to  refrain ; 




his  very  attachment  to  king 
Charles,  more  like  the  warm 
and  ardent  affection  of  a  friend, 
than  the  dutiful  loyalty  of  a 
subject,  may  have  often  urged 
him,  naturally  warm  and  im- 
petuous, to  take  part  with 
royalty ;  and  to  be  forward  in 
punishing  those  who  insulted  it, 
as  though  thin  had  been  part  of 
his  own  sacred  cause.  Still 
harder  was  it,  for  one  serving 
such  a  king  as  Charles  I,  and 
that  one  a  bishop,  not  to  es- 
pouse his  cause  with  unflinching 
energy  and  devotion ;  and  to 
bring  to  its  support  his  in- 
fluence, not  merely  as  a  subject 
and  as  a  Christian,  but  as  the 
head  and  representative  of  the 
Church  of  England.  In  this 
respect  the  archbishop's  conduct 
was  imitated  by  many  other 
prelates ;  so  that  men  could 
not  distinguish  between  the 
church  and  the  state,  nor  se- 
parate from  the  church  those 
abuses  which  were  committed 
by  a  worthless  aristocracy,  who 
cared  only  so  far  for  the  church 
as  the  representative  of  a  po- 
litical party.  So  all  the  seve- 
rities of  the  Star  and  Council 
chamber  came  to  be  charged 
upon  the  church ;  men's  hearts 
(always  ready  to  revolt  against 
excessive  punishments,  even 
when  in  some  degree  deserved) 
were  alienated  from  her;  in 
the  redress  of  political  griev- 
ances, or  defence  of  political 
rights,  they  regarded  her  as 
their  adversary,  because  those 
who  chiefly  represented  her,  if 
not  of  the  number  of  the  in- 



The  Church  History 


a.  d.i 6.17.  hold  that  degradation  cannot  delete  what  ordination 
J. — !!!_'  hath  impressed ;  and  grant  the  censure  pronounced 
ad  terrorem,  it  might  have  become  the  bishops  to 
mediate  for  a  mitigation  thereof.  Let  canvass  be 
rough  and  rugged,  lawn  ought  to  be  soft  and  smooth. 
Meekness,  mildness,  and  mercy  being  more  proper 
for  men  of  the  episcopal  function. 
Mr.  Burton  69.  Two  days  after,  three  pillories  were  set  up  in 
the  pillory,  the  palace  yard,  or  one  double  one,  and  a  single  one 
at  some  distance,  for  Mr.  Prynne  as  the  chief 
offender.  Mr.  Burton  first  suffered,  making  a  long 
speech  in  the  pillory,  not  entire  and  continued,  but 
interrupted  with  occasional  expressions.  But  the 
main  intent  thereof  was  to  parallel  his  sufferings 
with  our  Saviour's.  For  at  the  first  sight  of  the 
pillory,  "  Methinks,"  said  he,  "  I  see  mount  Calvary, 
"  whereon  the  three  crosses  were  erected.  If  Christ 
"  was  numbered  amongst  thieves,  shall  a  Christian 
"  think  much  for  his  sake  to  be  numbered  amongst 
"  rogues  ?"  And  whereas  one  told  an  halberdeer 
standing  by,  who  had  an  old  rusty  halbert,  (the  iron 

jurers,  had  been  found  and 
mixed  up  far  too  much  with 
them.  The  fate  of  Laud,  the 
fate  of  the  Marian  bishops,  both 
of  whom  were  made  responsible 
for  cruelties  which  they  both 
abhorred,  must  ever  be  a  warn, 
ing  unto  churchmen  against 
taking  an  active  part  in  state 
affairs,  and  mixing  too  much  in 
courts.  It  is  true  that  bishops 
and  clergy  were  equally  found 
in  courts,  perhaps  far  more 
so,  before  the  reformation  than 
afterwards;  but  in  the  first 
case  (happily  for  the  church 
and  its  influence  among  the 
people)  it  was  in  opposition  to 

the  despotic  measures  both  of 
the  nobility  and  the  crown; 
but  in  Laud's  time  things  had 
changed,  and  with  it  the  posi- 
tion of  the  clergy.  Honesty, 
loyalty,  and  affection,  may  have 
induced  him  to  espouse  the  part 
which  he  did,  and  to  support 
without  discrimination  the  mea- 
sures of  the  court  throughout 
his  life;  it  might  have  been 
right,  it  might  have  been  neces- 
sary, but  it  was  not  the  less  un- 
fortunate that  it  should  have 
been  so.] 

a  By  sir  John  Lamb  in  the 
high  commission  in  St.  Paul's. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  121 

whereof  was  tacked  to  the  staff  with  an  old  crooked  *•  d.  1637. 

nail,)  "  What  an  old  rusty  weapon  is  this !"  Mr.  Bur-  * " 

ton  overhearing  them  answered :  "  It  seems  to  be 
"  one  of  those  halberts  which  accompanied  Judas 
"  when  Christ  was  betrayed  and  apprehended." 

70.  His  ears  were  cut  off  very  close,  so  that  the  Several cen- 
temporal  or  head  artery  being  cut,  the   blood  in  behaviour. 
abundance   streamed   down   upon   the  scaffold,  all 
which    he   manfully  endured,  without   manifesting 

the  least  shrinking  thereat.  Indeed  of  such  who 
measured  his  mind  by  his  words,  some  conceived 
his  carriage  far  above:  others  (though  using  the 
same  scale)  suspected  the  same  to  be  somewhat 
beside  himself.  But  let  such  who  desire  more  of 
his  character,  consult  with  his  printed  life,  written 
with  his  own  hand,  though  it  be  hard  for  the  most 
excellent  artist  truly  to  draw  his  own  picture. 

71.  Dr.  Bastwick  succeeded  him,  making  a  speech  Mr.  Bast- 
to  this  effect.     "  Here  are  many  spectators  of  us,  IJ^ech. 

u  who  stand  here  as  delinquents,  yet  am  I  not  con- 
u  scious  to  myself  of  the  least  trespass,  wherein  I 
"  have  deserved  this  outward  shame.  Indeed  I  wrote 
"  a  book  against  antichrist  the  pope,  and  the  pope 
u  of  Canterbury  said  it  was  written  against  him. 
"  But  were  the  press  open  unto  us,  we  would  scatter 
"  his  kingdom,  and  fight  courageously  against  Gog 
and  Magog.  There  be  many  here  that  have  set 
many  days  apart  on  our  behalf,  (let  the  prelates 
"  take  notice  thereof,)  and  have  sent  up  strong 
"  prayers  to  God  for  us,  the  strength  and  fruit 
*•  whereof  we  have  felt  all  along  in  this  cause.  In 
"  a  word,  so  far  am  I  from  fear  or  care,  that  had 
"I  as  much  blood  as  would  swell  the  Thames," 
(then    visible   unto   him,   his    face   respecting   the 



The  Church  History 


a. d.  1637. south,)  "I  would  lose  every  drop  thereof  in  this 

i3Chas.l.  „  J  r 

*  cause. 

Many  men      72.   His  friend 8  much  admired  and  hicrhly  corn- 
many  , 
minds.       mended  the  erection  of  his  mind  triumphing  over 

pain  and  shame,  making  the  one  easy,  the  other 
honourable,  and  imputed  the  same  to  an  immediate 
spiritual  support.  Others  conceived  that  anger  in 
him  acted  the  part  of  patience,  as  to  the  stout 
undergoing  of  his  sufferings,  and  that  in  a  Christian 
there  lieth  a  real  distinction  betwixt  spirit  and 
stomach,  valour  and  stubbornness. 
Mr.  Prynne     73,  ]yir#  Prynne  concluded  the  sad  sight  of  that 

his  speech.  '  ° 

day,  and  spake  to  this  purpose :  "  The  cause  of  my 
"  standing  here  is  for  not  bringing  in  my  answer ; 
"  God  knoweth,  my  conscience  beareth  witness,  and 
"  my  council  can  tell ;  for  I  paid  them  twice,  though 
"  to  no  purpose.  But  their  cowardice  stands  upon 
"  record.  And  that  is  the  reason  why  they  did 
proceed,  and  take  the  cause  pro  confesso  against 
me.  But  rather  than  I  would  have  my  cause  a 
leading  cause  to  the  depriving  of  the  subject's 
liberties,  which  I  seek  to  maintain,  I  choose  to 
suffer  my  body  to  become  an  example  of  this 
"  punishment5." 






t>  [Gerrard  in  a  letter  to 
lord  Strafford,  dated  July  24, 
1637,  mentions  a  fewadditional 
particulars :  "  Some  few  days," 
he  observes,  "  after  the  end  of 
"  the  term  in  the  palace  yard 
"  two  pillories  were  erected, 
"  and  there  the  sentence  of 
"  Star-chamber  against  Bur- 
"  ton.  Bast  wick,  and  Prynne 
"  was  executed.  They  two 
"  stood  in  the  pillory  two 
"  hours;    Burton   by  himself, 

"  being  degraded  in  the  high 
44  commission  court  three  days 
"  before ;  the  place  was  full  of 
"  people,  who  cried  and  howled 
"  terribly,  especially  when  Bur- 
"  ton  was  cropped.  Dr.  Bast- 
"  wick  Was  very  mdrry ;  his 
"  wife,  Dr.  Par's  daughter,  got 
"  a  stool,  kissed  him;  his  ears 
"  being  cut  off,  she  called  for 
"  them,  and  put  them  in  a  clean 
"  handkerchief,  and  carried 
"  them  away  with  her.     Bast- 

ckkt.  xvii.  of  Britain.  128 

74.  The  censure  was  with  all  rigour  executed  on  a.  d.  1637. 

him,  and  he  who  felt  the  most  fretted  the  least;- - 

commended  for  more  kindly  patience  than  either  of  haviour  at 
his  predecessors  in  that  place.  So  various  were  oen,ure- 
men's  fancies  in  reading  the  same  letters  imprinted 
in  his  face,  that  some  made  them  to  spell  the  guilti- 
ness of  the  sufferer,  but  others  the  cruelty  of  the 
hnposer.  Of  the  latter  sort  many  for  the  cause, 
more  for  the  man,  most  for  humanity  sake,  bestowed 
pity  upon  him:  and  now  all  three  were  remanded 
to  their  former  prisons;  and  Mr.  Prynne,  as  he 
returned  by  water  to  the  tower,  made  this  distich 
upon  his  own  stigmatizing: 

S.  L. 
Stigmata  maxiUis  referens,  insignia  Laudis, 
Kxulians  remeo^  victima  grata  Deo. 

Not  long  after,  they  were  removed :  Mr.  Prynne  to 
Caernarvon  Castle  in  Wales :  Dr.  Bastwick,  and  Mr. 
Burton,  the  one  to  Lancaster  Castle,  the  other  to 
Launceston  in  Cornwall. 

75.  But  it  seems  these  places  were  conceived  to  Their  re- 
have,  either  too  little  of  privacy,  or  too  much  ofmov 
pleasure.  The  two  latter  therefore  were  removed 
again;  one  to  the  Isle  of  Scilly,  the  other  to  the 
Isle  of  Guernsey ;  and  Mr.  Prynne  to  mount  Orgueil 
Castle  in  Jersey.  This  in  vulgar  apprehensions 
added  breadth  to  the  former  depth  of  their  suffer- 
ings, scattering  the  same  over  all  the  English  do- 
minions, making  the  islands  thereof  as  well  as  the 


wick   told   the    people,   the  "  several  counties  where  they 

lords  had  collar-days  at  court,  "  are  to  Ik?  imprisoned,  to  re- 

"  but  this  was  his  collar-day,  "  ceive   them    and    see    them 

44  rejoicing  much  in  it.     Some  "  placed."   Strafford's  Lett.  ii. 

"  warrants  are  sent  from  the  86.] 

"  lords  to  the  sheriffs  of  the 

124  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1637.  continent,  partake  of  their  patience.     And  here  we 

-  leave  them  all  in  their  prisons,  and  particularly  Mr. 

Prynne,  improving  the  rocks  and  the  seas  (good 
spiritual  husbandry)  with  pious  meditations6.  But 
we  6hall  hear  more  of  them  hereafter  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  parliament. 
a  prepare-  76.  Next  came  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  to  be  cen- 
cenmire  of  sured  in  the  Star-chamber,  and  something  must  be 
of  Lincoln,  premised  j) reparative  thereunto  d.  After  the  great 
seal,  some  ten  years  since,  was  taken  from  him,  he 
retired  himself  to  Bugden,  in  Huntingdonshire, 
where  he  may  be  said  to  have  lived  in  a  public 
privacy.  So  many  his  visitants,  hospital  his  house- 
keeping: it  being  hard  to  say,  whether  his  table 
were  more  free  and  full  in  diet  or  discourse :  indeed 
he  had  a  plentiful  estate  to  maintain  it,  besides  his 
purchased  land ;  the  revenues  of  his  bishopric  and 
deanery  of  Westminster,  out  of  which  long  since  he 
had  been  shaken,  if  not  fastened  therein  by  the 
letters  patents  of  king  James.  His  adversaries  be- 
held him  with  envious  eyes,  and  one  great  prelate 
plainly  said  in  the  presence  of  the  king,  that  "  the 
"  bishop  of  Lincoln  lived  in  as  much  pomp  and 
"  plenty  as  any  cardinal  in  Rome,  for  diet,  music, 
"  and  attendance."  They  resolved  therefore  to 
humble  his  height,  the  concurrence  of  many  matters 
ministering  occasion  thereunto. 

77.   Sir  John  Lambe,  dean  of  the  arches,   for- 

c   [Writing  most   wretched  "  1.  Rocks;   2.  Seas;  3.  Gar- 

doggrel  on  this  occasion  enti-  "  dens.  Loud.  1641."] 
tied,  *'  Mount  Orgueil,  or  di-         d  [A  very  full  account  of 

"  vine  and  profitable  Medita-  these  proceedings  against  the 

"  tions  raised  from  the  Con-  bishop  of  Lincoln  will  be  found 

"  temptations  of  these   three  in  Hacket's  Life  of  Williams, 

••  Leaves  of  Nature's  Volume,  ii.  1 1 1 ,  sq] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  125 

merly  a  favourite  of  Lincoln,  (fetched  off  from  being  A-i*j**37- 
prosecuted  in  parliament,  and  knighted  by  his  means,)  - — ; — 
with  Dr.  Sibthorp,  Allen,  and  Burden,  (two  proctors,  his  div  °P 
as  I  take  them,)  were  entertained  at  the  bishop's  ^"^bie 
table  at  Bugden,  where  their  talk  was  (the  discourse  J^J^  lILhU. 
general  of  those  days)  against  puritans.     The  bishop 
advised  them   to  take  off  their  heavy  hand  from 
them,  informing  them  that  his  majesty  intended  to 
use  them  hereafter  with  more  mildness,  as  a  con- 
siderable party  having  great  influence  on  the  par- 
liament, without  whose  concurrence  the  king  could 
not  comfortably  supply  his  necessities;  adding  more- 
over, that  his  majesty  had  communicated  this  unto 
him  by  his  own  mouth,  with  his  resolutions  hereafter 
of  more  gentleness  to  men  of  that  opinion. 

78.  Some  years  after,  upon  the  denial  of  an  informed a- 
official's  place  in  Leicestershire,  (which  notwith-  in  the  sur- 
standing  he  carried  in  despite  of  the  bishop,)  sir  am 
John  Lambe  fell  foul  with  his  old  friend,  and  in 
revenge  complained  of  him  for  revealing  the  king's 
secrets  concredited  to  his  privacy.  Hereupon  at- 
torney Noy  was  employed  to  put  the  same  into  an 
information  in  the  Star-chamber,  unto  which  bishop 
Williams,  by  good  advice  of  counsel,  did  plead  and 
demur,  as  containing  no  matter  fit  for  the  cogni- 
zance of  that  court,  as  concerning  words  spoken  of 
matters  done  in  parliament  and  secrets  pretended 
to  be  revealed  by  him,  a  privy  councillor  and  peer 
of  parliament,  and  therefore  not  to  be  heard  but  in 
that  high  court.  This  demurrer  being  heard  and 
argued  by  counsel  pro  and  con  in  open  court  for 
two  or  three  hours,  (the  lord  keeper  and  other  lords 
there  present  finding  no  cause  nor  colour  to  over- 
rule it,)    was  referred  to  judge  Richardson,   (who 


The  Church  History 


his  intents 
of  com- 
with  the 

A.p.  1637.  lately  having  singed   his  coat  from   blasts  at  the 

J 1  court,)  by  him  to  be  smothered,  who  in  a  private 

chamber  presently  after  dinner  overruled  the  same 
in  a  quarter  of  an  houre. 

79.  The  demurrer  thus  rendered  useless  in  the 
bishop's  defence,  he  used  what  means  he  could  by 
the  lord  Weston  (a  proper  person,  because  treasurer, 
to  meddle  in  money  matters)  to  compound  with  his 
majesty ;  but  his  majesty  resolved  to  have  the 
bishop's  answer,  and  confession  of  his  fault,  before 
he  would  compound  with  him.  Whereupon  the 
bishop,  quitting  all  thoughts  of  composition,  resolved 
to  weather  out  the  tempest  of  his  majesty's  dis- 
pleasure at  open  sea,  either  out  of  confidence  of  the 
strength  of  his  tackling,  his  own  innocence,  or  skill 
of  his  pilots,  who  were  to  steer  his  suit,  having  the 
learnedest  counsel  of  the  land  by  whose  advice  he 
put  in  a  strong  plea,  which  likewise  being  argued 
and  debated  in  open  court,  came  at  last  to  the  same 
untimely  end  with  the   demurrer,   as   referred   to 

e  [  Fuller  has  omitted  a  very 
important  item  in  the  charges 
brought  against  bishop  Wil- 
liams, the  first,  the  foundation 
of  all  the  rest.  It  is  thus  no- 
ticed in  a  letter  addressed  to 
lord  Strafford  :  "  Four  of  the 
"  prebends  of  Westminster  have 
"  given  to  the  lords  of  the 
M  council  a  charge  by  way  of 
"  several  articles  against  the 
"  bishop  of  Lincoln,  as  dean 
"  of  Westminster,  the  other 
eight  complain  not.  The  king 
is  made  acquainted  therewith, 
"  and  it  is  referred  to  some  of 
"  the  council  to  examine  the 
"  business  and  report  it  to  the 
"  king."     This  was  a  charge 



of  embezzlement  of  money  be- 
longing to  the  cathedral,  as 
may  be  seen  by  the  notes  on 
§.  93.  Strafford's  Letters,  i. 
p.  360.  As  for  his  cause  in  the 
Star-chamber,  he  was  fully  par- 
doned in  Dec.  1635;  DUt  not 
so  this  contention  with  the 
prebends ;  for  as  there  were 
stili  great  quarrels  between 
them  in  January,  1636,  a  com- 
mission was  appointed  by  bis 
majesty  to  hear  and  decide  be- 
tween them.  See  ibid.  p.  5 1 1 . 
And  in  the  February  following 
the  college  of  Westminster  put 
in  a  bill  against  the  bishop  for 
tampering  with  witnesses.  lb. 
p.  516.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  127 

judge   Richardson,   and   smothered   by   him    in    a*.  1x1637. 

13  Chat.  1. 


80.  This  plea  thus  overruled,  the  bishop  put  in  Puts  in  an 

68D£cial  an- 

an  especial  answer  to  the  information,  declaring  how  H«er. 
all  was  grounded  by  a  conspiracy  and  combination 
of  the  persons  named  in  the  bill,  to  wit,  (Lambe, 
Sibthorpe,  Allen,  and  Burden,)  out  of  an  intent  to 
advance  themselves,  and  hatred  they  bare  to  him, 
for  not  permitting  them  to  poll  and  pill  the  king's 
subjects  in  Leicestershire,  in  their  ecclesiastical 
courts,  by  hauling  them  into  their  nets  ex  officio 
mero  without  any  previous  complaint,  under  an 
imaginary  colour  of  puritanism.  To  this  especial 
answer  attorney  Noy  rejoined  in  issue,  admitting 
the  bishop  to  prove  his  especial  matters,  who  pro- 
ceeded to  the  examination  of  his  witnesses  therein. 

81.  Now  began  attorney  Noy  to  crow  weary  ofKi,v?rt?n- 
the  matter,  and  became  slow  and  remiss  in  the  pro-  m*  prwecu- 


secution  thereof,  whether  out  of  respect  to  the 
bishop,  whom  he  honoured,  (though  tart  in  terms 
against  him,  to  please  a  greater  prelate,)  or  out  of 
consciousness  that  more  weight  was  hung  thereon 
than  the  slender  wires  of  the  cause  would  bear. 
Hereupon  Richard  Kilvert  was  entertained  to  fol- 
low the  suit,  (though  not  entering  himself  as  he 
ought  prosecutor  upon  record,)  at  the  best  being 
a  necessary  evil,  to  do  what  an  honest  man  would 
be  ashamed  of.  Indeed,  like  an  English  mastiff,  he 
would  fiercely  fly  upon  any  person  or  project,  if  set 
on  with  promise  of  profit,  and  having  formerly  made 
his  breakfast  on  sir  John  Bennet,  he  intended  to 
dine  and  sup  on  the  bishop.    And  though  his  strength 

*  [Thin  must  refer   to    an     died  in  Feb.  1635.    See  Straf- 
period,   as  this  judge    ford's  Letters,  i.  p.  369.] 

128  The  Church  History  book  xt. 

a.d.  1637. consisted  much  in  a  cunning  head,  yet  far  more  in 

— 1  an  able  back,  and  seconded  in  this  suit  and  abetted 

from  the  court  in  his  undertakings.  This  Kilvert  so 
wrought  himself  into  Warren,  an  examiner  of  the 
Star-chamber,  that  (some  say)  contrary  to  his  oath  he 
revealed  unto  him  that  the  testimony  of  one  John 
Pregion,  register  of  Lincoln  and  Leicester,  was  most 
material  in  the  bishop  his  defence?. 
Pnsion,a       gg.  Then  was  it  Kilvert  his  design  to  uncredit 

principal  ° 

witnewof  the  testimony  of  Pregion,  by   charging   him  with 

the  bishop,  ,  •      1      1  •  11 

much  mo-  several  accusations,  particularly  getting  a  bastard, 
though  being  no  matters  upon  record,  to  take  away 
the  validity  of  his  witness.  The  bishop  apprehend- 
ing himself  necessitated  to  weigh  up  Pregion  his 
repute,  engaged  himself  more  zealously  therein  than 
was  conceived  consistent  with  the  gravity  of  so  great 
a  prelate  for  so  inconsiderable  a  person.  Especially 
to  such  who  knew  not  that  Dr.  Morrison  and  this 
Pregion  were  the  only  persons  of  note  present  at 
the  bishop  his  table  when  the  discourse  passed 
betwixt  him  and  sir  John  Lambe.  The  bastard 
laid  to  his  charge  is  bandied  at  Lincoln  sessions 
backward  and  forward  betwixt  Pregion  and  another. 
The  first  court  fathers  it  upon  him,  the  next  freed 
him  from  it,  and  a  third  returned  it  upon  him  again. 
This  last  order  of  sessions  was  again  dissolved  as 
illegal  by  the  judges  of  the  king's  bench,  and  Pre- 
gion cleared  from  the  child  charged  on  him ;  sir  John 
Mounson,  a  justice  of  that  county  appearing  very 
pctive  against  him,  and  the  bishop  no  less  earnest  in 
his  behalf. 

*  [Heylin  in  "The  Appeal/*     but  so  slight  that  it  is  scarcely 
&c-  partiii.  p.  23,  gives  a  slightly     worth  quoting.] 
different  version  of  this  tale, 


of  Britain. 


83.  Here  happened  the  occasion  of  that  which  A,1il63,7* 

was  afterwards  so  highly  charged  and  heavily  cen 

sured   on    the   bishop  Williams,  viz.  tampering   totionufper- 
suborn    witnesses.      Henceforward  Kilvert   let   fall^/^" 
his  first  information,  which  from  this  day  sunk  inb",h°H- 
silence,  and  employed  all  his  power  on  the  proof  of 
subornation.      That  ban- dog  let  go  his  first  hold, 

too  hard  for  his  teeth  to  enter,  and  fastened  his 
fangs  on  a  softer  place,  so  to  pinch  the  bishop  to 
purpose;  yea,  so  expensive  was  the  suit,  that  the 
bishop  (well  skilled  in  the  charge  of  charitable 
works)  might  with  the  same  cost  have  built  and 
endowed  a  small  college. 

84.  Some  days  before  the  hearing,  a  noble  lord  *»  vain  «- 

.  deavonreth 

of  his  majesty's  council",  the  bishop's  great  friend,  a  composi- 
tion with 
"  of  cunning  and  malice.      I  the  king. 

b  [He  probably  refers  to  Cot- 
tington,  who  had  at  this  time  a 
quarrel  with  his  former  friend 
the  archbishop,  for  refusing  to 
use  his  influence  (as  it  seems) 
in  procuring  Cottington  the 
treasurer's  place.  In  a  letter, 
dated  Aug.  4,  1635,  Cotting- 
ton tells  Strafforde ;  "  Trust 
"  me,  (for  I  always  tell  you 
M  the  truth,)  there  is  no  more 
"  intention  in  the  king  to  make 
"  me  his  treasurer,  than  to 
"  make  you  archbishop  of  Can- 
"  terbury.  I  go  sliding  back 
"  very  visibly,  I  go  so  seldom 
"  to  the  court,  as  I  am  scarce 

a  courtier.  I  do  never  see 
**  the  king  but  on  Sundays, 
"  nor  speak  with  him  at  all, 

except  he  call  me,  which  is 

also  very  seldom.  Credit  I 
"  have  none  at  all  with  his 
"  majesty,  much  less  power. 
"  Where  then  is  your  staff? 
"  Such  a  rumour  hath  indeed 
"  been  raised,  but  merely  out 





"  know  by  whom.  All 

"  this  is  true,  as  any  man  who 
"  observes  any  thing  can  tell 
"  you.  If  you  should  ask 
"  me  then,  who  the  king  will 
"  give  the  staff  to,  I  answer, 
"  that  in  my  opinion  it  will  be 
"  either  to  your  lordship,  or  to 
"  my  lord  of  Canterbury.  His 
"  grace  declares  much  his  dis- 
"  pleasure  against  me,  and  per- 
"  adventure  it  increaseth  by  my 
"  taking  no  notice  of  it ;  but 
"  that  which  is  worst  of  all, 
"  they  say,  he  can  never  be  re- 
"  conciled  where  once  he  takes 
"  displeasure."  —  Strafforde's 
Letters,  i.  p.  449.  Shortly 
after  this  we  find  the  archbishop 
writing  to  his  friend  the  lord 
deputy  these  very  sententious 
and  pregnant  lines:  "In  the 
"  mean  time  take  this,  Cotting- 
44  ton  is  bringing  off  the  bishop 
"  of  Lincoln  ;  which,  certainly 
"  among  other  good  causes  and 



The  Church  History 


a.d.  1637.  interposed  himself  to  compound   the  matter,  pre- 
— LI  vailing  so  far  that  on  his  payment  of  two  thousand 





"  considerations  him  thereunto 
"  moving,  is  to  do  me  a  great 
"  kindness,  for  he  knows  he 
"  loves  me  heartily."  lb.  p.  480. 
In  another  letter  of  the  same 
collection,  written  about  a  fort- 
night after  this,  it  is  stated  by 
another  writer :  "  They  say  the 
"  lord  bishop  of  Lincoln's  par- 
"  don  is  ready  to  pass  the  great 
seal,  with  a  perfect  redinte- 
gration into  the  king's  favor, 
"  abolition  of  all  old  matters, 
and  my  lord  Cottington  had 
a  great  hand  in  it.  The  four 
"  youngest  prebends  of  West- 
"  minster  have  eagerly  bonded 
"  themselves  against  him  lately 
"  divers  ways."  Ibid.  p.  489. 
In  his  diary  Laud  makes  a  brief 
allusion  to  these  troubles,  but 
so  very  briefly  that  he  throws 
no  light  on  the  matter.  "  May, 
"  June,  and  July.  In  these 
"  months  the  troubles  at  the 
44  commission  for  the  treasury, 
"  and  the  difference  which  hap- 
pened between  the  lord  Cot- 
tington and  myself,  &c."  and 
a  little  below ;  "  during  the 
"  commission  for  the  treasury, 
"  my  old  friend,  sir  F.  W[in- 
"  debanke],  forsook  me  and 
"  joined  with  the  lord  Cotting- 
"  ton;  which  put  me  to  the 
"  exercise  of  a  great  deal  of 
"  patience." 

To  this  note,  which  is  already 
overgrown,  I  must  beg  the 
reader's  pardon  for  subjoining 
an  extract  from  lord  Claren- 
don's History ;  but  it  forms  so 
admirable  a  comment  upon  the 
whole  of  these  proceedings,  and 
brings  out  the  characters  of  the 







archbishop  and  his  wily  adver- 
sary so  clear  and  forcibly,  that 
I  cannot  refrain  from  extract- 
ing it. 

Speaking  of  Juxon's  appoint- 
ment to  the  treasury,  he  ob- 
serves :  "  In  the  mean  time  the 
"  archbishop  himself  was  infi- 
"  nitely  pleased  with  what  was 
"  done,  (how  very  true  this  is, 
"  see  his  Diary,  p.  53,)  and  un- 
"  happily  believed  he  had  pro- 
"  vided  a  stronger  support  for 
"  the  church ;  and  never  abated 
any  thing  of  his  severity  or 
rigor  towards  men  of  all  con- 
"  ditions,  or  in  the  sharpness  of 
"  his  language  and  expressions, 
"  which  was  so  natural  to  him, 
"  that  he  could  not  debate  any 
thing  without  some  commo- 
tion, when  the  argument  was 
"  not  of  moment,  nor  bear  con* 
"  traduction  in  debate,  even  in 
'*  the  council,  where  all  men 
"  are  equally  free,  with  that 
"  patience  and  temper  that  was 
"  necessary  ;  of  which  they 
"  who  wished  him  not  well 
"  took  many  advantages,  and 
"  would  therefore  contradict 
"  him,  that  he  might  be  trans- 
"  ported  with  some  indecent 
"  passion  ;  which,  upon  a  short 
"  recollection,  he  was  always 
"  sorry  for,  and  most  readily 
"  and  heartily  would  make  ac- 
"  knowledgment.  No  man  so 
"  willingly  made  unkind  use  of 
"  all  those  occasions  as  the 
"  lord  Cottington,  who,  being 
"  a  master  of  temper,  and  of 
"  the  most  profound  dissimu- 
"  1  at  ion,  knew  too  well  how  to 
"  lead  him  into  a  mistake,  and 


of  Britain. 


pound  the  suit  should  be  superseded  in  the  Star-  a.  d.  1637. 
chamber,  and  he  freed  from  further  molestation.— — — 1 
But  at  this  lord's  return  the  price  was  risen  in  the 
market,  and  besides  the  aforesaid  sum  it  was  de- 
manded of  him,  that  to  procure  his  peace  he  must 
part  with  his  deanery  of  Westminster,  parsonage  of 
Walgrave,  and  prebend  of  Lincoln,  which  he  kept 
in  commend  am.  To  this  the  bishop  answered,  that 
he  would  in  no  case  forego  those  few  remainders  of 
the  favour  which  his  dead  master  king  James  had 
conferred  upon  him. 

85.  Not  long  after  another  bargain  was  driven,  Frustrated 
by  the  well  intended  endeavours  of  the  same  lord; hi? great7 
that  seeing  his  majesty  at  that  time  had  much  occa- adver8ary* 
sion  for  moneys,  if  he  would  but  double  the  former 
gum,  and  lay  down  four  thousand  pounds,  he  should 
be  freed  from  further  trouble,  and  might  go  home 
with  all  his  parcels  about  him.     The  bishop  returned, 
that  he  took  no  delight  to  fence  at  law  with  his 
sovereign,  and  thankfully  embracing  the  motion  pre- 
pared himself  for  the  payment ;  when  a  great  ad- 
versary stepping  in,  so  violented  his  majesty  to  a 
trial,   that  all   was   not   only   frustrated,   but   this 




'*  then  drive  him  into  choler, 
"  and  then  expose  him  upon 
"  the  matter  and  the  manner 
"  to  the  judgment  of  the  com- 
pany; and  he  chose  to  do 
this  most  when  the  king  was 
present,  and  then  he  would 
"  aine  with  him  the  next  day." 
Rebellion,  i.  p.  1 76.  The  last 
remark  is  admirable.  Yet  cun- 
ning and  wily  as  was  Cotting- 
ton,  it  seems  that  he  was  de- 
ceived in  this  matter  of  the 
treasuryship,  and  that  Went- 
worth,  to  whom  he  complained, 

was  the  first  person  to  whom 
he  owed  this  opposition  to  his 
wishes.  At  all  events,  we  find 
Laud  acknowledging  Cot  ting- 
ton's  capacity,  and  then  asking 
Strafforde  this  question:  "But 
•'  I  would  fain  hear  from  your 
lordship,  how  you  think  bu- 
siness would  be  carried  by  that 
"  (Cottington's)  hand.  For 
"  what  I  think,  both  in  regard 
"  of  king  and  church,  I  have 
"  written  to  you  already."  Let- 
ters, i.  p. 43  8.  Unfortunately,  we 
have  not  the  deputy's  answer.] 

k  2 



13£  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1637.  afterwards  urged  against  the  bishop,  to  prove  him 
— — ^-  conscious  of  a  crime,  from  his  forwardness  to  enter- 
tain a  composition. 
wmuJT^  **6.  The  day  of  censure  being  come,  sir  John 
Finch,  lord  chief  justice,  fined  the  bishop  ten  thousand 
pound  for  tampering  to  suborn  witnesses ;  secretary 
Windebank  concurred  with  (that  little  bell  being 
the  loudest  and  shrillest  in  the  whole  peal)  as  who 
alone  motioned  to  degrade  him ;  which  was  lustily 
pronounced  by  a  knight  and  layman,  having  no  pre- 
cedent for  the  same  in  former  ages.  The  other 
lords  brought  the  fine  down  to  eight  thousand 
pound,  and  a  thousand  marks  to  sir  John  Mounson, 
with  suspension  ab  officio  et  beneftcio,  and  imprison- 
ing him  during  the  king's  pleasure.  The  earl  of 
Arundel  added,  that  the  cause  in  itself  was  extra- 
ordinary, not  so  much  prosecuted  by  the  attorney, 
as  immediately  by  the  king  himself  recommended 
to  their  justice.  Manchester,  lord  privy  seal,  said 
that  this  was  the  first  precedent,  wherein  a  master 
had  undone  himself  to  save  his  servant  *. 
To  which  87.  The  archbishop  of  Canterbury  did  consent 
fthopof  thereunto,  aggravating  the  fault  of  subornation  of 
did^ncur  perjury,  with  a  pathetical  speech  of  almost  an  hour 
long,  shewing  how  the  world  was  above  three  thou- 
sand years  old  before  ripe  enough  to  commit  so 
great  a  wickedness,  and  Jezabel  the  first  in  Scrip- 
ture branded  with  that  infamy,  whose  felse  wit- 
nesses the  Holy  Spirit  refused  to  name,  otherwise 
than  under  the  character  of  men  of  Belial.  Where- 
fore, although  (as  he  said)  he  himself  had  been  five 

1  [These  speeches  are  print-     Laud's  speech  is  reported  here 
ed  at  greater  length  in  Hush-     unfairly  enough.] 
worth's  Collections,  ii.  p.  429. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  183 

times   down  on   his  knees  to   his   majesty   in  theA  ^•l6*V* 

J       J  13  Chan.  I. 

bishops  behalf,  yet,  considering  the  guilt  so  great, 

he  could  not  but  agree  with  the  heaviest  censure. 
And  although  some  lords,  the  bishop's  friends,  as 
treasurer  Weston,  earl  of  Dorset,  &c,  concurred  in 
the  fine,  with  hope  the  king  should  have  the  sole 
honour  of  the  mitigation  thereof;  yet  his  majesty's 
necessities  meeting  with  the  person  adjudged  guilty, 
and  well  known  for  solvable,  no  wonder  if  the 
utmost  penny  of  the  fine  was  exacted. 

88.  At  the  same  time  were  fined  with  the  bishop  Threeof  his 


George  Walker  his  secretary,  Cadwallader  Powell  fined  with 
his  steward,  at  three  hundred  pounds  apiece,  and 
Thomas  Lund,  the  bishop  his  servant,  at  a  thousand 
marks,  all  as  defendants  in  the  same  cause k,  yet 
none  of  them  was  imprisoned,  save  Lund,  for  a  few 
weeks,  and  their  fine  never  called  upon  unto  this 
day,  which  the  bishop  said  was  commuted  into  such 
offices  as  hereafter  they  were  to  do  in  the  favour  of 

89.  To  make  this  our  history  entire,  the  matter  The  com. 
shall  rather  rule  the  time,  than  the  time  the  matter,  jJSJIJj* JJ"e 
in  this  particular  suit.     Be  it  therefore  known  to  linJ"8t  p™- 

1  oeedings 

the  reader,  that  some  four  years  after,  viz.  I640,again»thim, 
when  this  bishop  was  fetched  out  of  the  tower,  and  the  bishop 
restored  a  peer  in  parliament,  he  therein  presented  l^ment1*^ 
several  grievances,  concerning  the  indirect  prosecu- 
tion  of  this  cause  against  him,  whereof  these  the 

First,  That  his  adversaries  utterly  waved  and  de- 
clined the  matter  of  their  first  information   about 

k  [These  men  were  fined  for  them  be  true.    See  Heylyn  in 

being  concerned  in  tampering  "  The   Appeal,"  &c.  part  iii. 

with  the  witnesses  in  Predeon's  p.  24.] 
case,  if  the  report  respecting 


184  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

^3  chl?/"  revea"n?  *^e  king's  secrets,  as  hopeless  of  success 

therein,  and  sprung  a  new  mine  to  blow  up  his 

credit,  about  perjury  in  the  examination  of  witnesses. 
Whereas  he  conceived  it  just,  that  all  accidentals 
and  occasional  should  sink  with  the  substance  of 
the  accusation,  otherwise  suits  would  be  endless, 
if  the  branches  thereof  should  still  survive  when 
the  root  doth  expire l. 

Secondly,  That  he  was  deprived  of  the  benefit 
of  bringing  in  any  exceptions  against  the  testimonies 
of  sir  John  Lambe  and  Dr.  Sibthorp,  to  prove  their 
combination  against  him,  because  they  deposing  pro 
domino  rege,  none  must  impeach  the  credit  of  the 
king's  witnesses,  who  must  be  reputed  holy  and 
sacred  in  what  they  aver,  insomuch  that  after  briefs 
were  drawn  by  counsels  on  both  sides,  the  court  was 
moved  to  expunge  those  witnesses  which  made  most 
against  the  king  and  for  the  defendant. 

Thirdly,  That  Kilvert  used  all  ways  to  menace 
and  intimidate  the  bishop  his  witnesses,  frighting 
them  as  much  as  he  could  out  of  their  own  con- 
sciences, with  dangers  presented  unto  them.  To 
this  purpose  he  obtained  from  secretary  Windebank, 
that  a  messenger  of  the  Star-chamber,  one  Peachy 
by  name,  was  directed  to  attend  him  all  along  the 
speeding  of  the  commission  in  the  country,  with  his 
coat  of  arms  upon  him,  with  power  to  apprehend 
and  close  imprison  any  person  whom  Kilvert  should 
appoint,  pretending  from  the  secretary  warrants  for 
matters  of  state,  and  deep  consequence  so  to  do; 
by  virtue  whereof,  in  the  lace  of  the  commission,  he 
seized  on  and  committed  George  Walker  and  Thomas 
Lund,  two  material  witnesses  for  the  bishop,  and  by 

1  These  complaints  I  extracted  out  of  the  bishop  his  original. 

ceht.  zvii.  of  Britain.  185 

the  terror  thereof  chased  away  many  more,  whose  a.  a  1637. 

depositions  were  necessary  to  the  clearing  of  the - 

bishop  his  integrity;  yet  when  the  aforesaid  two 
prisoners,  in  the  custody  of  the  messenger,  were 
produced  before  secretary  Windebank,  he  told  them 
he  had  no  matters  of  state  against  them,  but  turned 
them  over  to  Kilvert,  wishing  them  to  give  him 
satisfaction ;  and  were  not  permitted  to  have  their 
liberty  until  after  long  close  imprisonment,  they 
were  forced  to  confess  under  their  own  hands  crimes 
against  themselves  and  the  bishop,  which  afterwards 
they  denied  and  revoked  upon  their  oaths. 

Lastly,  and  chiefly,  That  the  judges  privately 
overruled  his  pleas,  so  that  what  shame  and  the 
honour  of  the  court,  with  the  inspection  of  so  many 
eyes,  would  not  permit  to  be  done  publicly  in  the 
sunshine  of  justice,  was  posted  over  by  a  judge  pri- 
vately in  a  corner. 

These  and  many  more  Kilvertisms,  as  he  calls 
them,  did  the  bishop  complain  of  in  parliament, 
who  so  far  tendered  his  innocency  therein,  that  they 
ordered  all  the  records  of  that  suit  in  the  Star- 
chamber  to  be  obliterated.  Yea,  we  may  justly 
conceive  that  these  grievances  of  the  bishop  did 
much  hasten,  if  not  chiefly  cause,  the  suppression  of 
that  court. 

90.  Thirteen  days  after  he  was  suspended  by  theisexamin- 
high  commission,  and  imprisoned  in  the  tower  for  Se'lEJJU!1 
almost  four  years,  during  whose  durance  therein, 
two  bishops  and  three  doctors  were  sent  thither 
unto  him  to  take  his  answer  to  a  book  of  articles 
of  twenty-four  sheets  of  paper  written  on  both  sides. 
They  proffered  him  the  Bible  to  take  the  oath 
thereon,  which  he  utterly  refused,  claiming  the  pri- 

k  4 

136  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  i637.vilege  of  a  peer,  adding  moreover,  that  being  a 
—bishop,  it  was  against  law  and  precedent  in  anti- 
quity, that  young  priests,  his  grace's  (and  some  who 
had  been  his  own)  chaplains,  and  lay  doctors,  should 
sit  as  judges  of  a  bishop  his  doctrine,  with  power  to 
deprive  him  of  his  bishopric  if  disliking  the  same. 
This  was  overruled,  and  he  as  one  of  the  king's  sub- 
jects required  to  make  his  answer™, 
whether         gj    Fjret    The  article  that  all  books  licensed  by 

Mime  books  J 

were  onho-  his  grace's  chaplains  (as  Chune  his,  and  Sales  his 
book,  with  doctor  Mannering  his  Sermons)  are  pre- 
sumed by  all  true  subjects  to  be  orthodox,  and 
agreeable  to  sound  religion.  This  the  bishop  utterly 
denied,  and  wondered  at  their  impudency  to  pro- 
pound such  an  article  unto  him. 
who  had  92.  Secondly,  They  alleged,  that  no  bishop  but 
license  his  grace,  the  lord  of  London,  and  their  chaplains, 
had  power  to  allow  books.  This  the  other  denied, 
saying  that  all  bishops,  who  were  as  learned  as  they, 
had  as  much  power  as  they,  citing  for  the  same 
the  council  of  Lateran  under  Leo  the  Tenth,  Re- 
formatio Cleri,  under  Cardinal  Pole,  Queen  Eliza- 
beth her  Injunctions,  and  the  decree  of  the  Star- 
chamber  relating  to  all  these.  He  also  stoutly 
averred  the  privilege  to  belong  only  to  the  bishops, 
and  not  to  their-  servants :  howbeit  his  grace  had 
shuffled  in  his  chaplains  to  the  last  printed  Star- 
chamber  decree.  More  frivolous  were  the  ensuing 
articles  whereon  he  was  examined. 

m  [Fuller  has  committed  Rush  worth,  or  in  the  MS.  re- 
many  errors  in  this  account  of  ports  which  I  have  met  with. 
Williams.  The  articles  here  Hacket,  however,  has  copied 
mentioned  are  not  to  be  found  them  into  his  narrative.  Ibid, 
in  the  reports  of  his  trial,  either  p.  130.] 
in  those  which  are  printed  in 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  187 

That  he  called  a  book  entitled  "  A  Coal  from  the  a.d.  1637 
«  Altar,"  a  pamphlet.  '3ChaaL 

That  he  said  that  all  flesh  in  England  had  cor- 
rupted their  ways. 

That  he  said  scoffingly  he  had  heard  of  a  mother 
church,  but  not  of  a  mother  chapel,  meaning  the 
king's,  to  which  all  churches  in  ceremonies  were  to 

That  he  wickedly  jested  upon  St.  Martin's  hood. 

That  he  said  that  the  people  are  not  to  be  lashed 
by  every  man's  whip. 

That  he  said  (citing  a  national  council  for  it)  that 
the  people  are  God's  and  the  king's,  and  not  the 
priests'  people. 

That  he  doth  not  allow  priests  to  jeer  and  make 
invectives  against  the  people. 

93.  To  all  which  the  bishop  made  so  wary  anHUcau- 
answer,  that  no  advantage  could  be  gained  thereby  ;8wl£.an" 
yea,  though  some  days  after  they  returned  to  re- 
examine him  upon  the  same  articles,  to  try  as  he 
thought  the  steadiness  of  his  memory,  or  else  to 
plunge  him  into  some  crime  of  perjury,  if  in  any 
material  point  he  dissented  from  his  former  depo- 
sitions; but  the  bishop,  like  a  good  boy,  said  his 
lesson  over  again  and  again,  so  that  no  advantage 
could  be  taken  against  him,  and  thereupon  they 
gave  him  leave  to  play,  proceeding  no  further  in 
this  cause,  only  they  painted  him  out  in  an  ugly 
shape  to  the  king,  as  disaffected  to  the  present 
government,  and,  God  willing,  we  shall  hear  more 
of  their  proceedings  against  him  hereafter11. 

n  [The  following  particulars  ceedings  in  the  Star-chamber 
from  a  MS.  in  the  Harleian  against  the  bishop  of  Lincoln 
Collection  respecting  the  pro-     have  not  hitherto  been  noticed 



The  Church  History 


A.  D.  1637 

to  a  sad 

•     94.  But  now  we  are  gammoned  to  a  sadder  sub- 
ject, from  the  sufferings  of  a  private  person,  to  the 







by  his  biographers,  and  may 
serve  to  correct  several  errors 
into  which  they  have  fallen. 

Pory  to  Puckering,  Nov.  1, 
1632.  "My  lord  bishop  of 
"  Lincoln  was  at  first  summon- 
"  ed  up  to  the  Star-chamber  by 
a  writ  from  my  lord  keeper, 
as  peers  used  to  be,  but  hav- 
"  ing  excused  his  not  coming 
up  for  default  of  health,  he 
'  was  then  served  with  a  writ 
as  a  common  man,  fol.  184, 
"  Nov.  15,  1632.  On  Mon. 
"  day  I  was  told  by  the  clerk 
"  of  the  entries  of  the  Star- 
"  chamber,  there  is  now  a  bill 
"  really  exhibited  into  that 
"  court  against  my  lord  bishop 
of  Lincoln,  which  chargeth 
his  lordship  (as  the  same 
"  clerk  upon  superficial  view 
"  tells  me)  with  spreading 
"  false  news  and  rumours,  with 
"  disclosing  secrets  out  of  coun- 
"  sels,  and  with  extortion  in 
"  some   things  while   he  was 

"  lord  keeper When  the 

"  bill  was  brought  into  him  by 
"  Mr.  attorney's  clerk,  (so  sir 
"  C.  Y.  tells  me,)  he  said 
somewhat  merrily  unto  him, 
'  You  mistake  the  party, 
(quoth  he,)  the  bill  belongs 
"  to  the  earl  of  Lincoln,  and 
"  not  to  the  bishop.'  The  mes- 
"  senger  replied ;  '  If  it  please 
"  your  lordship  to  peruse  it, 
"  you  shall  find  it  concerns  the 
"  bishop  only.'"  fol.  183. 
Jan.  24,  1633.  "  My  lord 
bishop  of  Lincoln,  notwith- 
standing the  last  term's  Star* 
"  chamber  bill  put  in  against 
"  him  was    overthrown   by    a 





•  « 

"  demurrer  and  taken  off  the 
"  file,  is  against  this  term  cited 
*'  both  by  letter  and  subpoena 
"  to  appear  and  answer  in  that 
"  court  to  a   new  bill   which 
"  Mr.   attorney   hath    framed 
"  against  him."  fol.  188.  April 
13, 1636,  E.  R.  to  sir  T.  Puck, 
ering.  "The  commission  which 
"  has  been  a-foot  every  Mon- 
"  day  these  two  months,  upon 
"  the   prebends  of  Westmin- 
"  ster's  complaints  against  the 
"  bishop  of  Lincoln,   is   now 
"  put  off  till  the  Monday  after 
"  Easter  week.     Monday,  the 
"  last  week,  he  had  a  very  ill 
day ;  a  new  charge  is  lately 
risen  up  against  him,  that  his 
lordship  hath   received   out 
of  the  prebends'  allowances 
u  3300/.  towards  the  repara- 
"  tion  of  the  abbey  church ; 
"  they  charge  him  he  hath  not 
"  laid  out  half  the  money,  and 
"  that  he  keeps  the  rest.     His 
"  lordship  saith  a  bargain  is  a 
"  bargain,  and  gives  in  no  ac- 
"  count ;  but  his  grace  told  his 
lordship ;  '  It  was  a  base  bar- 
gain,' so  requires  the  bishop 
to   bring   in   the   accounts, 
"  which  the  bishop  hath  small 
"  mind  unto ;  and  whether  his 
"  lordship  can  now  make  a  true 
••  account,  yes  or  no,  is  a  great 
"  question ;  because  it  is  said 
"  his  lordship  hath  made  seve- 
"  ral  accounts  and  then  dis- 
"  liked  them  again.*'  fol.  191. 
Jan .  17,  1 63  7 .  ••  The  bishop 
"  of  Lincoln  hath  sent  up  to 
"  the   board   letters   of  com* 
"  plaint    against   one   Shelly, 
"  an  assessor  of  the  ship-money 









of  Britain. 


miseries  and  almost  mutual  ruin  of  two  kingdoms,  a.  d.  1637. 
England  and  Scotland.     I  confess  my  hands  have— Li 




"in    his    lordship's   town    of 
"  Bngden,  as  also  against  sir 
u  Robert  Osberne,  a  justice  of 
*  peace  thereabouts.     The  bu- 
"  siness  I  cannot  learn  perfect- 
"  It:  thus  I  hear  it.    Because 
"  the  constable  did  not  com- 
ply with  Shelly  in  the  man- 
ner of  his  assessing,  therefore 
does  Shelly  snatch  the  roll 
M  out  of  the  constable's  hand 
u  and  puts  it  in  his  pocket, 
M  and  would  not  return  it  back 
"  again,  which  the  bishop  un- 
"  derstanding,      he     commits 
"  Shelly  to  the  jail  without  bail 
"  or  mainprise  ;  but  sir  Robert 
"  Osberne,     approving     what 
"  Shelly  would  have  done,  he 
"  bails  him.     Of  this  the  bi- 
"  shop  complains,  and  so  pos- 
•'  sesseth  their  lordships  with  his 
M  letter,  as  if  he  had  been  very 
"  sesJous  to  do  his  majesty  ser. 
"  vice ;  which  their  lordships 
do  apprehend,  and  thereupon 
return  the  bishop  letters  of 
"  thanks.     Yet  when  this  bu- 
"  siness  was  in  agitation,  there 
"  was  an  attachment  granted 
"  out    of     the    Star-chamber 
court  against  the  bishop  for 
not  bringing  in  a  commission 
"  for  his  examination  of  wit- 
u  nesses,  which    his   lordship 
"  having  notice  of,  he  sends  it 
"  in  before  this  attachment  was 
"  signed,  saying  he  had  thought 
"  the  Star-chamber  office  had 
"not  been  open  during  the 
"  twelve  days,  and  that  was  the 
reason  he  had  delayed  the 
M  putting  it  in  according  to  the 
M  day  appointed.  The  bishop's 
u  cause  will  be  put  off  till  the 








"  first  day  in  Easter  term,  be- 
"  cause  before  it  can  come  to 
"  hearing,  some  orders  about 
"  expunging  of  witnesses  must 
"  be  settled  in  court  in  that 
"  house :  but  then  both  bills 
"  will  be  ready  for  hearing. 
"  Upon  the  bishop's  complaint 
"  Shelly  was  sent  for  up.  He 
"  tells  a  fair  tale  for  himself, 
casting  all  the  blame  upon 
the  bishop,  that  the  lords 
"  are  all  astand,  and  therefore 
"  they  have  appointed  a  day  to 
"  hear  all  parties.  Some  say 
"  that  Shelly 's  report  makesthe 
u  bishop  to  have  done  his  ma- 
"  jesty  a  great  disservice,  and 
"  that  he  having  eight  hundred 
"  acres  of  land  in  that  town,  he 
"  would  have  freed  it  from  being 
"  charged  with  ship-money,  and 
"  have  laid  it  upon  the  poorer 
"  townsmen ;  but  whether  this 
"  be  true,  yea  or  no,  I  am  yet 
uncertain,  till  their  lordships 
have  heard  both  parties." 
fol.  199. 

Feb.  14,  1637.  "  In  some 
"  church  within  the  county  of 
"  Bedford  there  was  lately  an 
"  altar  of  stone,  with  four  pillars 
"  altarwise  erected.  It  seems 
"  there  had  been  one  there 
"  heretofore,  for  in  digging 
"  thereabouts  the  altar-stone 
"  was  found  in  the  ground. 
"  This  being  complained  of  to 
"  the  diocesan,  the  bishop  of 
"  Lincoln,  he  came  to  the 
"  church  to  see  if  it  were  so, 
yea  or  no,  and  finding  it 
there,  his  lordship  caused  it 
in  his  own  presence  to  be 
digged  up  and  to  be  taken 








The  Church  History 

noon  XT. 

a.d.  1637.  al  way 8  been  unwilling  to  write  of  that  cold  country, 
.!£ — *  *  for  fear  ray  fingers  should  be  frostbitten  therewith, 
but  necessity  to  make  our  story  entire  puts  me  upon 
the  employment.  Miseries  caused  from  the  sending 
of  the  book  of  service,  or  new  liturgy,  thither,  which 
may  sadly  be  termed  a  rubric  indeed,  dyed  with  the 
blood  of  so  many  of  both  nations  slain  on  that 
The  project     95.  It  seem 9  the  design  began  in  the  reign  of 

of  a  public  i  .  t  i-i*iii  1 

Prayer-book  king  James,  who  desired  and  endeavoured  an  uni- 
be^imthe£ormjty  0f  pUb]jc  prayers  through  the  kingdom  of 
king  James.  Scotland.  In  order  whereunto  an  act  was  passed  in 
the  general  assembly0  at  Aberdeen,  1616,  to  au- 
thorize some  bishops  present  to  compile  and  frame 
a  public  form  of  common  prayer :  and  let  us  observe 
the  motions  thereof. 

i.  It  was  committed  to  the  bishops  aforesaid,  and 
principally  to  the  archbishop  of  St.  Andrew's  p,  and 

"  quite  away,  telling  the  parson 
"  that  if  he  pleased  he  might  set 
"  the  communion-table  there, 
44  but  altars  were  forbidden  by 
"  the  statute.  In  that  business 
"  between  the  bishop  and  Shel- 
"  ly,  wherein  the  bishop  was  so 
44  passionate  upon  the  relating 
"  it  to  his  majesty,  the  king 
"  hath  commanded  the  lords  to 
"  allow  Shelly  grand  costs,  be- 
"  cause  the  bishop  hath  so 
"  much  troubled  him,  besides 
44  Shelly  *s  false  imprisonment." 
fol.  202. 

Feb.  7,  1637.  "Friday  last 
"  the  lords  heard  that  differ- 
"  ence  between  the  bishop  of 
"  Lincoln  and  Shelly,  as  in 
44  course  of  my  last.  I  do  hear 
"  that  it  did  appear  on  exami- 
44  nation  that  the  bishop  was 

"  much  to  blame.  He  would 
44  have  taken  in  that  roll  where- 
44  in  he  was  seized  11/.  or  13/. 
44  (I  know  not  whether)  to 
44  have  made  a  new  roll,  to  have 
4<  eased  himself  and  to  have  laid 
44  it  upon  divers  poor  people 
14  that  received  alms  of  the  pa- 
44  rish,  (as  it  was  the  last  year.) 
44  The  bishop  was  over-passion- 
44  ate,  and  Shelly  was  not  so 
41  dutiful  as  it  became  him. 
44  The  lords  spent  much  time 
44  to  hear  it,  but  concluded  no- 
44  thing  at  all  against  the  bishop, 
44  because  the  king  had  all  his 
44  rights."  fol.  204.] 

o  The  king's  large  declara- 
tion concerning  the  tumults  in 
Scotland,  p.  16. 

P  See  the  Life  of  Archbishop 
Spot  s wood. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  1 41 

William  Cooper,  bishop  of  Galloway,  to  draw  up  the  a.  D.1637. 
order  thereof.  — — !^I — 1 

ii.  It  was  transmitted  into  England  to  king  James, 
who  punctually  perused  every  particular  passage 

iii.  It  was  remitted  with  the  king's  observations, 
additions,  expunctions,  mutations,  accommodations, 
to  Scotland  again. 

But  here  the  design  sunk  with  the  sudden  death 
of  king  James,  and  lay  not  only  dormant  but  dead ; 
till  some  years  after  it  was  awakened,  or  rather 
revived  again1). 

96.  In  the  reign  of  king  Charles  the  project  being  why  *dtf- 

1  ference  l»e- 

re8umedr,  (but  whether  the  same  book  or  no  Godtwixtthe 
knowetb,)  it  was  concluded  not  to  send  into  Scot-  Engiinh^i- 
land  the  same  liturgy  of  England  totidem  verbis,  lestturgy* 
this  should  be  misconstrued  a  badge  of  dependence 
of  that  church  on  ours.     It  was  resolved  also,  that 
the  two  liturgies  should  not  differ  in  substance,  lest 
the   Roman  party  should  upbraid  us  with  weighty 
and  material  differences8.     A  similitude  therefore, 

4  [The  king  desired,  as  bi-  nativity,  passion,  resurrection, 

■bop  Guthry    tells   us    in   his  and  ascension,  and  Whit-Sun- 

memoirs,  that  there  should  be  day.      These    articles   having 

t  uniformity    of  worship    be-  been  debated  in  the  general  as- 

tween    the   two    churches   of  sembly  at  St.  Andrew's,  1617, 

Scotland  and  England;  for  this  were  afterwards  concluded  in 

purpose   he   recommended    to  the  general  assembly  at  Perth, 

the  bishops  the  introduction  of  1618,   and   ratified  in   parlia- 

certain  English  ceremonies ;  as  ment,  162 1 .    At  the  same  time 

1st,  That  the  gesture  of  kneel-  the  king  was  desirous  of  having 

ing  should  be  enforced  in  re-  a  liturgy  formed  after  the  model 

caring  the  holy  communion,  of  the  English ;  but  this  latter 

2ndlv,    That   private   baptism  design  was  waived  for  the  pre- 

ihould  be  allowed  in  cases  of  sent,    in  consideration   of  its 

necessity.    3rdly,  Private  com-  unpopularity  with  the  people. 

munion  in  the  like  case.  4thly,  See  Guthry,  p.  7.] 
Confirmation.     5thly,   An  ob-         r  [In  1636.] 
servance  of  the  great  feasts  of        s  King's  Declaration,  p.  18. 
the  church,  such  as  our  Lord's 

143  The  Church  Hutoty  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1637.  not  identity,  being  resolved  of,  it  was  drawn  up 
— l_with  some,  as  they  termed  them,  insensible  altera- 
tions, but  such  as  were  quickly  found  and  felt  by 
the  Scotch  to  their  great  distaste.  These  alterations 
are  of  two  natures.  First,  ingratiating,  which  may 
be  presumed,  made  to  gain  the  affection  of  that 
nation.  Secondly,  distasting,  which  (if  not  in  the 
intent)  in  the  event  proved  the  great  grievance  and 
general  cause  that  the  book  was  hated  and  rejected. 
We  will  insist  on  three  of  the  first  sort  *. 
Canonical       First,  Whereas  there  was  an  ancient  complaint, 


only  used  in  That  so  much  of  the  Apocrypha  was  read  in  churches, 
Liturgy-  yvz"  about  sixty  chapters  for  the  first  lesson,  (from 
the  28th  of  September  till  the  24th  of  November,) 
canonical  scripture  is  alone  appointed  to  be  read 
in  the  Scotch  liturgy,  one  day  alone  excepted,  viz. 
All  Saints  day,  when  Wisdom  iii.  and  Ecclesiasticus 
xiv.  are  ordered  for  morning  and  evening  prayer ;  on 
the  same  token  there  wanted  not  such  who  said  that 
those  two  chapters  were  left  there  to  keep  posses- 
sion, that  all  the  rest  might  in  due  time  be  re- 
^ahwe  Secondly,  The  word  priest,  often  used  in  the 
in  declined.  English  liturgy,  gave  offence  to  many,  insomuch  that 
oneu  writeth,  "To  call  us  priests  as  touching  our 
"  office,  is  either  to  call  back  again  the  old  priesthood 
"  of  the  law,  which  is  to  deny  Christ  to  be  come,  or 
"  else  to  keep  a  memory  of  the  popish  priesthood  of 
"  abomination  still  amongst  us ;  besides,  we  never 
"  read  in  the  New  Testament,  that  the  word  priest 
"  (as  touching  office)  is  used   in  the  good  part." 

*  [These  objections  are  prin-         u  Cartwright  in  his  Admo- 
ci pally    taken    from    Baillie's     nition,  cap.  iii.  div.  1. 
avTOKaroKptats,  p.  98,  sq.] 


of  Britain. 


Whereupon,  to  prevent  exception,  it  was  mollified  *•  ^J^3/.' 

into  presbyter  in  the  Scotch  rubric.  

97.  The  names  of  sundry  saints,  omitted  in  the  Scotch 
English,  are  inserted  into  the  Scotch  calendar  (but  sorted  into 
only  in  black  letters)  on  their  several  days  according^. 
to  the  form  following :— 


1 1  David,  king. 
13  Mungo,  bishop;  in 
Latin,  KnUigernut. 

18  Colman. 


11  Constantino  III.  king. 
17  Patrick. 
10  Cuthbert. 


1     Gilbert,  bishop. 
20  Serf©,  bishop. 



9  Columba. 

6  Palladium 



18  Ninian,  bishop. 
25  Adaman,  bishop. 



16  Margaret,  queen. 
27  Ode  Virgin. 


4  Droftane. 

Some  of  these  were  kings,  all  of  them  natives  of 
that  country,  (Scotch  and  Irish  in  former  ages  being 
effectually  the  same,)  and  which  in  probability  might 
render  them  to  the  favour  of  their  countrymen,  some 
of  them  (as  Coldman,  &c.)  zealous  opposites  to  the 
church  of  Rome  in  the  celebration  of  Easter  x. 

z  [Bat  these  and  other  al- 
terations were  introduced  to 
conciliate  the  Scottish  nation, 
and  give  their  liturgy  a  nation- 
ality, that  it  might  not  look  like 
an  imposition  from  England, 
nor  that  a  form  of  prayer  settled 
in  a  parliament  at  Westminster 

should  without  any  alteration 
be  enforced  upon  Scotland. 
It  was  feared  by  the  bishops 
that  this  would  look  like  an 
attempt,  of  which  that  nation 
was  at  this  time  particularly 
jealous,  of  making  Scotland  a 
province  to  England.  And  this 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1637.     98.    But  these  Scotch  saints  were  so  fer  from 
13    "'  '  making   the   English   liturgy  acceptable,  that   the 

of  addition 

probably  was  one  of  the  rea- 
sons why  the  liturgy  of  king 
Edward  VI.  was  in  some  points 
adopted  in  preference  to  that 
which  now  prevails  in  the 
church  of  England,  bishop 
Laud  being  anxious  to  retain 
as  nearly  as  possible  that  form 
of  worship  and  public  prayer 
which  had  been  authorized  and 
approved  of  by  the  fathers  of 
the  reformation,  and  to  intro- 
duce nothing  into  the  church 
but  what  was  sanctioned  by 
their  example  and  authority, 
andthatof  the  primitive  church. 
We  have  indeed  the  positive 
declaration  of  lord  Clarendon, 
that  Laud  was  opposed  to  any 
;ilteration8  whatever.  "  He 
"  foresaw  the  difficulties  which 
"  would  arise  in  rejecting,  or 
"  altering,  or  adding  to  the  li- 
"  turgy,  which  had  so  great 
"  authority,  and  had  by  the 
"  practice  of  near  fourscore 
44  years  obtained  great  venera- 
"  tion  from  all  sober  protest- 
"  ants;  and  how  much  easier 
"  it  would  be  to  make  objec- 
"  tions  against  anything  that 
"  should  be  new,  than  against 
"  the  old."  Rebellion,  i.  150. 
The  event  verified  his  antici- 
pations, but  Laud  was  obliged 
to  submit  to  circumstances  over 
which  he  hud  no  control. 

The  archbishop's  own  ac- 
count of  the  matter,  though 
somewhat  long,  is  so  exceed- 
ingly important,  that  I  shall 
make  no  scruple  of  introducing 
the  chief  portions  of  it  here. 
It  is  as  follows :  "  Dr.  John 
"  Maxwell,  the  late  bishop  of 




Ross,  came  to  me  (Laud) 
from  his  majesty,  it  was 
"  during  the  time  of  a  great 
"  and  dangerous  fever,  under 
"  which  I  then  laboured.  It 
was  in  the  year  1629,  in  Au- 
gust or  September.  The 
"  cause  of  his  coming  was  to 
"  speak  with  me  about  a  li- 
"  turgy  for  Scotland.  At  his 
"  coming  I  was  so  extreme  ill, 
"  that  I  saw  him  not.  After 
"  this,  when  I  was  able  to  sit 
"  up,  he  came  to  me  again,  and 
"  told  me  it  was  his  majesty's 
"  pleasure,  that  I  should  re- 
"  ceive  instructions  from  some 
"  bishops  of  Scotland  concern- 
"  ing  a  liturgy  for  that  church ; 
"  and  that  he  was  employed 
"  from  my  lord  the  archbp.  of 
"  St.  Andrew's  (Spottiswoode), 
"  and  other  prelates  there  about 
'•  it.  I  told  him  I  was  clear  of 
"  opinion,  that  if  his  majesty 
"  would  have  a  liturgy  settled 
"  there,  it  were  best  to  take  the 
"  English  liturgy  without  any 
"  variation,  that  so  the  same 
service  book  might  be  esta- 
blished in  all  his  majesty's 
"  dominions.  Which  I  did  then 
"  and  do  still  think  would  have 
been  a  great  happiness  to  this 
state,  and  a  great  honour  and 
safety  to  religion.  To  this 
he  replied,  that  he  was  of  a 
contrary  opinion,  and  that 
"  not  he  only,  but  the  bishops 
"  of  that  kingdom  thought  heir 
"  countrymen  would  be  much 
"  better  satisfied,  if  a  liturgy 
"  were  framed  by  their  own 
"  clergy,  than  to  have  the  Eng- 
"  lish  liturgy  put  upon  them; 









Of  Britain. 


English  liturgy  rather  made  the  saints  odious  unto 
them.  Such  the  distasting  alterations  in  the  book, 
reducible  to,  i.  additions,  ii.  omissions,  iii.  variations, 
and,  iv.  transpositions.  To  instance  in  the  most 
material  of  the  first  kind. 

i.  In  the  baptism  these  words  are  inserted,  "  Sanc- 
u  tify  this  fountain  of  water,  thou  which  art  the 
"  sanctifier  of  all  things*."  Which  words  are  en- 
joined to  be  spoken  by  the  minister  so  often  as  the 
water  in  the  font  is  changed,  which  must  be  at  least 
twice  a  month. 

ii.  In  the  prayer  after  the  doxology,  and  before 

A.  D.  1637. 

13  CtlM.  I. 

in  the 

•  • 
■  « 





•  4 



yet  he  added,  that  it  might 
be  according  to  the  form  of 
oar  English  service  book.  I 
answered  to  this,  that  if  this 
were  the  resolution  of  my 
brethren  the  bishops  of  Scot- 
land. I  would  not  entertain 
so  much  as  thoughts  about 
it,  till  I  might  by  God's  bless- 
ing have  health  and  oppor- 
tunity to  wait  upon  his  ma- 
jesty, and  receive  his  farther 
directions  from  himself. 
"  When  I  was  able  to  go 
abroad  I  came  to  his  majesty, 
and  represented  all  that  had 
passed.  His  majesty  avowed 
the  semling  of  Dr.  Maxwell 
to  me,  and  the  message  sent 
by  him.  But  then  he  in- 
clined to  my  opinion,  to  have 
the  English  service  without 
any  alteration  to  be  establish- 
ed there ;  and  in  this  con- 
dition I  held  that  business, 
for  two  if  not  three  years  at 
least.  Afterwards  the  Scot- 
tish bishops  still  pressing  bis 
majesty  that  a  liturgy  framed 
by  themselves,  and  in  some 




few  things  different  from 
ours,  would  relish  better  with 
their  countrymen ;  they  at 
last  prevailed  with  his  ma- 
jesty to  have  it  so,  and  car- 
ried it  against  me,  notwith- 
standing all  I  could  say  or  do 
to  the  contrary.     Then  his 


majesty  commanded  me  to 
give  the  bishops  of  Scotland 
my  best  assistance  in  this 
way  and  work.  I  delayed,  as 
much  as  I  could,  with  my 
obedience,  and  when  nothing 
would  serve,  but  it  must  go 
on,  I  confess  I  was  then  very 
serious,  and  gave  them  the 
least  help  I  could.  But  of 
whatsoever  I  had  any  doubt, 
I  did  not  only  acquaint  his 
majesty  with  it,  but  writ 
down  most  of  the  amend- 
ments or  alterations  in  his 

majesty's  presence. Sure 

I  am  his  majesty  approved 
them  all;  and  I  have  his 
warrant  under  his  royal  hand 
for  all  that  I  did  about  that 
book."  Troubles,  p.  169.] 
7  Fol.  106.  pag.  2. 

146  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

A-*J-,637-the   communion,   this    passage   (expunged   by   the 

English  reformers  out  of  our  liturgy)  is  out  of  the 

ordinary  of  Sarum  inserted  in  the  Scotch  prayer 
book.  "  And  of  thy  almighty  goodness  vouchsafe 
"  so  to  bless,  and  sanctify  with  thy  word  and  holy 
"  word,  these  thy  gifts  and  creatures  of  bread  and 
"  wine,  that  they  may  be  unto  us  the  body  and 
"  blood  of  thy  most  dearly  beloved  Son f :"  from 
which  words,  saith  the  Scotch  author,  all  papists  * 
use  to  draw  the  truth  of  the  tran substantiation. 

iii.  He  that  celebrateth  is  enjoined  to  cover  that 
which  remaineth  of  the  consecrated  elements  with 
a  fair  linen  cloth  or  corporal b ;  a  word  unknown  to 
vulgar  ears  of  either  nations,  in  other  sense  than  to 
signify  an  under  officer  in  a  foot  company,  and  com- 
plained of  to  be  purposely  placed  here,  to  wrap  up 
therein  all  Romish  superstition  of  Christ's  carnal 
corporal  presence  in  the  sacrament. 

iv.  In  the  prayer  for  the  state  of  Christ's  church 
militant,  these  words  are   added :    "  And  we  also 
bless  thy  holy  name  for  all  those  thy  servants, 
who  having  finished  their  course  in  faith,  do  now 
"  rest  from  their  labours.     And  we  yield  unto  thee 
"  most  high  praise  and  hearty  thanks,  for  the  won- 
"  derful  grace  and  virtue  declared  in  all  thy  saints, 
"  who  have  been  the  choice  vessels  of  thy  grace 
"  and  the  lights  of  the  world  in  their  several  gene- 
"  rations :   most   humbly  beseeching  thee  that  we 
"  may  have  grace  to  follow  the  example  of  their 
"  steadfastness  in  thy  faith,  and  obedience   to  thy 
holy  commandments,  that  at  the  day  of  the  general 
resurrection,  we,  and  all  they  which  are  of  the 

z  Fol.  1 02.  pag.  1. 

*  Baillie's  \vroKardKptais,  p.  105.  b  Fol.  103.  pag.  2. 


cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  1 47 

"  mystical  body  of  thy  Son,  may  be  set  on  his  right  a.  d.  1637. 

"  hand,  and  hear  that  his  most  joyful  voice,  Come  ye  — 1 

"  Messed,  &c.c  " 

99-  Amongst  the  omissions  none  more  complained  The  most 
of  than  the  deleting  these  words  in  the  delivery  of  omission. 
the  bread  at  the  sacrament.  "  Take  and  eat  this  in 
u  remembrance  that  Christ  died  for  thee,  and  feed 
*  on  him  in  thine  heart  by  faith  with  thanksgiving*." 
A  passage  destructive  to  transubstantiation,  as  di- 
verting communicants  from  carnal  manducation,  and 
directing  their  souls  to  a  spiritual  repast  on  their 
Saviour.  All  which  in  the  Scotch  liturgy  is  cut  off 
with  an  Amen  from  the  receiver. 

The  variations  and  transpositions  are  of  less 
moment,  as  where  the  money  gathered  at  the  offer- 
tory, distributable  by  the  English  liturgy  to  the 
poor  alone,  hath  a  moiety  thereof  assigned  the 
minister,  therewith  to  buy  him  books  of  holy  divi- 
nity, and  some  prayers  are  transposed  from  their 
place  and  ordered  elsewhere,  whereat  some  do  take 
no  small  exception.  Other  smaller  differences  (if 
worth  the  while)  will  quickly  appear  to  the  curious 
perusers  of  both  liturgies. 

100.  Pass  we  now  from  the  constitution  of  the  The  discon- 
book  to  the  condition  of  the  Scotch  nation,  in  this^0nofthe 
unhappy  juncture  of  time  when  it  was  imposed  upon  j^J^nm' 
him.     For  it  found  them  in  a  discontented  posture, the  li}nrey 

*■  was  first 

(and  high  royalists  will  maintain,  that  murmuring  brought 

,  ..  •      *        •  j»i«»  1      •       1  .  unto  them. 

and  muting  against  princes  diner  only  in  degree,  not 
in  kind,)  occasioned  on  several  accounts  e. 

c  Fol.  98.  pag.  1 .  "  occasions,  yet  they  were  not 

d  Fol.  103.  pag.  2.  "  the  causes  of  the  war ;  reli- 

•    ["  Though    liturgy  and     "  gion  being  but  the  vizard  to 

"  episcopacy   were   made  the     "  disguise  the  business ;  which 



The  Chunk  History 


a.  d.  1637.     i.  Some  years  since  the  king  had  passed  an  act 

of  revocation  of  crown  lands,  (aliened  in  the  minority 

of  his  ancestors,)  whereby  much  land  of  the  nobility 
became  obnoxious  to  forfeiture.  And  though  all 
was  forgiven  again  by  the  king's  clemency f,  and 
nothing  acted  hereby  to  the  prejudice  of  any,  yet  it 
vexed  some  to  hold  that  as  remitted  by  the  king's 
bounty,  wherein  they  conceived  themselves  to  be 
before  unquestionably  estated. 

ii.  Whereas  many  formerly  in  Scotland  were 
rather  subjects  than  tenants,  rather  vassals  than 
subjects:  such  the  landlords'  princely  (not  to  say 
tyrannical)  power  over  them,  the  king  had  lately 
freed  many  from  such  dangerous  dependence.  Espe- 
cially in  point  of  payment  of  tithes  to  the  lords  of 
the  erection,  equivalent  to  our  English  lay  impro- 
priators, (but  allowing  the  landlords  a  valuable  con- 
sideration, according  to  the  purchases*  of  that 
country,)  whereby  the  king  got  the  smiles  of  those 
who  were  most  in  number,  but  the  frowns  of  such 
who  were  greatest  in  power. 

iii.  Many  were  offended  that  at  the  king's  coro- 
nation, some  six  years  ago,  and  a  parliament  follow- 



"  covetousnees,  sacrilege,  and 
"  rapine,  had  the  greatest  hand 
in.  For  the  king  resolved 
to  revoke  all  grants  of  abbey- 
"  lands,  the  lands  of  bishoprics 
"  and  chapters,  and  other  reli- 
"  gious  corporations,  which 
having  been  vested  in  the 
crown  by  act  of  parliament, 
"  were  conferred  on  many  of 
"  the  nobility  and  gentry  in 
•'  his  father's  minority,  when 
"  he  was  under  protectors. 
"  Whence  the  nobility  of  Scot- 



"  land  made  use  of  discontented 
"  and  seditious  spirits  (under 
"  colour  of  the  canons  and 
"  common  prayer)  to  embroil 
"  that  kingdom,  that  so  they 
"  might  keep  their  lands,  and 
"  hold  up  their  power  and 
••  tyranny  over  the  people." 
Heylyn's  Obs.  on  L' Est  range's 
Hist,  of  Charles  I.  p.  151.] 

f  The  King's  Declaration  at 
large,  p.  6. 

£  Idem,  p.  9. 


of  Britain. 


ing  thereon,  an  act  of  ratification  was  passed  con-  a.  d.  1637. 

cerning   the    church,   her   liberties    and   privileges,  J ! 

which  some  complained  of  was  done  without  plu- 
rality of  suffrages. 

iv.  Some  persons  of  honour  desiring  higher  titles h 
were  offended  that  they  were  denied  unto  them, 
whilst  his  majesty  conferred  them  on  others. 

There  want  not  those  also  who  confidently  suggest 
it  to  posterity,  that  pensions  constantly  payed  out  of 
the  English  exchequer  in  the  reign  of  king  James 
to  some  principal  pastors  in  the  Scottish  church 
were  since  detained.  So  also  the  bounty  of  boons 
was  now  restrained  in  the  reign  of  king  Charles, 
which  could  not  fall  so  freely  as  in  the  days  of  his 
father,  (the  cloud  being  almost  drained,)  adding 
moreover  that  the  want  of  watering  of  Scotland 
with  such  showers,  made  them  to  chap  into  such 
clefts  and  chinks  of  parties  and  factions  disaffected 
to  the  king's  proceedings. 

101.  To  increase  these  distempers,  some  complain  The  book 
(how  justly  their  own  countrymen  best  know)  of  blame  of  all 
the  pride  and  pragmaticalness  of  the  Scotch  bishops, 
who  being  but  probationers  on  their  good  behaviour 
(as  but  reintroduced  by  king  James)  offended  the 
ancient  nobility  with  their  meddling  in  state  matters. 
And  I  find  two  principally  accused  on  this  account ; 
Dr.  Forbes,  bishop  of  the  new  bishopric  of  Edinburgh*, 

■  Pag.  11. 

1  [This  must  be  a  mistake; 
for  Forbes,  the  learned  and 
pious  bishop  of  Edinburgh, 
died  in  1634,  having  held  his 
bishopric  only  three  months. 
He  was  succeeded  by  David 
Lindsay,  a  man  of  great  meek- 
ness and  moderation,  who  was 

unfortunate  in  this  respect,  that 
he  was  set  over  a  most  turbulent 
and  insolent  province,  the  fo- 
mented of  disturbance  and  trea- 
sonable combinations.  It  is  far 
more  likely  that  Fuller  has  mis- 
taken him  for  Maxwell,  bishop 
of  Ross,  who  was  hated  by  that 
paragon  of  duplicity  or  folly, 



Tlte  Church  History 


a.  d.  1637.  and  Dr.  Wedderbume,  bishop  of  Dumblane.     Tims 

- '  was  the  Scotch  nation  full  of  discontents,  when  this 

book  being  brought  unto  them  bare  the  blame  of 
their  breaking  forth  into  more  dangerous  designs,  as 
when  the  cup  is  brimful  before,  the  last  (though 
least)  superadded  drop  is  charged  alone  to  be  the 
cause  of  all  the  running  over. 
The  Scotch  102.  Besides  the  church  of  Scotland  claimed  not 
itandeth  on  only  to  be  independent,  and  free  as  any  church  in 
l^ora"  *  Christendom,  (a  sister,  not  daughter,  of  England,)  but 
also  had  so  high  an  opinion  of  its  own  purity,  that  it 
participated  more  of  Moses  his  platform  in  the 
mount,  than  other  protestant  churches,  being  a  re- 
formed reformation;  so  that  the  practice  thereof 
might  be  directory  to  others,  and  she  fit  to  give, 
not  take,  write,  not  receive  copies  from  any  neigh- 
bouring church,  desiring  that  all  others  were  like 
unto  them,  save  only  in  their  afflictions  k. 


Traquair ;  "  for  he  conceived  a 
"  jealousy  (and  many  thought 
"  not  without  cause)  that  the 
"  bishops  intended  his  fall,  to 
"  the  end  Mr.  John  Maxwell, 
"  bishop  of  Ross,  might  be 
"  made  treasurer."  Guthry,  p. 

k  [According  to  lord  Claren. 
don,  the  new  bishops  in  Scot- 
land had  so  little  interest  in 
the  affections  of  that  nation, 
and  so  little  control  and  au- 
thority, that  they  had  not 
power  to  reform  and  regulate 
their  own  cathedrals,  and  their 
jurisdiction  was  so  much  con- 
fined that  they  possessed  little 
more  than  the  name  of  episco- 
pacy. To  redeem  them  from 
this  ill  conceit,  and  to  increase 
their  authority,  the  king  made 

the  archbishop  of  St.  Andrew's 
and  four  or  five  other  bishops 
lords  of  the  session.  "  But  this 
"  unseasonable  accumulation  of 
"  so  many  honours  upon  them," 
says  the  noble  author, "exposed 
"  them  to  the  universal  envy 
"  of  the  whole  nobility,  many 
"  whereof  wished  them  well, 
"  as  to  their  ecclesiastical  quali- 
"  fi cations,  but  could  not  en- 
"  dure  to  see  them  possessed 
"  of  those  offices  and  employ- 
"  ments,  which  they  looked 
"  upon  as  naturally  belonging 
"  to  themselves ;  and  then  the 
"  number  of  them  was  thought 
"  too  great,  so  that  they  over- 
"  balanced  many  debates ;  and 
"  some  of  them,  by  want  of 
"  temper  or  want  of  breeding, 
"  did   not   behave   themselves 


of  Britain. 


103.  So  much  for  the  (complained  of)  burden  ofA.D.  1637. 

the  book,  as  also  for  the  sore  back  of  that  nation ■ — 1 

(galled   with   the   aforesaid   grievances)  when   this  L»ud  ao-0* 
liturgy  was  sent  unto  them :  and  now  we  must  not  JJJfSd  ™i 
forget  the  hatred  they  bare  to  the  hand  which  they  J^}^ rf 
accused  for  laying  it  upon  them.     Generally  they 
excused   the   king  in   their   writings    as    innocent 
therein,  but  charged  archbishop  Laud  as  the  prin- 
cipal (and  Dr.  Cosins1  for  the  instrumental)  compiler 
thereof,  which  may  appear  by  what  we  read  in  a 
writer  of   that   nation,   afterwards    employed   into 
England,  about  the  advancing  of  the  covenant  be- 
twixt both  nations,  and  other  church  affairs  m. 

"This  unhappy  book  was  his  grace's  invention; 
"  if  he  should  deny  it,  his  own  deeds  would  convince 
tt  him.  The  manifold  letters  which  in  this  pesti- 
"  ferous  affair  have  passed  betwixt  him  and  our 
prelates  are  yet  extant.  If  we  might  be  heard, 
we  would  spread  out  sundry  of  them  before  the 
convocation  house  of  England,  making  it  clear  as 
the  light,  that  in  all  this  design  his  hand  hath 
ever  been  the  prime  stickler;  so  that  upon  his 
back  mainly,  nill  he  will  he,  would  be  laid  the 







"  with  that  decency  in  their 
"  debates  towards  the  greatest 
men  of  the  kingdom  as  in 
discretion  they  ought  to  have 
"  done."  Rebel,  i.  155,  see 
also  184  sq.  Outhry  thinks 
very  reasonably  that  it  was  an 
appointment  of  this  kind  which 
first  induced  Archibald  lord 
Lorn,  the  most  influential  leader 
in  this  Scottish  rebellion,  to 
turn  against  the  bishops.  He 
was  irritated  at  seeing  the  office 
of  chancellor,  for  which  he  was 
a  suitor*  bestowed  upon  the 
archbishop    of    St.  Andrew's. 

"  The  like  was  talked  concern- 
"  ing  some  others/'  he  con- 
tinues, "  who  had  formerly 
"  turned  that  way,  and  I  know 
"  well  there  was  ground  for  it, 
"  yet  because  the  same  is  not  so 
"  generally  understood,  as  this 
"  which  I  have  instanced,  there- 
"  fore  I  forbear  to  condescend," 
(i.  e.  to  notice  it).    lb.  p.  12.] 

1  Baillie,  ibid.  p.  100. 

m  [Yet  the  framing  of  this  li- 
turgy was  committed  to  a  select 
number  of  the  Scottish  bishops; 
and  Laud  was  scarce  consulted. 
See  Clarendon,  ib.  p.  1 5 1 ,  183.] 

152  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1637."  charge  of  all  the  fruits,  good  or  evil,  which  from 

I  ^  Oil  HE.  I 

'*  that  tree  are  like  to  fell  on  the  king's  countries  n." 

Surely  if  any  such  evidence  was  extant,  we  shall 

hear  of  it  hereafter  at  his  arraignment,  produced 

and  urged  by  the  Scotch  commissioners. 

Thetumuit     104.  But  leaving  the  roots  to  lie  under  the  earth, 

burgh  at    let  us  look  on  the  branches  spreading  themselves 

reading  the  &bove  ground,  and  passing  from  the  secret  author 

book"        of  this  book,  behold  the   evident  effects   thereof. 

No  sooner  had  the  dean  of  Edinburgh  began  to 

read   the  book  in  the  church  of  St.  Giles,  in  the 

presence  of  the  privy  council,  both  the  archbishops, 

divers   bishops,   and   magistrates   of  the   city,   but 

presently  such  a  tumult  was  raised,  that  through 

clapping  of  hands,  cursing,  and  crying,  one  could 

neither  hear  nor  be  heard.    The  bishop  of  Edinburgh 

endeavoured  in  vain  to  appease  the  tumult ;  whom  a 

stool  aimed  to  be  thrown  at  him  had  killed,  °  if  not 

diverted  by  one  present,  so  that  the  same  book  had 

occasioned  his  death  and  prescribed  the  form  of  his 

burial,  and  this  hubbub  was  hardly  suppressed  by 

the  lord  provost  and  bailiffs  of  Edinburgh  p. 

More  am-       105.  This  first  tumult  was  caused  by  such  whom 

siderable       _ 

person* en- 1  find  called  the  scum  of  the  city**,  considerable  for 
thfoause.  nothing  but  their  number:  but  few  days  after  the 
cream  of  the  nation  (some  of  the  highest  and  best 
quality  therein)  engaged  in  the  same  cause,  crying 
out,  "God  defend  all  those  who  will  defend  God's 
"  cause,  and  God  confound  the  service  book  and  all 
"  the  maintainers  of  it  V 

n  [Baillie,  ibid.  p.  93.]  p.  193.  Guthry,  p.  19.] 

0  The  King's  large  Declare-         4  [See  the  same  thing  stated 

tion,  p.  23.  by  Clarendon,  ib.  194.  196.] 
P  [See  an  account  of  these         r  The  King's  large  Declare? 

disturbances  in  Clarendon,  i.  tion,  p.  37. 

c«rr.  x*ii. 

of  Britain. 


106.  The  lords  of  the  council  interposed  their  a.  d.  1657. 

1  11  •         •  1  1 3  Chaa.  I. 

power,  and  to  appease  all  parties  issued  out  a  pro-  J 

clamation  to  remove  the  session  (much  like  to  our8j0ntfthe 
term  in  London)  to  Linlithgow.     This  abated  their St'otch 


anger  as  fire  is  quenched  with  oil,  seeing  the  best 
part  of  the  Edinburghers'  livelihood  depends  on  the 
session  kept  in  their  city;  yea  so  highly  were  the 
people  enraged  against  bishops  as  the  procurers  of 
all  these  troubles,  that  the  bishop  of  Galloway 
passing  peaceably  along  the  street  towards  the 
council  house  was  waylaid8  in  his  coming  thither, 
if  by  divine  providence,  and  by  Frances  Stewart, 
son  to  the  late  earl  of  Bothwell,  he  had  not  with 
much  ado  been  got  within  the  doors  of  the  council 
house.     Indeed  there  is   no   fence  but  flight,  nor 

*  King's  large  Declaration, 
p.  35.      [Dr.  Sideserfe.     This 
prelate,  who  owed  his  appoint- 
ment   to   Laud,   has    received 
very  scanty  justice  even  from 
those  who  were  concerned  in 
some  measure  to  justify  him. 
(See  Guthry,  p.  14.)    Happily 
sir  David  Dalrymple,  one  not 
likely  to  be  prejudiced  in  favour 
of  Laud  or  any  of  his  friends, 
has  printed  a  letter  in  his  Me- 
morials of  Charles  I.  which  is 
greatly  to  this  bishop's  honour. 
"  Mr.  Sydeserf,  sometime  bi- 
"  shop  of  Galloway,  came  here 
"  five   or  six  weeks  ago.      I 
"  could   have  wished   he   had 
"  not  come  here,  as  long  as  I 
"  had  been  here,  rather  to  have 
"  satisfied  other  men's  scruples 
"  whom  I  have  no  intention  to 
"  offend  than  my  own ;  for  the 
"  Lord  is  my  witness,  to  whom 
"  I  must  answer  at  the   last 
"  day,  I  think  there  was  never 

"  a  more  unjust  sentence  of 
"  excommunication  than  that 
"  which  was  pronounced  against 
"  some  of  these  bishops,  and 
"  particularly  against  this  man, 
"  since  the  creation  of  the 
"  world ;  and  I  am  persuaded, 
"  that  these  who  did  excom- 
"  municate  him  did  rather  ex- 
"  communicate  themselves  from 
"  God,  than  him ;  for  I  have 
"  known  him  these  29  years, 
"  and  I  have  never  known  any 
"  wickedness  or  unconscien- 
"  tious  dealing  in  him ;  and  1 
"  know  him  to  be  a  learneder 
"  and  more  conscientious  man 
"  (although  I  will  not  purge 
"  him  of  infirmities  more  than 
others)  than  any  of  those  who 
were  upon  his  excommuni- 
"  cation."  p.  73.  For  the  pro- 
ceedings against  him  in  the 
general  assembly  the  reader 
may  consult  fiaillie's  Letters, 
No.  10.] 




The  Church  History  of  Britain.         book  xi. 

a.d.  1637.  counsel  but  concealment,  to  secure  any  single  party 


against  an  offended  multitude. 

The  au- 

107.  These  troublesome  beginnings  afterwards  did 
cuie,°why  occasion  the  solemn  league  and  covenant,  whereby 
ta£fcTSi?"the  greatest  part  of  the  nation  united  themselves  to 
object  defend  their  privileges,  and  which  laid  the  founda- 
tion of  a  long  and  woful  war  in  both  kingdoms. 
And  here  I  crave  the  reader's  pardon  to  break  off; 
and  leave  the  prosecution  of  this  sad  subject  to  pens 
more  able  to  undertake  it.  For  first,  I  know  none 
will  pity  me  if  I  needlessly  prick  my  fingers  with 
meddling  with  a  thistle  which  belongs  not  unto  me. 
Secondly,  I  despair  of  perfect  notice  of  particulars, 
at  so  great  a  distance  of  place,  and  greater  of  parties 
concerned  therein.  Thirdly,  if  exact  intelligence  were 
obtained,  as  ages  long  ago  are  written  with  more 
safety  than  truth,  so  the  story  hereof  might  be 
written  with  more  truth  than  safety.  Lastly,  being 
a  civil  business,  it  is  aliened  from  my  subject,  and 
may  justly  be  declined.  If  any  object,  that  it  is 
reducible  to  ecclesiastical  story,  because  one,  as 
they  said,  termed  this  beUum  episcopale,  "the  war 
"  for  bishops  V'  I  conceive  it  presumption  for  so 
mean  a  minister  as  myself  (and  indeed  for  any 
under  that  great  order)  to  undertake  the  writing 

t  [Rather,  the  war  against 
bishops.  For  they  shewed  their 
usual  dishonesty  in  this  cove- 
nant, pretending  that  it  was 
none  other  than  what  had  been 
subscribed  in  the  reign  of 
James  I.;  by  which  artifice 
they  induced  many  to  subscribe 
to  it.  Whereas  in  fact  "  they 
"  had  inserted  a  clause  never 
"  heard  of,  and  quite  contrary 

"  to  the  end  of  that  covenant, 
••  whereby  they  obliged  them- 
"  selves  to  pursue  the  extirpa- 
"  tion  of  bishops,  and  had  the 
"  confidence  to  demand  the 
"  same  in  express  terms  of  the 
"  king,  in  answer  to  a  very 
"  gracious  message  the  king 
"  had  sent  them/'   Clarend.  i 






No  gentleman  in  this  nation  is  more  advantaged  to  be  a  A.  D.  1637. 

scholar  born  than  yourself.     You  may  be  free  of  the  city  of  11 1 

the  muses  by  the   copy  of  your  grandfathers.     By  your 
father's  side,  sir  Adam  Newton b,  tutor  to  prince  Henry  ; 

*  [Henry  Puckering  New- 
ton, son  to  sir  Henry,  whom  he 
did  not  survive.  His  grand- 
father was  dean  of  Durham  in 
1606,  and  tutor  of  prince 
Henry,  and  created  a  baronet 
in  1620.  He  died  in  1629,  and 
partly  before  his  death,  partly 
by  bequest  after  his  decease, 
rebuilt  his  parish  church  of 
Charlton,  in  the  diocese  of  Dur- 
ham. He  married  Dorothy 
daughter  of  sir  John  Pucker- 
ing, knight,  lord  keeper  of  the 
great  seal  in  the  reign  of  Eliza- 
beth. Sir  Henry  his  son  took 
the  surname  of  Puckering  on 
succeeding  to  his  estates,  and 
removed  to  the  priory  in  War- 
wickshire, the  seat  of  his  uncle 
aforesaid.     He  fought  for  his 

sovereign  at  Edge  Hill,  was 
member  of  parliament  for  War- 
wick, and  was  of  a  generous 
spirit,  a  father  to  the  poor,  and 
a  kind  benefactor  to  many  of 
those  who  having  suffered  in 
the  cause  of  royalty  were  yet 
neglected  by  king  Charles  II. 
He  died  before  his  son  Henry 
in  1 700,  at  the  advanced  age  of 
eighty-three.  His  wife  was 
Elizabeth  daughter  of  Thomas 
Murray,  esq.,  tutor  to  king 
Charles  I.] 

h  [A  letter  addressed  to  him 
while  tutor  of  prince  Henry 
respecting  the  education  of  a 
Mr.  Puckering,  has  been  print- 
ed by  Ellis  in  his  Second  Se- 
ries, iii.  p.  220.  See  Smith  in 
vita  Pet.  Junii,  p.  17.] 

hii  second 

.56  The  Church  Histitry  book  xi. 

by  your  mother's  tide,  Mr.  Murray,  tutor  to  king  CharU»c. 
If  you  be  not  more  than  an  ordinary  scholar,  it  will  not 
be  lest  than  an  extraordinary  disgrace :  good  it  not  good 
where  better  is  expected.  But  I  am  confident  if  your 
pains  be  added  to  your  parts,  your  prayers  to  your  pains, 
God's  blessing  mill  be  added  to  your  prayers  to  crown  all 
with  success. 

OW  bishop  Williams  was  sentenced 
the  second  time  in  the  Star-chamber 
on  this  occasion :  Mr.  Lambert  Osbald- 
ston,  schoolmaster  of  Westminster, 
wrote  a  letter  unto  him  wherein  this 
passage:  "The  little  vermin  the  urchin  and  hocus- 
"  pocus  is  this  stormy  Christinas  at  true  and  real 
"  variance  with  the  leviathan d.**  Now  the  bishop 
was  accused  for  divulging  scandalous  libels  on  privy 
councillors,  and  that  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury 
was  meant  by  the  former  names.  The  lord  treasurer 
Weston  by  the  leviathan,  because  he  should  have 
presented  the  libellous  letter  at  the  receipt  thereof 
to   some  justice  of  peace,  and  not  dispersed  the 

c  [Thomas  Murray  succeed- 
ed air  Henry  Saville  in  the  pro- 
vostshin  of  Eton  1622,  which 
he  appears  to  hare  held,  as  did 
hit  predecessor,  by  a  royal  dis- 
pensation, both  being  laymen, 
and  consequently  incompetent 
by  the  Statutes.  It  is  not 
a  little  strange  that  Murray 
should  have  been  a  puritan  and 
disliked  subscription,  for  which 
reason  he  appears  to  have  re- 
fused to  enter  into  holy  orders  j 
and  still  more  strange  that  Wil- 
liams, the  bishop  of  Lincoln, 
should  have  lectured  him  upon 

neglect  "  of  subscription  and 
"  other  conformities."  "  I 
"  schooled  him  soundly  against 
"  puritanisui,"  he  observes  in 
a  letter  to  Buckingham,  "which 
"  he  disavows,  though  aome- 
"  what  faintly ;  and  hope  his 
"  highness  [prince  Charles]  and 
"  the  king  will  second  it."  Ca- 
bala, p.  264.  See  also  Wood's 
Ath.  i.467.] 

d  [This  letter,  which  is  print- 
ed at  full  length  in  Rusbworth, 
iii.  803,  is  dated  Jan.  9,  1633, 
that  is,  1634.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  157 

2.  The  bishop  pleaded,  that  he  remembered  not A- JJ- ,63T-t 

113  v»nss»  x. 

the  receiving  of  any  such  letter,  that  he  conceived 

no  law  directs  the  subject  to  bring  to  a  justice  of 
peace  enigmas  or  riddles,  but  plain  literal  and 
grammatical  libels,  against  a  known  and  clearly 
deciphered  person.  Mr.  Osbaldston  denied  the 
words  so  meant  by  him,  and  deposed  that  he  in- 
tended one  Dr.  Spicer  a  civilian  by  hocus-pocus, 
and  the  lord  Richardson  (alive  when  the  letter  was 
written,  but  then  dead)  for  the  leviathan. 

3.  Here  a  paper  was  produced  by  Mr.  Walker 
the  bishop's  secretary,  and  found  in  a  bandbox  at 
Bugden,  wherein  the  bishop  had  thus  written  unto 
him :  "  Here  is  a  strange  thing,  Mr.  Osbaldston  im- 
M  portunes  me  to  contribute  to  my  lord  treasurer's 
u  use  some  charges  upon  the  little  great  man,  and 
"  assures  me  they  are  mortally  out.  I  have  utterly 
"  refused  to  meddle  in  this  business,  and  I  pray  you 
**  learn  from  Mr.  S.  and  Mr.  H.  if  any  such  falling 
•*  out  be,  or  whether  somebody  hath  not  gulled  the 
schoolmaster  in  these  three  last  letters,  and  keep 
it  to  yourself  what  I  write  unto  you.  If  my  lord 
treasurer  would  be  served  by  me,  he  must  use  a 
more  near,  solid,  and  trusty  messenger,  and  free 
"  me  from  the  bonds  of  the  Star-chamber,  ehe  let 
them  fight  it  out  for  me c."  Now  Mr.  Walker 
being  pressed  by  a  friend  why  he  would  discover 
this  letter  to  his  master's  prejudice,  averred  he 
brought  it  forth  as  a  main  witness  of  his  innocency, 
and  as  able  to  clear  him  of  all  in  the  information : 
however  it  was  strongly  misunderstood,  for  by  com- 
paring both  letters  together  the  court  collected  the 
bishop  guilty f. 

•  [This  letter  is  also  at  full        f  [In  refutation  of  the  bi- 
length  in  Rushworth,  ib.]  shop's   defence,  the   attorney 




The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1638.     4.  Sir  John  Finch  fined  him  a  just  ten  thousand 

11 1  pounds,    rotundi    numeri    causa,    whom    secretary 

Windebank  p  did  follow.  The  rest  brought  it  down 
to  eight  thousand  pounds  only,  one  lord  thought 
fitting  to  impose  no  fine  upon  him,  rendering  this 
reason,  quijacet  in  terra  non  habet  unde  cadet 

5.  The  bishop  already  being  sequestered  from  all 
his  temporal  lands,  spiritual  preferment,  and  his 
person  imprisoned,  Mr.  Osbaldston  was  sentenced 
five  thousand  pounds,  loss  of  his  good  living  at 
Wethamstead,  and  to  have  his  ears  tacked  to  the 
pillory  in  the  presence  of  his  scholars,  whom  his 
industry  had  improved  to  as  great  eminency  of 
learning  as  any  of  his  predecessors,  insomuch  that 
he  had  at  the  present  above  fourscore  doctors,  in 
the  two  universities,  and  three  learned  faculties,  all 
gratefully  acknowledging  their  education  under  him. 
But  this  last  personal  penalty  he  escaped  by  going 
beyond  Canterbury,  conceived  seasonably  gone  be- 
yond the  seas,  whilst  he  secretly  concealed  himself 
in  London  h. 

6.  All  this  put  not  a  period  to  the  bishop's 
troubles ;  his  unsequestered  spirit  so  supported  him, 
that  some  of  his   adversaries  frowned  because  he 

general  urged,  that  this  inter- 
pretation would  not  serve ;  be- 
cause these  letters  were  found 
in  a  box  in  the  bishop's  house 
at  Bugden ;  and  when  the  bi- 
shop heard  they  were  found,  he 
said  Osbaldston  was  undone. 
That  the  bishop's  secretary, 
Walker,  and  the  clerk  of  the 
kitchen,  had  heard  their  master 
discourse  on  the  subject  of  these 
letters,  that  these  names  were 
frequently  used  by  him  and 
Osbaldston,  and  that  by  them 

was  meant  the  archbishop  and 
the  treasurer.    Rushworth,  ib. 

P.  8340 

8  [Not   only  Windebanke, 

but  some  others.] 

h  [And  this  principally  by 
the  connivance  of  archbishop 
Laud,  as  Heylyn  assures  us. 
See  "The  Appeal"  &c.  part  iii. 
p.  25.  He  had  fled,  however, 
before  the  trial  ended,  Rush- 
worth,  p.  806,  as  it  was  report- 
ed, but  in  reality  concealed 
himself  in  Drury  Lane.] 

cent.  xvii.  qf  Britain.  159 

could  smile  under  so  great  vexatious.     A  design  ^A'^\^3f' 

8et  afoot,  either  to  make  him  voluntarily  surrender 

his  bishopric  deanery,  and  dignities,  (permitted  per- 
chance a  poor  bishopric  in  Ireland,)  or  else  to  press 
his  degradation :  in  order  whereunto  a  new  informa- 
tion with  ten  articles  is  drawn  up  against  him, 
though  for  the  main,  but  the  consequence  and  de- 
ductions of  the  fault  for  tampering  with  witnesses, 
for  which  in  the  13th  of  king  Charles  he  had  been 
so  severely  censured. 

7.  To  this  the  bishop  put  in  a  plea,  and  demurrer, 
that  Deus  nonjudicat  bis  in  id  ipsum,  God  punisheth 
not  the  same  fault  twice:  that  this  is  the  way  to 
make  causes  immense  and  punishments  infinite : 
that  whereas  there  was  two  things  that  philosophers 
denied,  infiniteness  and  vacuity,  Kilvert  had  found 
them  both  in  this  prosecution;  infiniteness  in  the 
bishop's  cause,  and  vacuity  in  his  purse:  that  the 
profane  wits  of  this  age  should  begin  to  doubt  of 
the  necessity  of  believing  a  hell  hereafter,  when 
such  eternal  punishments  are  found  here  in  such 
kind  of  prosecution:  he  added  also  that  he  could 
prove  it,  that  it  was  a  conspiracy  of  Kil vert's  with 
other  persons,  if  he  might  have  freedom  to  bring 
his  witnesses  against  them;  which,  because  it  cast 
scandal  on  those  who  were  pro  domino  rege,  was 
now  denied  him. 

8.  Then  put  he  in  a  rejoinder  and  an  appeal  unto 
the  next  parliament,  whensoever  it  should  be  assem- 
bled, pleading  his  privilege  of  peerage  as  his  free- 
hold, and  that  he  could  not  be  degraded  of  his 
orders  and  dignities.  This  was  filed  in  the  Star- 
chamber  under  the  clerk's  book,  and  copies  thereof 
signed  with  the  usual  officers.     Now  although  this 

160  Tike  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1630.  was  but  a  poor  help,  no  light  of  a  parliament  dawn- 
— — ^L-l  ing  at  that  time ;  yet  it  so  far  quashed  the  proceed- 
ings, that  it  never  came  to  further  hearing,  and  the 
matter  superseded  from  any  final  censure. 
Scotch  9.  And  now  began  Scotland  to  be  an  actor,  and 

roi  begin,  g^^j  ^M  ye^  a  ^j  8pectator  thereof,  as  sus- 
pecting ere  long  to  feel  what  she  beheld.  There  is 
a  high  hill  in  Cumberland  called  Skiddaw,  and  an- 
other answering  thereto  (Scrussell  by  name)  in 
Anandale  in  Scotland,  and  the  people  dwelling  by 
have  an  old  rhyme : 

if  Skiddaw  i  hath  a  cap, 

Scrussle  wots  full  well  of  that. 

Meaning,  that  such  the  vicinity  (and  as  I  may  say 
sympathy)  betwixt  these  two  hills,  that  if  one  be 
sick  with  a  mist  of  clouds,  the  other  soon  after  is  sad 
on  the  like  occasion.     Thus  none,  seeing  it  now  foul 
weather  in  Scotland,  could  expect  it  fair  sunshine  in 
England,  but  that  she  must  share  in  the  same  mise- 
ries ;  as  soon  after  it  came  to  pass. 
The  reader      10.    Let   those  who   desire    perfect    information 
othTrau-    hereof,  satisfy  themselves  from  such  as  have  or  may 
thors*        hereafter  write  the  history  of  the  state k.     In  whom 
they  shall  find  how  king  Charles  took  his  journey 
northward,  against  the  Scottish  covenanters.     How 
some  weeks  after,  on  certain  conditions,  a  peace  was 
concluded  betwixt  them.    How  his  majesty  returned 
to  London ;  and  how  this  palliated  cure  soon  after 
brake  out  again,  more  dangerous  than  ever  before. 
AparKa-        H.  In  these  distracted  times  a  parliament  was 

1  Camden's  Brit,  in  Cumber,  son's  Reign  of  King  Charles, 

p.  767.  p.  247.  Clarendon's  Rebellion. 

k  [See  L'Estrange,  Reign  of  1.201.  Burnet's  Memoirs  of  the 

King  Charles,  p.  165.  Sander.  Dukes  of  Hamilton,  p.  x  16.] 


of  Britain, 


called  with  the  wishes  of  all,  and  hopes  of  most  that  a.  d.  1638. 
were  honest,  yet  not  without  the  fears  of  some  who  - — ^-^ 
were    wise,    what   would    be  the   success   thereof !.  convocation 
With  this  parliament  began  a  convocation;  all  thecall6d' 
mediate  transactions  (for  aught  I  can  find  out)  are 
embezzled;  and  therein  it  was  ordered,  that  none 
present  should  take  any  private  notes  in  the  house, 
.    whereby  the  particular  passages  thereof  are  left  at 
great    uncertainty™.      However,   so   far    as   I   can 
remember,  I  will  faithfully  relate",  being  comforted 
with    this   consideration,   that   generally  he  is   ac- 
counted an  impartial  arbitrator  who  displeaseth  both 

12.  On  the  first  day  thereof  Dr.  Turner,  chaplain  Doctor 
to   the    archbishop   of  Canterbury,   made   a   Latin  text  and 
sermon  in  the  quire  of  St.  Paul's.     His  text,  M atth. Bepmon* 
x.  16,  Behold,  I  send  you  forth  as  sheep  in  the  midst 
of  wolves".     In   the  close  of   his  sermon  he  com* 
plained,  that  all  bishops  held  not  the  reins  of  church 
discipline  with  an  even  hand,  but  that  some  of  them 
were  too  easy  and  remiss  in  the  ordering  thereof. 
Whereby  whiles  they  sought  to  gain  to  themselves 
the  popular  praise  of  meekness  and  mildness,  they 
occasionally  cast  on  other  bishops  (more  severe  than 
themselves)   the  unjust   imputation    of  rigour   and 
tyranny;    and  therefore  he  advised  them  all  with 

1  [Of  the  proceedings  of  this 
parliament,  see  Clarendon's  Re- 
bell  ion  t  i.  232.] 

m  [A  long  account  of  it  how- 
ever will  be  found  in  Nalson's 
Collections,  i.  35 1,  a  work  un- 
dertaken by  the  advice  and 
assistance  of  abp.  Sancroft,  and 
therefore  very  trustworthy  in 
these  points.     The  only  order 


however,  as  to  silence,  of  which 
Fuller  speaks  in  this  passage, 
related  to  the  canons  then  to 
be  proposed,  an  order  made  by 
the  house  themselves.  See 
Nalson,  ib.  p.  363.] 

"  [Our  author  was  proctor 
for  Bristol  on  this  occasion.] 

0  [See  Wilkins'  Cone,  iv, 
P-  5*8.] 


162  771  e  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  i64o.  equal   strictness  to   urge   an   universal  conformity. 
- —  Sermon  ended,  we  chose  Dr.  Stewart,  dean  of  Chi- 
chester, prolocutor  p. 
The  effect       13.  Next  day  of  sitting  we  met  at  Westminster, 
bishop's     in  the  chapel  of  king  Henry  the  Seventh,  both  the 
Bpeech#      houses  of  convocation  being  joined  together,  when 
the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  entertained  them  with 
a  Latin  speech,  well  nigh  three  quarters  of  an  hour 
gravely  uttered,  his   eyes   ofttimes  being  but   one 
remove  from  weeping.   It  consisted  most  of  generals, 
bemoaning  the  distempers  of  the  church,  but  con- 
cluded it  with  a  special  passage,  acquainting  us  how 
highly  we  were  indebted  to  his  majesty's  favour,  so 
far  intrusting  the  integrity  and  ability  of  that  convo- 
cation, as  to  empower  them  with  his  commission,  the 
like  whereof  was  not  granted  for  many  years  before, 
to  alter  old,  or  make  new  canons  for  the   better 
government  of  the  church^. 
The  just         14.  Some  wise  men  in  the  convocation  began  now 
suspicions   ^  ^  jeaioug  0f  the  event  of  new  canons,  yea,  became 

fearful  of  their  own  selves,  for  having  too  great  power, 
lest  it  should  tempt  them  to  be  over  tampering  in 
innovations.  They  thought  it  better,  that  this  convo- 
cation, with  its  predecessors,  should  be  censured  for 
laziness,  and  the  solemn  doing  of  just  nothing,  rather 
than  to  run  the  hazard  by  over  activity  to  do  any- 
thing unjust.  For,  as  waters  long  dammed  up,  oft- 
times  flounce  and  fly  out  too  violently,  when  their 
sluices  are  pulled  up,  and  they  let  loose  on  a  sudden; 
so  the  judicious  feared,  lest  the  convocation,  whose 
power  of  meddling  with  church  matters  had  been 

P    [Dr.    Richard    Stewart,     Nalson's  Collections,  i.  358/] 
clerk  of  his  majesty's  closet.         4  [This  commission  is  print- 
Heylyn's  Laud,  p.  423.  See  also    ed  in  Nalson,  ib.  p.  358.] 


cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  163 

bridled  up  for  many  years  before,  should  now,  en- a.  d.  i64o. 

abled  with  such  power,  overact  their  parts,  espe- ^Ll 

cially  in  such  dangerous  and  discontented  times. 
Yea,  they  suspected,  lest  those  who  formerly  had 
outrun  the  canons  with  their  additional  conformity, 
(ceremonizing  more  than  was  enjoined,)  now  would 
make  the  canons  come  up  to  them,  making  it  neces- 
sary for  others,  what  voluntarily  they  had  practised 

15.  Matters  began  to  be  in  agitation,  when  on  a  The  pariia- 
sudden  the  parliament  (wherein  many  things  were  deniy  du- 
started,  nothing  hunted  down  or  brought  to  per-8°v 
fection)  was  dissolved.     Whilst  the  immediate  cause 
hereof  is  commonly  cast    on  the  king  and   court, 
demanding  so   many  subsidies  at   once,    (England 
being   as   yet    unacquainted   with    such    prodigious 
payments,)  the  more  conscientious  look  higher  and 
remoter,  on  the  crying  sins  of  our  kingdom.     And 

from  this  very  time  did  God  begin  to  gather  the 
twigs  of  that  rod,  (a  civil  war,)  wherewith  soon  after 
he  intended  to  whip  a  wanton  nation. 

16.  Next  day  the  convocation  came  together,  asVetthe 

.  i    /»      ii    convocation 

most  supposed,  merely  meeting  to  part,  and  finally  Rtiii  con- 
to  dissolve  themselves.  When,  contrary  to  general  ,nue** 
expectation,  it  was  motioned,  to  improve  the  present 
opportunity,  in  perfecting  the  new  canons  which 
they  had  begun.  And  soon  after  a  new  commission 
was  brought  from  his  majesty,  by  virtue  whereof  we 
were  warranted  still  to  sit,  not  in  the  capacity  of  a 
convocation,  but  of  a  synod,  to  prepare  our  canons 
for  the  royal  assent  thereunto.  But  Dr.  Brownrigg, 
Dr.  Hacket,  Dr.  Holdsworth,  Master  Warmistreyr, 

r  [Proctor  for  Worcester.] 
M  S 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1640.  with  others,  to  the  number  of  thirty-six,  (the  whole 
1  house  consisting  of  about  six  score8,)  earnestly  pro- 
tested against  the  continuance  of  the  convocation1. 

*  [The  house  consisted  of 
147  members  according  to  the 
list  printed,  see  Nalson.  Some 
of  course  would  not  be  pre- 

1  [Dr.  Heylyn  and  Fuller 
were  both  present  at  this  con- 
vocation, but  vary  in  their  nar- 
ratives respecting  its  proceed- 
ings, which  isnot  to  be  wondered 
at,  since  the  circumstances  re- 
ferred to  occurred  sixteen  years 
l>efore  their  controversy.  Dr. 
Heylyn  says :  "I  have  not 
"  heard  of  any  such  motion  as 
"  our  author  speaks  of  from 
"  any  who  were  present  at  that 
"  time,  though  I  have  dili- 
"  gently  laboured  to  inform 
"  myself  in  it.  Nor  is  it  pro- 
"  bable,  that  any  such  motion 
"  should  be  made  as  the  case 
"  then  stood.  The  parliament 
"  had  been  dissolved  on  Tues- 
"  day,  5th  May ;  the  clergy 
met  in  convocation  the  mor- 
row after,  expecting  then  to 
"  be  dissolved  and  licensed  to 
"  go  home  again.  But  con- 
44  trary  to  that  general  expccta- 
"  (io?iy  instead  of  hearing  some 
"  news  of  his  majesty's  writ 
"  for  their  dissolution,  there 
"  came  an  order  from  the  arch- 
"  bishop  to  the  prolocutor  to 
"  adjourn  till  Saturday.  And 
M  this  was  all  the  business  that 
"  was  done  that  day ;  the 
"  clergy  generally  being  in  no 
"  small  amazement,  when  they 
*'  were  required  not  to  dissolve 
"  till  further  order.  Saturday 
"  (9th  May)  being  come,  what 



f  f 
f  « 
f  « 
•  t 


then  ?  •  A  new  commission/ 
saith  he,  '  was  brought  from 
his  majesty,  by  virtue  where- 
of we  were  warranted  to  sit, 
not  in  the  capacity  of  a  con- 
vocation, but  of  a  synod. '  I 
had  thought  our  author  with 
his  wise  and  judicious  friends 
had  better  hearkened  to  the 
tenour  of  that  commission, 
than  to  come  out  with  such 
a  wild  and  gross  absurdity  as 
this  is,  so  fit  for  none  as  sir 
Edward  Deering,  and  for 
him  only  to  make  sport  withal 
in  the  house  of  commons. 
At  the  beginning  of  the  con- 
vocation, when  the  prolo- 
cutor was  admitted,  the  abp. 
produced  his  majesty's  com- 
mission under  the  great  seal; 
whereby  the  clergy  was  en- 
abled to  consult,  treat  of, 
and  conclude  such  canons, 
as  they  conceived  most  ex- 
pedient to  the  peace  of  the 
church  and  his  majesty's  ser- 
vice. But  this  commission 
being  to  expire  with  the  end 
of  the  parliament,  it  became 
void,  of  no  effect  as  soon  as 
the  parliament  was  dissolved. 
Which  being  made  known 
unto  the  king,  who  was  re- 
solved the  convocation  should 
continue,  and  that  the  clergy 
should  go  on  in  completing 
those  canons  which  they  had 
so  happily  begun,  he  caused 
a  new  commission  to  be  sent 
unto  them,  in  the  same  words 
and  to  the  very  same  effect 
as  the  other  was,  but  that  it 


of'  Britain. 


17-  These  importunately  pressed  that  it  might  sink  a.d.  1640. 
with  the  parliament,  it  being  ominous  and  without    

"  was  to  continue  durante  be- 
14  neplacito  only,  as  the  other 
"  was  not.  The  Appeal,  &c." 
P.  iii.  p.  33. 

These  remarks  of  Dr.  Hey- 
lyn  are  without  doubt  substan- 
tially correct,  as  they  agree 
with  the  statement  made  by 
the  archbishop  on  his  trial. 
And  as  his  narrative  of  these 
events  supplies  »ome  deficiencies 
in  Fuller's  account,  and  cor- 
rects some  of  his  errors,  I 
have  quoted  it  at  considerable 
length.  The  following  is  the 
archbishop's  version  of  these 
occurrences : 

"  During  this  parliament  the 
"  clergy  had  agreed  in  convo- 
"  cation  to  give  his  majesty  six 
"  subsidies,  payable  in  six  years, 
"  which  come  to  20,000/.  a 
"  year  for  six  years,  but  the 
"  act  of  it  was  not  made  up. 
"  His  majesty  seeing  what  lay 
"  upon  him,  and  what  fears 
*■  there  were  of  the  Scots,  was 
"  not  willing  to  lose  these  sub- 
M  sidies,  and  therefore  thought 
"  upon  the  continuing  of  the 
"  convocation,  though  the  par- 
"  liament  was  ended,  but  had 
"  not  opened  those  thoughts  of 
"  his  to  me. 

"  Now  I  had  sent  to  dissolve 
"  the  convocation  at  their  next 
*'  sitting,  haste  and  trouble  of 
these  businesses  making  me 
forget,  that  I  was  to  have  the 
king's  writ  for  the  dismissing 
"  as  well  as  the  convening  of 
**  it.  Word  was  brought  me 
"  of  this  from  the  convocation 
"  bouse,  while  I  was  sitting  in 
M  council  and  his  majesty  pre- 




"  sent.  Hereupon,  when  the 
"  council  rose,  I  moved  his 
'*  majesty  for  a  writ :  his  ma- 
"  jesty  gave  me  an  unlookedfor 
"  reply,  That  he  was  witling 
"  to  have  the  subsidies  which 
••  we  had  granted  him,  and 
"  that  we  should  go  on  with  the 
*r  finishing  of  those  canons  which 
"  he  had  given  us  power  under 
t(  the  broad  seal  of  England 
"  to  make.  And  when  I  re- 
"  plied  it  would  be  excepted 
"  against,  in  all  likelihood  by 
"  divers,  and  desired  his  ma- 
"  jesty  to  advise  well  upon  it, 
"  the  king  answered  me  pre- 
"  sently,  that  he  had  spoken 
"  with  the  lord-keeper,  the 
"  lord  Finch,  about  it,  and  that 
"  he  assured  him  it  was  legal. 
"  /  confess  I  was  a  little  trou- 
"  bled]  both  at  the  difficulties 
"  of  the  time,  and  at  the  answer 
"  itself;  that  a/ler  so  many 
"  years*  faithful  service,  in  a 
"  business  concerning  the  church 
t€  so  nearly,  his  majesty  wotdd 
"  speak  with  the  lord-keeper, 
"  both  without  me,  and  before 
"  he  would  move  it  to  me,  and 
"  somewhat  I  said  thereupon 
"  which  pleased  not;  but  the 
l<  particulars  I  remember  not. 
"  Upon  this,  I  was  command- 
u  ed  to  sit  and  go  on  with  the 
M  convocation.  At  first,  some 
"  little  exception  was  taken 
"  there  by  two  or  three  of  the 
"  lower  house  of  convocation, 
"  whether  we  might  sit  or  no. 
"  I  acquainted  his  majesty  with 
"  the  doubt,  and  humbly  be- 
"  sought  him,  that  his]  learned 
"  council,  and  other  persons  of 

M  3 


T/te  Church  History 

BOOK    XI. 

a.d.  i64o.  precedent,  that  the  one  should  survive,  when  the 

"  other  was  expired.     To  satisfy  these,  an  instrument 

dissent*  was  brought  into  synod,  signed  with  the  hands  of 
^against  'be  l°rd  privy-seal,  the  two  chief  justices,  and  other 
the  con-     judges,  justifying  our  so  sitting  in  the  nature  of  a 

tinuance     *      °     '  °  J      °  ° 

thereof,      synod,  to  be  legal  according  to  the   laws   of  the 
realm u.     It  ill  becometh  clergymen,  to  pretend  to 






•'  honour,  well  acquainted  with 
"  the  laws  of  the  realm,  might 
"  deliver  their  judgment  upon 
"  it.     This   his   majesty   gra- 
"  ciously   approved,    and    the 
"  question   was  put  to  them : 
"  they  answered  as  followeth 
under  their  hands  (see  this 
instrument  in  note  n) . 
"  This    judgment   of  these 
"  great  lawyers,"  he  continues, 
"  settled  both  houses  of  con. 
"  vocation.     So  we  proceeded 
"  according  to  the  power  given 
us  under  the  broad  seal,  as 
is   required   by  the   statute 
25  Hen.  VIII.  c.  19. 
"  In  this   convocation  thus 
"  continued,  we  made  up  our 
"  act,  perfect  for  the  gift  of  six 
"  subsidies,  according  to  the  an- 
"  cient  form  in  that  behalf,  and 
"  delivered  it  under  seal  to  his 
majesty.    This  passed  nemine 
refragante,   as    may   appear 
apudAcla.  And  we  followed  a 
precedent  in  my  lord    abp. 
Whitgift's  time,  an.  1586. 
'*  Together  with  this  act  for 
subsidies,  we  went  on  in  de- 
"  liberation  for  certain  canons, 
"  thought  necessary  to  be  addr 
"  ed,  for  the   better  govern,. 
"  ment  and  more  settled  peace 
of  the  church,  which  began 
to   be   much   disquieted    by 
'*  the  proceedings  of  some  fac- 
"  tious  men  (which  have  since 









"  more  openly  and  more  vio- 
"  lently  shewed  themselves). 
44  The  canons  which  we  made 
"  were  in  number  seventeen, 
"  and  at  the  time  of  the  sub- 
*'  8cription,  no  man  refused  or 
"  so  much  as  checked  at  any 
"  one  canon,  or  any  one  breach 
"  in  any  one  of  them,  saving  a 
"  canonical  or  two,"  &c.  Trou- 
bles and  Trial,  p.  80.] 

a    [The  instrument  ran   as 
follows : 

"  The  convocation  being  calL 
"  ed  by  the  king's  writ  under 
"  the  great  seal,  doth  continue 
"  until  it  be  dissolved  bv  writ 
"  or  commission  under  the  great 
"  seal,  notwithstanding  the  par* 
"  liament  be  dissolved. 
"  14  Maii,  1640. 
"  Jo.  Finch,  C.  S. 

"  H.  Manchester. 

"  John  Bramston. 

"  Edward  Littleton. 

"  Ralph  Whitfield. 

"  John  Bankes. 

"  Robert  Heath." 
(Laud's  Troubles,  p.  80. 
Nalson's  Coll.  i.  364.) 
The  long  parliament  however 
(notwithstanding  this  opinion) 
made  this  continuation  of  the 
convocation  a  matter  of  great 
complaint  against  the  archbi- 
shop. It  must  not  however  on 
that  account  be  inferred  that 
there   was   any   thing   illegal, 


of  Britain, 


more  skill  in  the  laws  than  so  learned  sages  in  that  ad.  1640. 

~°  i6Chai.  I. 

profession,  and  therefore  impartial  judgments  may 

take  off  from  the  fault  of  the  followers,  and  lay  it  on 
the  leaders,  that  this  synod  sat  when  the  parliament 
was  dissolved.  This  made  the  aforesaid  thirty-six 
dissenters  (though  solemnly  making  their  oral  pro- 
tests to  the  contrary,  yet)  not  to  dissever  themselves, 
or  enter  any  act  in  scriptis  against  the  legality  of 
this  assembly;  the  rather,  because  they  hoped  to 
moderate  proceedings  with  their  presence.  Surely 
some  of  their  own  coat,  which  since  have  censured 
these  dissenters  for  cowardly  compliance,  and  doing 
no  more  in  this  cause,  would  have  done  less  them- 
selves if  in  their  condition. 

18.  Thus  was  an  old  convocation  converted  into  a  Out  of  the 

j_  ■■  .•     •     j»   •    •    .     1  ,  •         1     •        burial  of  an 

new  synod*;  and  now  their  disjointed  meeting  being  old  convo- 
cation the 

act  without  parliament.     Thii^^ 
was  a  point  of  Erastianism  to 

either  in  its  sittings  or  proceed- 
ings. In  the  disputes  which 
afterwards  arose  on  this  subject, 
both  parties  seem  to  have  as- 
sumed it  as  an  unquestionable 
right,  that  the  king  might  as- 
semble and  continue  convoca- 
tion, whether  parliament  was 
sitting  or  not.  Dr.  Wake  was 
for  making  the  sitting  and  act- 
ings of  convocation  entirely  de- 
pendent on  the  free  pleasure 
of  the  prince ;  his  opponent 
Dr.  Atterbury,  taking  at  least 
a  juster  view  of  the  powers 
and  rights  of  the  church  ca- 
tholic (whatever  the  practice  of 
this  kingdom  may  have  been), 
claimed  for  the  church  an  in- 
alienable right  of  making  ca- 
nons for  itself,  a  right  which  it 
never  surrendered  to  the  civil 
power.  Neither  however  seem 
to  have  imagined  that  con- 
vocation   could    not    sit    and 

which  even  Tillotson  had  not 
descended.  That  the  church 
before  emperors  were  Chris- 
tianized did  hold  synods  of  her 
own  pure  authority  is  indis- 
putable ;  that  after  the  time 
of  Constant! ne,  though  synods 
were  summoned  by  imperial  au- 
thority, yet  that  the  church  did 
not  conceive  that  such  assemblies 
were  dependent  on  mere  royal 
grace  and  favour,  is  evident 
from  various  declarations  made 
to  that  purpose,  collected  by 
Dr.  Brett,  in  his  Church  Go- 
vernment (p.  295.  ed.  2d). 
This  I  think  is  quite  enough  to 
justify  the  archbishop's  pro- 
ceedings in  this  particular,  had 
he  not  been  fortified  by  the 
king's  warrant.] 

*    [This   passage    has   been 
controverted   by  Dr.  Ileylyn, 

M  4 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  164a  set  together  again,  they  betook  themselves  to  consult 
'  about  new  canons.     Now  because  great  bodies  move 

who  affirms  that  the  words  "as 
"  used  in  England  of  late 
"  times"  are  synonymous ;  nor 
does  our  author  deny  it,  but 
defends  his  use  of  them  by  the 
opinion  of  those  who  made 
this  distinction  between  them  : 
"  1.  Convocation,  which  is  in 
"  the  beginning  and  ending 
"  parallel  with  the  parliament; 
"  2.  Synod,  which  is  called  by 
"  the  king  out  of  parliament." 
The  expression  however,  which 
appears  to  have  been  bandied 
about  at  this  time,  was  "  bor. 
"  rowed  from  the  speech  of  a 
"  witty  gentleman,  as  he  is 
"  called  by  the  author  of  the 
"  History  of  the  Reign  of 
"  King  Charles,  and  since  by 
*'  him  declared  to  be  the  lord 
"  George  Digby,  now  earl  of 
"  Bristol.  But  he  that  spent 
"  most  of  his  wit  upon  it,  and 
"  therefore  gave  occasion  unto 
"  others  for  the  like  mistak- 
"  ings,  was  sir  Edward  Deer- 
"  ing,  in  a  speech  made  against 
"  these  canons  an.  1640,  where 
we  find  these  flourishes : 
'  *  Would  you  confute  the 
convocation  ?  they  were  a 
••  holy  synod.  Would  you 
"  argue  against  the  synod? 
•c  why  they  were  commissioners. 
"  Would  you  dispute  the  com- 
"  mission  ?  they  will  mingle 
"  all  powers  together,  and  an- 
"  swer  that  they  were  some 
"  fourth  thing,  that  neither  we 
"  know  nor  imagine ;  that  is  to 
"  say  (as  it  follows  afterwards, 
"  P*  57)>  a  convocational-syno- 
■•  dical  assembly  of  commis- 
"  sioners.' "     Heylyn   in    The 



Appeal,  &c.  P.  iii.  p.  37.  Cla- 
rendon says,  that  after  the  de- 
termination of  the  last,  the 
convocation-house  was  "  bv  a 
"  new  writ  continued,  and  sat 
"  for  the  space  of  above  a 
"  month  under  the  proper  title 
"  of  a  synod ;  made  canons, 
"  which  was  thought  that  it 
"  might,  and  gave  subsidies 
"  out  of  parliament,  and  en- 
"  joined  oaths,  which  certainly 
"  it  might  not  do :  in  a  word, 
"  did  many  things  which  in 
"  the  best  of  times  night  have 
"  been  questioned,  and  there- 
"  fore  were  sure  to  be  con- 
"  demned  in  the  worst."  Re- 
bellion, i.  261.  Dr.  Barnard 
gives  us  a  further  account  of 
this  continuation  of  the  convo- 
cation, in  his  Life  of  Dr.  Hey- 
lyn, p.  180.  "The  convoca- 
'*  tion,"  he  says,  "  usually  end- 
"  eth  in  course  the  next  day 
"  after  the  dissolution  of  par- 
"  liament.  But  the  Doctor 
"  (Heylyn)  well  knowing  that 
"  one  great  end  of  calling  par- 
"  liaments  is  to  raise  the  king 
"  money  for  the  public  con- 
•'  cern8,  he  therefore  went  to 
"  Lambeth,  and  shewed  the 
"  archbishop  a  precedent,  in 
"  the  reign  of  Q.  Elizabeth, 
"  for  granting  subsidies,  or  a 
"  benevolence  by  convocation 
"  to  be  levied  upon  the  clergy, 
"  without  the  help  of  a  parlia- 
"  ment,  whereby  the  king's 
"  necessities  for  money  might 
"  be  supplied  :  and  so  it  suc- 
•'  cessfully  fell  out,  the  arch- 
"  bishop  acquainting  the  king 
44  with  this  present  expediency, 


of  Britain. 


slowly,  and  are  fitter  to  be  the  consentere  to  thauAD- 164©- 

.".  i»i.  .  ii/«  1 6  Chat.  I. 

the  contrivers  of  business,  it  was  thought  fit  to  con 

44  the  convocation  still  conti- 
"  nued  sitting,  notwithstanding 
"  the  dissolution  of  parliament. 
"  And  when  this  was  scrupled 
"  at  by  some  of  the  house,  the 
"  Doctor  resolved  their  doubts 
"  and  rid  them  of  their  fears, 
'*  by  shewing  them  the  dis- 
"  tinction  betwixt  a  king's  writ 
"  for  calling  a  parliament,  and 
"  that  for  assembling  a  convo- 
"  cation  ;  their  different  forms 
"  and  independence  of  one  upon 
"  another.  Finally,  it  was  de- 
"  termined  by  the  king  him- 
"  self*  and  the  learned  council 
"  in  the  law,  that  the  convoca- 
"  tion  called  by  his  majesty's 
"  writ  was  to  be  continued  till 
"  it  was  dissolved  by  his  writ, 
"  notwithstanding  the  disso- 
*'  lution  of  parliament.  This 
"  benefit  the  king  got  by  their 
"  sitting,  six  subsidies  under 
*'  the  name  of  benevolences, 
"  which  the  clergy  paid  him. 

"  On  Friday,  May  29,  the 
"  canons  of  that  convocation 
"  were  unanimously  subscribed 
"  unto  by  all  the  bishops  and 
*4  clergy,  no  one  of  them  dis- 
"  senting  but  the  bishop  of 
**  Gloucester,  for  which  he  was 
"  deservedly  suspended,  who 
"  afterwards  turned  papist,  and 
"  was  the  only  renegado  prelate 

'•  of  this  land But  lastly, 

"  to  consider  the  sad  condition 
"  of  that  convocation  before 
41  thev  were  dissolved.  The 
"  Doctor,  as  one  of  their  fellow 
44  members,  speaks  most  feel- 











































ingly  :  during  all  the  time  of 
their  sitting,  they  were  under 
those  horrid  fears,  by  reason 
of  the  discontents  falling  upon 
the  parliament's  dissolution, 
'  that  the  king  was  fain   to 
set  a  guard  about  Westmin- 
ster  Abbey,   for  the    whole 
time  of  their  sitting.     Poor 
men,  to  what  a  distress  were 
they  brought:  in  danger  of 
the  king's  displeasure  if  they 
rose,  of  the  people's  fury  if 
they  sat ;  in  danger  of  being 
beaten  down  by  the  following 
parliament,  when  the   work 
was  done ;  and,  after  all,  ob- 
noxious to  the  lash  of  censo- 
rious tongues  for  their  good  in- 
tendments; for  notwithstand- 
ing their  great  care  that  all 
things  might  be  done   with 
decency  and  to   edification, 
every  one  must  have  his  blow 
at  them*.'   For  Prynne  pub- 
lished  The   Unbishoping  of 
Timothy  and  Titus,  and  his 
other   libel    of    News   from 
Ipswich,  wherein  he  called 
the  archbishop  of  Canterbury 
archagent  of  the  devil,  '  that 
Beelzebub  himself  had  been 
archbishop,  and  all  the  bi- 
shops were  Luciferian  lords.' 
The    like    reproaches    were 
thundered  out  of  the  pulpit 
by  Burton  in  his  sermon  on 
Prov.    xxiv.    22,    where    he 
abused  the  text  and  bishops 
sufficiently,  calling  them  in- 
stead of  fathers  step- fathers, 
for  pillars  caterpillars,  limbs 

•  Heylyn'i  Obs.  on  I/F?strange*n  Char.  I.  p.  181. 


The  Church  History 


A.  D.  1640.  tract  the  synod  into  a  select  committee  of  some  six 

—  and  twenty,  beside  the  prolocutor,  who  were  to  ripen 

matters,  as  to  the  propounding  and  drawing  up  the 
forms  to  what  should  pass,   yet   so,  that   nothing 
should  be  accounted  the  act  of  the  house,  till  thrice 
(as  I  take  it)  publicly  voted  therein  ?. 
why  the        19.  Expect  not  here  of  me  an  exemplification  of 

canons  of  *  1     1     1      /•  •      j_i_  •  *• 

this  synod  such  canons  as  were  concluded  of  in  this  convocation. 
uT<aem-y  Partly,  because  being  printed  they  are  public  to  every 
piified.  eye>  but  chiefly,  because  they  were  never  put  in 
practice  or  generally  received.  The  men  of  Persia 
did  never  look  on  their  little  ones  till  they  were 
seven  years  old,  (bred  till  that  time  with  their 
mothers  and  nurses,)  nor  did  they  account  them  in 
their  genealogies  amongst  their  children  (but  amongst 
the  more  long-lived  abortives)  if  dying  before  seveti 
years  of  age.  I  conceive  such  canons  come  not 
under  our  cognizance,  which  last  not  (at  least)  an 
apprenticeship  of  years  in  use  and  practice,  and 
therefore  we  decline  the  setting  down  the  acts  of 

"  of  the  Beast,  factors  for  Anti- 
"  chri8t,andantichristianmush- 
"  rooms  t.  Bastwick  laid  about 
"  him  before  in  his  Fiagellum 
"  EpiscoporumLatialium.when 
"  he  had  worn  out  that  rod, 
"  took  another  in  his  Litany. 
"  Finally,  the  rabble  had  a 
"  cursed  song  among  them  to 
"  affront  the  poor  clergy  with 
"  as  they  met  them ;  saying, 

"  *  Your  bishops  are  bite-sheep ; 
"  Your  deans  are  dunces ; 
"  Your  priests  are  the  priests  of 

"  The  devil  fetch  them  all  by 
bunches.* " 
A  very  full  and  complete  ac- 
count of  the  proceedings  of 
this  convocation  will  also  be 
found  in  Heylyn's  Life  of 
Laud,  p.  422,  sq.] 

y  ["  Some  things  passed  at 
"  the  first  time,  but  others 
"  which  were  nearly  new  were 
"  thrice  read,  on  the  same  token 
"  that  it  occasioned  the  contest 
"  betwixt  the  prolocutor  and 
"  Dr.  Holdsworth."  Fuller  in 
The  Appeal,  &c.  P.  iii.  p.  39.] 

t  See  Heylyn's  Life  of  Laud,  p.  339. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  171 

this  synod.     It  is  enough  for  us   to  present   the  a.  d.  1640. 
number  and  titles  of  the  several  canons : 

1.  Concerning  the  regal  power. 

2.  For  the  better  keeping  of  the  day  of  his  majesty's  most 
happy  inauguration. 

3.  For  suppressing  of  the  growth  of  popery. 

4.  Against  Socinianism. 

5.  Against  sectaries. 

6.  An  oath  enjoined  for  the  preventing  of  all  innovations 
in  doctrine  and  government. 

7.  A  declaration  concerning  some  rites  and  ceremonies. 

8.  Of  preaching  for  conformity. 

9.  One  book  of  articles  of  inquiry  to  be  used  at  all  paro- 
chial visitations. 

10.  Concerning  the  conversation  of  the  clergy. 

1 1.  Chancellors'  patents. 

1 2.  Chancellors  alone  not  to  censure  any  of  the  clergy  in 
sundry  cases. 

13.  Excommunication  and  absolution  not  to  be  pronounced 
but  by  a  priest. 

14.  Concerning  the  commutations,  and  the  disposing  of 

15.  Touching  concurrent  jurisdictions. 

16.  Concerning  licenses  to  marry. 

17.  Against  vexatious  citations2. 

20.  As  for  the  oath  concluded  on  in  this  synod,  The  form 
because  since  the  subject  of  so  much  discourse,  it  is&c.    °* 
here  set  forth  at  large,  according  to  the  true  tenour 
thereof,  as  followeth : 

u  I  A. B.  do  swear,  that  I  do  approve  the  doctrine 
"  and  discipline,  or  government  established  in  the 
"  church  of  England,  as  containing  all  things  neces- 
M  sary  to  salvation;  and  that  I  will  not  endeavour  by 
44  myself  or  any  other,  directly  or  indirectly,  to  bring 

*  [See  these  canons  at  length  in  Wilkins'  Concil.  iv.  p.  543.] 




172  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1640."  in  any  popish  doctrine  contrary  to  that  which  is  so 

1 !!ll"  established;  nor  will  I  ever  give  my  consent  to 

"  alter  the  government  of  this  church,  by  arch- 
"  bishops,  bishops,  deans,  and  archdeacons,  &c.  as  it 
stands  now  established,  and  as  by  right  it  ought  to 
stand,  nor  yet  ever  to  subject  it  to  the  usurpation 
and  superstitions  of  the  see  of  Rome.  And  all 
"  these  things  I  do  plainly  and  sincerely  acknowledge 
and  swear,  according  to  the  plain  and  common 
sense  and  understanding  of  the  same  words,  with- 
"  out  any  equivocation  or  mental  evasion,  or  secret 
"  reservation  whatsoever.  And  this  I  do  heartily, 
"  willingly,  and  truly,  upon  the  faith  of  a  Christian. 
"  So  help  me  God,  in  Jesus  Christ*." 
a  motion  21.  Toward  the  close  of  the  convocation,  Dr.  Grif- 
editionrf  fith, a  clerk  for  some  Welsh  diocese,  (whose  moderate 
BiwT61811  cama£e  aN  the  while  was  very  commendable,)  made 
a  motion  that  there  might  be  a  new  edition  of  the 
Welsh  church  Bible,  some  sixty  years  since  first 
translated  into  Welsh,  by  the  worthy  endeavours  of 
bishop  Morgan,  but  not  without  many  mistakes  and 
omissions  of  the  printer.  He  insisted  on  two  most 
remarkable,  a  whole  verse  left  out,  Exod.  xii.,  con- 
cerning the  angeF s  passing  over  the  houses  besprinkled 
with  blood,  which  mangleth  the  sense  of  the  whole 
chapter.  Another,  Habak.  ii.  5,  where  that  passage, 
He  is  a  proud  man,  is  wholly  omitted.  The  matter 
was  committed  to  the  care  of  the  Welsh  bishops, 
who,  (I  fear,)  surprised  with  the  troublesome  times, 
effected  nothing  therein6. 

a    [See    Laud's    Troubles,  was    for    amendment    of    the 

p.  281.    Nalson,  ib.  374.]  Welsh  Liturgy.     As  the  busi- 

b  [See  Nalson,  ib.  370,  ac-  ness  was  intrusted  to  the  bishop 

cording  to  whom,  this  motion  of  St.  Asaph,  it  is  not  unlikely 


of  Britain. 



22.   The   day  before  the   ending   of  the   synod,  A;?;.i64?- 

Godfrey  Goodman,  bishop  of  Gloucester,  privately 

repaired  to  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  acquaint-  «*>  iingu- 


ing  him,  that  he  could  not  in  his  conscience  subscribe  threatened 
the  new  canons.  It  appeared  afterwards,  that  heWIt  iUS" 
scrupled  some  passages  about  the  corporal  presence. 
But,  whether  upon  popish  or  Lutheran  principles,  he 
best  knoweth  himself.  The  archbishop  advised  him 
to  avoid  obstinacy  and  singularity  therein.  However, 
the  next  day,  when  we  all  subscribed  the  canons, 
(suffering  ourselves,  according  to  the  order  of  such 
meetings,  to  be  all  concluded  by  the  majority  of 
Totes,  though  some  of  us  in  the  committee  privately 
dissenting  in  the  passing  of  many  particulars,)  he 
alone  utterly  refused  his  subscription  thereunto. 
Whereupon  the  archbishop,  being  present  with  us  in 
king  Henry  the  Seventh  his  chapel,  was  highly  of- 
fended at  him ;  "  My  lord  of  Gloucester,"  said  he, 
u  I  admonish  you  to  subscribe ;"  and  presently  after, 
"  My  lord  of  Gloucester,  I  admonish  you  the  second 
u  time  to  subscribe ;"  and  immediately  after,  "  I  ad- 
••  monish  you  the  third  time  to  subscribe :"  to  all 
which  the  bishop  pleaded  conscience,  and  returned  a 
denial c. 

that  the  Dr.  Griffith  here  men- 
tioned was  Dr.  George  Griffith, 
proctor  for  that  diocese.] 

c  [From  the  report  of  the 
proceedings  of  this  convocation 
in  Wilkius,  Cone.  iv.  p.  541, 
Goodman  appears  to  have  made 
a  public  opposition.  The  sub- 
ject under  discussion,  was  the 
propriety  of  publishing  some 
canon  concerning  the  Eucha- 
rist and  the  placing  of  the  holy 
table.    This  Goodman  opposed, 

affirming,  that  he  would  assent 
to  no  canon  agreed  upon  in 
this  convocation,  until  it  should 
be  first  made  apparent  by  what 
authority  it  was  assembled  and 
acted.  (See  Nalson,  ib.  369.) 
The  following  is  Laud's  own 
account  of  the  matter,  when  it 
formed  one  of  the  articles  of 
his  accusation :  "  For  the  bi- 
"  shop  of  Gloucester's  refusing 
"  to  subscribe  the  canons  and 
"  take  the  oath, — the  truth  is 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1640.      23.  Then  were  the  judgments  of  the  bishops  sever- 

- 1  ally  asked,  whether  they  should  proceed  to  the  present 

p«M?onsu*- suspension  of  Gloucester,  for  his  contempt  herein? 




•  • 

•  • 

this:  he  first  pretended  (to 
avoid  his  subscription)  that 
we  could  not  sit,  the  parlia- 
ment risen.  He  was  satisfied 
in  this  by  the  judges'  hands. 
Then  he  pretended  the  oath; 
but  that  which  stuck  in  his 
stomach  was  the  canon  about 
the  suppressing  the  growth 
of  popery.  For  coming  over 
to  me,  to  Lambeth,  about 
that  business,  he  told  me  he 
would  be  torn  with  wild 
horses  before  he  would  sub- 
scribe that  canon.  I  gave 
him  the  best  advice  I  could, 
but  his  carriage  was  such, 
when  he  came  into  the  convo- 
cation, that  I  was  forced  to 
charge  him  openly  with  it, 
and  he  as  freely  acknowledged 
it,  as  there  is  plentiful  proof 
of  bishops  and  other  divines 
then  present. 

44  And  for  his  lordship's  being 
after  put  to  take  the  oath, — 
it  was  this:  I  took  myself 
bound  to  acquaint  his  ma- 
jesty with  this  proceeding  of 
my  lord  of  Gloucester's,  and 
did  so.  But  all  that  was 
after  done  about  his  commit- 
ment first,  and  his  release 
after,  when  he  had  taken  the 
oath,  was  done  openly  at  a 
full  council-table,  and  his 
majesty  present,  and  can  no 
way  be  charged  upon  me  as 
my  act.  For  it  was  my  duty 
to  let  his  majesty  know  it, 
to  prevent  further  danger, 
then  also  discovered."  p.  282. 
In  another  part  also  of  his 

defence,  where  the  archbishop 
enters  even  yet  more  minutely 
into  an  account  of  his  proceed- 
ings with  the  bishop  of  Glou- 
cester on  this  occasion,  we  find 
that  one  of  the  arguments 
urged  against  the  bishop  was 
this,  that  in  all  synods  the  suf- 
fragans are  bound  to  declare 
themselves  by  open  affirmation 
or  denial  of  the  canons  agreed, 
when  however  it  came  to  the 
bishop's  turn  to  subscribe,  he 
would  not  do  either;  "on  this," 
says  Laud,  '*  I,  with  the  con- 
"  sent  of  the  synod,  suspended 
"  him.  Divers  of  my  lords 
"  the  bishops  were  verv  tender 
"  of  him,  and  the  scandal  given 
"  by  him.  And  John  Dave- 
"  nant,  then  lord  bishop  of 
"  Salisbury,  and  Joseph  Hale, 
"  then  lord  bishop  of  Exeter, 
"  desired  leave  of  the  house, 
*'  and  had  it,  to  speak  with  my 
•'  lord  of  Gloucester,  to  see  if 
"  they  could  prevail  with  him. 
"  They  did  prevail,  and  he 
"  came  back  and  subscribed 
"  the  canons  in  open  convoca- 
"  tion."  He  then  proceeds  to 
state,  that  upon  informing  the 
king  with  what  had  taken 
place,  and  upon  certain  in- 
formation received  from  some 
agents  beyond  sea,  the  king 
restrained  the  bishop  to  his 
lodgings  for  a  time.  What 
that  information  was  may  be 
seen  in  the  preface  to  Good- 
man's M emoirs.  His  imprison- 
ment however  had  nothing  to 
do  with  these  canons.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  175 

Davenant,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  being  demanded  hisA-D-l640- 

opinion,  conceived  it  fit  some  lawyers  should  first  be 

consulted  with,  how  far  forth  the  power  of  a  synod  in 
such  cases  did  extend.  He  added  moreover,  that  the 
threefold  admonition  of  a  bishop  ought  solemnly  to 
be  done  with  some  considerable  intervals  betwixt 
them,  in  which  the  party  might  have  time  of  conve- 
nient deliberation.  However,  some  days  after  he 
was  committed  (by  the  king's  command  as  I  take  it) 
to  the  Gate-house,  where  he  got  by  his  restraint 
what  he  could  never  have  gained  by  his  liberty, 
namely,  of  one  reputed  popish,  to  become  for  a  short 
time  popular,  as  the  only  confessor  suffering  for  not 
subscribing  the  canons.  Soon  after  the  same  canons 
were  subscribed  at  York,  where  the  convocation  is 
bnt  the  hand  of  the  dial,  moving  and  pointing  as 
directed  by  the  clock  of  the  province  of  Canterbury. 
And  on  the  last  of  June  following,  the  said  canons 
were  publicly  printed,  with  the  royal  assent  affixed 

24.  No  sooner  came  these  canons  abroad  into  public  Fim  ex- 
view,  but  various  were  mens  censures  upon  them. gdn»t the 
Some  were   offended,  because   bowing  toward  the0*"0118, 
communion-table  (now  called  altar  by  many)  was  not 
only  left  indifferent,  but  also  caution  taken  that  the 
observers  or  the  omitters  thereof  should  not  mutu- 
ally censure  each  other ;  yet  many  complained,  that 
this  ceremony,  though  left  indifferent  as  hereafter  to 
salvation,  was  made  necessary  as  here  to  preferment. 
Yea,  this  knee-mark  of  bowing  or  not  bowing  would 
be  made  the  distinguishing  character,  that  hereafter 
all  such   should  be  condemned  as  halting  in  con- 
formity, who  were  not  thoroughpaced  in  these  addi- 
tional ceremonies. 

176  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  i64o.     25.   Many  took  exception  at  the  hollowness  of 

-'--  the  oath  in  the  middle  thereof,  having  its  bowels 

ception.  puffed  up  with  a  wind  &c,  a  cheverel  word,  which 
might  be  stretched  as  men  would  measure  it.  Others 
pleaded  for  it,  as  only  inserted  to  save  the  enumera- 
tion of  many  mean  officers  in  the  church,  whose 
mention  was  beneath  the  dignity  of  an  oath,  and 
would  but  clog  the  same.  Yea  since,  some  have 
endeavoured  to  excuse  the  same  by  the  interpreta- 
tive &c.  incorporated  into  the  body  of  the  covenant, 
whereby  people  are  bound  to  defend  the  privileges 
of  parliament,  though  what  they  be  is  unknown  to 
most  that  take  the  same. 
Thini  and  26.  But  most  took  exception  against  that  clause 
£!^ex*  in  the  oath,  "  we  will  never  give  any  consent  to  alter 
**  this  church  government,"  as  if  the  same  were  in- 
tended to  abridge  the  liberty  of  king  and  state  in 
future  parliaments,  and  convocations,  if  hereafter 
they  saw  cause  to  change  any  thing  therein.  And 
this  obligation  seemed  the  more  unreasonable,  be- 
cause some  of  those  orders  specified  in  the  oath  (as 
archbishops,  deans,  archdeacons)  stand  only  esta- 
blished jure  humano,  site  ecclesiastico ;  and  no  wise 
man  ever  denied,  but  that  by  the  same  power  and 
authority  they  are  alterable  on  just  occasion  d. 
Endeavour-  27.  Yet  there  wanted  not  others,  who  with  a 
cuaS.*6  ex  favourable  sense  endeavoured  to  qualify  this  sus- 
picious clause,  whereby  the  taker  of  this  oath  was 
tied  up  from  consenting  to  any  alteration*.     These 

d    [The   arguments    against  borne  for  the  present,  consider- 

the  oath  may  be  seen  in  Bax-  ing  the  difficulties  of  the  time, 

ter's  Life,  p.  16.]  He  wrote  a  very  moderate  and 

e  [Bishop  Sanderson,  though  sensible  letter  to  the  archbishop 

approving  the  oath,  wished  that  on  this   occasion,    printed   by 

the  pressing  of  it  might  be  for-  Nalson,  ib.  p.  498.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  1 77 

argued,  that  if  the  authority,  civil  or  ecclesiastical,  a.d.  1640. 

did  not  herein  impose  an  oath,  binding  those  that-! — 

took  it  hereafter  to  disobey  themselves,  and  reject 
such  orders,  which  the  foresaid  civil  or  ecclesiastical 
power  might  afterwards  lawfully  enact  or  establish. 
For,  seeing  in  all  oaths  this  is  an  undoubted  maxim, 
Quacunque  forma  verborum  juratur,  Deus  sic  jura- 
mentum  accipit,  sicut  tile  cui  juratur  intelligit,  none 
can  probably  suppose  that  the  governors  in  this 
oath  intended  any  clause  thereof  to  be  an  abridg- 
ment of  their  own  lawful  power,  or  to  debar  their 
inferiors  from  consenting  and  submitting  to  such 
alterations  as  by  themselves  should  lawfully  be  made. 
Wherefore  these  words,  "We  will  never  give  any 
"  consent  to  alter,"  are  intended  here  to  be  meant 
only  of  a  voluntary  and  pragmatical  alteration ;  when 
men  conspire,  consent,  labour,  and  endeavour  to 
change  the  present  government  of  the  church,  in 
such  particulars  as  they  do  dislike,  without  the  con- 
sent of  their  superiors. 

•    28.  But  the  exception  of  exceptions  against  these  The  over 
canons  is,  because  they  were  generally  condemned  somebi-° 
as  illegally  passed,  to  the  prejudice  of  the  funda-sbo1*' 
mental  liberty  of  the  subject,  whereof  we  shall  hear 
enough  in  the  next  parliament.      Meantime  some 
bishops  were  very  forward    in   pressing   this   oath, 
even  before  the  time  thereof.    For,  whereas  a  liberty 
was  allowed  to  all  to  deliberate  thereon,  until  the 
feast   of  Michael    the   archangel,   some    presently 
pressed  the  ministers  of  their  dioceses,  for  the  tak- 
ing thereof,  and,  to  my  knowledge,  enjoined  them 
to  take  this  oath  kneeling.     A  ceremony  (to  my 
best   remembrance)   never  exacted  or  observed  in 
taking  the  oath  of  supremacy  or  allegiance ;  which 


178  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1640.  some  accounted  an  essay  of  their  activity,  if  provi- 

1 Idence  had  not  prevented  themf. 

Theimpor-     29.  Many  impressions  of  English  Bibles  printed 

&ise  print-  at  Amsterdam,  and  moe  at  Edinburgh  in  Scotland, 
were  daily  brought  over  hither,  and  sold  here.  Little 
their  volumes,  and  low  their  prices,  as  being  of  bad 
paper,  worse  print,  little  margent,  yet  greater  than 
the  care  of  the  corrector,  many  most  abominable 
errata  being  passed  therein.  Take  one  instance  for 
all : — Jer.  iv.  17,  speaking  of  the  whole  common- 
wealth of  Judah,  instead  of,  because  she  hath  been 
rebellious  against  me,  saith  the  Lord,  it  is  printed, 
Edinburgh  1637,  because  she  hath  been  religious 
against  me,  saith  the  Lord.  Many  complaints  were 
made,  especially  by  the  company  of  stationers,  against 
these  false  printed  Bibles,  as  giving  great  advantage 
to  the  papists,  but  nothing  was   therein  effected  8. 

f  [It    might    be    imagined  "  London ;    and  their   excep- 

from   Fuller *8    language,  that  "  tions  were  spread  in  writing 

objections  were  made   to  the  "  against  them.     And  this  set 

canons   immediately   on    their  "  others  to  work  both  in  the 

being   published.      We   learn  "  western   and    the    northern 

otherwise  from  Laud.     It  ap-  "  parts  ;    till   at   last   by   the 

pears  from  him,  that  no  one  m  "  practice  of  the  faction,  there 

convocation,  bishop  Goodman  "  was  suddenly  a  great  altera- 

excepted,  hesitated  to  subscribe  "  tion,  and  nothing  so  much 

them.     "At  their  first  publica-  "  cried  down  as  the  canons." 

"  tion,"  he  says,  "they  were  ib.  p.  83. 
"  generally    approved    in    all         The  list  of  the  puritan  min- 

"  parts  of  the  kingdom  ;  and  I  isters   who    combined    to  get 

"  had  letters  from  the  remotest  hands  to  a  petition  against  the 

"  parts  of  it  full  of  approba-  oath  may  be  seen  in  Nalson. 

"  tion  ;    insomuch,    that    not  Their   leaders   were    Burgess, 

"  myself  only,  but  my  brethren  Calamy  and  Goodwin.   Collect. 

"  who  lived  near  these  parts,  i.  496.] 

"  and  which  were  not  yet  gone         g   [Yet  the   suppression  of 

"  down,  were  very  much  joyed  these  Bibles  afterwards  formed 

"  at  it.     But  about  a  month  one  of  the  charges  brought  by 

"  after  their  printing,  then  be-  Prynne  against  the  archbishop. 

"  gan  some  whisperings  against  Pry nne's  Complete  History  &c, 

"them  by  some  ministers  in  p.  183.] 

cent.  xvn.  of  Britain.  179 

For  in  this  juncture  of  time  came  in  the  Scottish  a.  d.  1640. 
army,  and  invaded  the  northern  parts  of  England.  - — — .  - 
What  secret  solicitations  invited  them  hither,  is  not 
my  work  to  inquire.  Many  beheld  them  as  the 
only  physicians  of  the  distempered  state,  and  be- 
lieved that  they  gave  not  their  patient  a  visit  on 
pure  charity,  but  having  either  received,  or  being 
well  promised  their  fee  before*1. 

30.  Soon  after  began  the  long  lasting  parliament,  Parliament 
so  known  to  all  posterity  for  the  remarkable  trans-  cation  be. 
actions  therein.  The  king  went  to  the  house  pri-*10, 
vately  by  water,  many  commending  his  thrift  in 
sparing  expenses,  when  two  armies  in  the  bowels  of 
the  land  expected  their  pay  from  his  purse.  Others, 
distinguishing  betwixt  needless  pomp  and  necessary 
state,  suspected  this  might  be  misinterpreted  as  if 
the  Scotch  had  frighted  him  out  of  that  ceremony 
of  majesty :  and  some  feared  such  an  omission  pre- 
saged that  parliament  would  end  with  sadness  to 
him,  which  began  without  any  solemnity.  Abreast 
therewith  began  a  convocation,  though  unable  long 
to  keep  pace  together,  the  latter  soon  tiring  as 
never  inspirited  by  commission  from  the  king  to 
meddle  with  any  matters  of  religion :  Mr.Warmistrey 
(a  clerk  for  Worcester)  made  a  motion  therein,  that 
they  should  endeavour  (according  to  the  Levitic«al 
law)  to  cover  the  pit  which  they  had  opened,  and  to 
prevent  their  adversaries'  intention,  by  condemning 
such  offensive  canons  as  were  made  in  the  last  con- 
vocation.    But  it  found  no  acceptance,  they  being 

h  [Our   historian   had  very  their  army.     Some  very  auius- 

good  reason  for  this  statement :  ing  disclosures   to   this  effect 

avarice  being  a  stronger  motive  are  made   in  Baillie's  Letters 

than  religion  in  bringing  the  and  Journals.] 
Scots  here*  and  in  maintaining 

N  2 

180  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1640.  loath  to  confess  themselves  jruilty  before  they  were 


The  in§o-       31.  This  day  happened  the  first  fruits  of  Anabap- 


•baptists,  tistical  insolence,  when  eighty  of  that  sect  meeting 
at  a  house  in  St.  Saviour's  in  Southwark,  preached 
that  the  statute  in  the  35th  of  Eliz.  for  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  Common  Prayer  was  no  good  law, 
because  made  by  bishops.  That  the  king  cannot 
make  a  good  law,  because  not  perfectly  regenerate. 
That  he  was  only  to  be  obeyed  in  civil  matters. 
Being  brought  before  the  lords  they  confessed  the 
articles,  but  no  penalty  was  inflicted  upon  them. 

The  three       32.  About  this  time  Mr.  Prynne,  Dr.  Bastwick, 

brought     and  Mr.  Burton  were  brought  out  of  durance  and 

home  in 

triumph,    exile,  with  great  triumph  into  London,  it  not  suffic- 
ing their  friends  to  welcome  them  peaceably,  but 
victoriously,  with  bays  and  rosemary  in  their  hands 
and  hats.     Wise  men  conceived  that  their  private 
returning  to  the  town  had  signified  as  much  grati- 
tude to  God,  and  less  affront  to  authority.      But 
some  wildness  of  the  looks  must  be  pardoned  in 
such,  who  came  suddenly  into  the  light  out  of  long 
Dr.  Pock-       88.   As  bishop  Williams  and  Mr.  Osbaston  were 
Dr.  Bray    the  two  first  clergymen  who  found  the  favour  of 
oenaured.    ^jg  pariia]lient9  (being  remitted  their  fines,  and  re- 
stored to  their  livings  and  liberty,)  so  doctor  Pock- 
lington  and  doctor  Bray  were  the  two  first  that  felt 
their  displeasures1:    the  former  for  preaching  and 

*  ["  No  other  way  to  pacify  "  two  books  as  were  to  be  re- 

"  the  high  displeasures  of  the  "  canted  by  the  one,  and  for 

"  bishop  of  Lincoln,   but   by  "  which  the  other  was  to  be 

"  such  a  sacrifice,  who  there-  "  deprived    of  all  his  prefer- 

"  fore  is  intrusted  to  gather  "  ments.      And    in    this    the 

"  such  propositions  out  of  those  "  bishop  served  his  own  turn, 


of  Britain. 


printing,   the   latter  for  licensing  two  books,  one  a.  d.  1640. 
called  Sunday  no  Sabbath,  the  other  The  Christian  ' 
altar k.     Bishop  Williams  moved,  that  doctor  Bray 




"  and  the  people's  too ;  his 
"  own  turn  first  in  the  great 
"  controversy  of  the  altar,  in 
"  which  he  was  so  great  a 
"  stickler,  and  in  which  Pock- 
lington  was  thought  to  have 
provoked  him  to  take  that 
revenge.  The  people's  turn 
"  he  served  next,  in  the  con- 
"  demning  and  recanting  of 
"  some  points  about  the  Sab- 
"  bath,  though  therein  he  ran 
"  cross  to  his  former  practice. 
"  Who  had  been  not  long  since 
"  so  far  from  those  Sabbatarian 
"  rigors,  which  now  he  would 
"  fain  be  thought  to  counten- 
"  ance,  that  he  caused  a  co- 
"  medy  to  be  acted  before  him 
"  at  his  house  at  Bugden,  not 
"  only  on  a  Sunday  in  the  after- 
"  noon,  but  upon  such  a  Sun- 
"  day  also  on  which  he  had  pub- 
"  licly  given  sacred  orders  both 
"  to  priests  and  deacons.  And 
'*  to  this  comedy  he  invited  the 
"  earl  of  Manchester,  and  di- 
vers of  the  neighbouring  gen- 
try."  "Though  on  this 

turning  of  the  tide  he  did 
not  only  cause  these  doctors 
•'  to  be  condemned  for  some 
"  opinions  which  formerly  him- 
"  self  allowed  of,  but  moved  at 
"  the  assembly  in  Jerusalem- 
"  chamber,  that  all  books  should 
"  be  publicly  burnt,  which  had 
"  disputed  the  morality  of  the 
"  Lord's-day  Sabbath."  Dr. 
Heylyn  in  The  Appeal,  &c.  P. 
iii.  p.  45.  To  the  last  obser- 
vation Fuller  replies,  "  I  have 
"  been  credibly  informed  that 



"  when  in  Jerusalem- chamber, 
"  Mr.  Stephen  Marshall  urged 
"  most  vehemently  for  severe 
**  punishment  on  the  authors 
"  of  those  books ;  bishop  Wil- 
44  liams  fell  foul  on  the  books, 
"  moving  they  might  be  burn- 
"  ed,  that  their  authors  might 
••  the  better  escape."] 

k  [Dr.  Pocklington  was  ac- 
cused by  one  Harvey  his  pa- 
rishioner for  being  an  introducer 
of  innovations  and  idolatry,  and 
the  author  of  the  books  men- 
tioned in  the  text.  He  was 
condemned  in  the  house  of 
lords  (who  had  now  lent  them- 
selves to  the  popular  clamor) 
and  the  following  sentence  was 

Sassed  upon  him, — passed  upon 
im  by  that  very  parliament 
who  restored  Bastwick  and 
his  fellow  libellers  to  their 
original  position  in  society, 
and  voted,  that  all  the  several 
commissioners  who  had  passed 
sentence  against  them  in  a  for- 
mal court  of  law  should  make 
them  satisfaction  ! 

These  were  the  terms  of  the 
sentence: — 1.  "That  the  said 
"  Dr.  Pocklington  is  prohibited 
"  from  ever  coming  within  the 
"  verges  of  the  king's  court. 
"  2.  That  he  is  deprived  of  all 
"  his  ecclesiastical  livings,  dig. 
"  nities  and  preferments.  3. 
"  That  he  is  disabled  and  held 
"  incapable  hereafter  to  hold 
"  any  place  or  dignity  in  church 
•'  or  commonwealth.  4.  That 
"  his  two  books  be  publicly 
"  burnt  in  the  city  of  London, 


The  Church  History 


a.  D.  164a  might  recant  seven  errors  in  the  first,  four-and-twenty 

^1-1  in  the  second  treatise.     Soon  after,  both  the  doctors 

deceased,  for  grief,  say  some,  that  they  had  written 
what  they  should  not ;  for  shame,  say  others,  that 
they  had  recanted  what  they  would  not ;  though  a 
third  sort  more  charitably  take  notice  neither  of 
the  one  nor  the  other,  but  merely  impute  it  to  the 
approach  of  the  time  of  their  dissolution1. 
Superstu        34.  Doctor  Cosins  soon  after  was  highly  accused, 

tions  charg- «  .   .  ,  .  ,.  . 

ed  on  Dr.  for  superstition  and  unjust  proceedings  against  one 
CoMns.  jy|r  gmart  on  this  occasion.  The  doctor  is  charged 
to  have  set  up  in  the  church  of  Durham  a  marble 
altar  with  cherubins,  which  cost  two  thousand 
pounds,  with  all  the  appurtenances  thereof;  namely, 
a  cope  with  the  Trinity,  and  God  the  Father  in  the 
figure  of  an  old  man,  another  with  a  crucifix  and 
the  image  of  Christ,  with  a  red  beard  and  blue  cap. 

"  and  the  two  universities,  by 
"  the  hand  of  the  common  ex- 
'*  ecutioners." — Nalson's  Col- 
lections, i.  p.  774.  Had  the 
house  of  lords  resisted  the 
iniquitous  proceedings  of  the 
commons,  they  had  saved  the 
bishops,  and  with  the  bishops 
saved  themselves.  Some  ac- 
count of  Dr.  Pocklington  will 
be  found  in  Wood's  Fasti,  i.  p. 
166.  According  to  Walker, 
who  examined  the  church  re- 
gister, he  died  in  1641. — Suf- 
ferings of  the  Clergy,  p.  95. 

Dr.  Bray,  who  also  suffered 
on  this  occasion,  was  chaplain 
to  archbishop  Laud,  and  had 
been  originally  much  inclined  to 
puritanism.  His  only  fault  was 
the  licensing  Dr.  Pocklington's 
books,  in  his  capacity  of  chap- 
lain  to  the  archbishop.     Yet 

the  parliament  not  only  sen- 
tenced him  to  a  recantation, 
but  shortly  after  deprived  him 
of  his  ecclesiastical  preferments. 
His  books  were  seized,  himself 
imprisoned,  plundered,  and 
forced  to  fly.  —  See  Lloyd's 
Memoirs,  p.  512.  Walker's 
Sufferings,  p.  6.] 

1  ["  Dr.  Pocklington  lived 
"  about  two  years,  and  Dr.  Bray 
"  above  four  years,  with  as 
"great  cheerfulness  and  cou- 
"  rage  as  formerly /'  says  Dr. 
Heylyn,  ib.  p.  46. 

Dr.  Pocklington's  pamphlet 
shews  great  ability,  but  is 
written  with  a  keenness  and 
smartness  which  were  sure  to 
bring  upon  him  the  vengeance 
of  mean-spirited  minds  when 
once  they  had  gained  a  political 


of  Britain. 


Besides,  he  was  accused  for  lighting  two  hundred  a.  d.  1640. 

wax  candles  about  the  altar  on  Candlemas-day.    For LI 

forbidding  any  psalms  to  be  sung  before  or  after 
sermon,  though  making  an  anthem,  to  be  sung  of 
the  three  kings  of  Cologne,  by  the  names  of  Grasper, 
Balthazar,  and  Melchior ;  and  for  procuring  a  con- 
secrated knife  only  to  cut  the  bread  at  the  commu- 
nion ". 

35.  Mr.  Smart11  a  prebendary  of  the  church,  one  Cruel  mage 
of  a  grave  aspect  and  reverend  presence,  sharply  in-  smart!' 
veighed  in  a  sermon  against  these  innovations,  taking 

for  his  text :  /  hate  all  those  that  hold  superstitious 
vanities,  but  thy  law  do  I  love. 

36.  Hereupon  he  was  kept  prisoner  four  months 
by  the  high  commission  of  York,  before  any  articles 
were  exhibited  against  him,  and  five  months  before 
any  proctor  was  allowed  him.  Hence  was  he  carried 
to  the  high  commission  at  Lambeth,  and  after  long 
trouble  remanded  to  York,  fined  500/.,  committed 
to  prison,  ordered  to  recant,  and  for  the  neglect 
thereof,  fined  again,  excommunicated,  degraded,  and 
deprived,  his  damage  (as  brought  in)  amounting  to 
many  thousand  pounds. 

37.  But  now  Mr.  Rous  of  the  house  of  commons,  Relieved  by 
bringing  up  the  charge  to  the  lords  against  doctor1"* 

m  [None  of  these  charges 
appear  in  the  articles  exhibited 
in  parliament  against  Dr.  Co- 
sins  in  the  year  1641.  His 
own  defence  of  himself,  which 
is  too  important  to  be  omitted, 
I  have  printed  in  an  appendix 
to  this  volume.  See  also  a 
correct  account  of  these  pro- 
ceedings in  Nalson's  Collec- 
tions, 1.  p.  518.] 

n  [Of  this  weak  and  mis- 
chievous man,  who  afterwards 
distinguished  himself  as  a  wit- 
ness  against  archbishop  Laud, 
a  short  account  will  be  found 
in  Wood's  Athen .  ii.  p.  2 1 .  Some 
extracts  from  this  sermon  have 
been  printed  in  Nalson ;  they 
are  too  coarse  and  too  violent 
to  find  a  place  here.] 

N  4 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1640.  Cosins,   termed   Mr.  Smart   the   "  Proto-martyr   of 
- — —  "  England  in  these  latter  days  of  persecution,"  and 
large  reparations  was  allowed  unto  him,  though  he 
lived  not  long  after  to  enjoy  them. 

88.  Now  though  none  can  excuse  and  defend 
doctor  Cosins  his  carriage  herein,  yet  this  must  be  re- 
ported to  his  due  commendation.  Some  years  after 
getting  over  into  France,  he  neither  joined  with  the 
church  of  French  protestants  at  Charenton  nigh 
Paris,  nor  kept  any  communion  with  the  papists 
therein,  but  confined  himself  to  the  church  of  old 
English  protestants  therein  °.     Where,  by  his  pious 

Dr.  Cosins 
his  due 

0  [This  is  not  altogether  so. 
Dr.  Basire  in  his  life  of  bishop 
Cosins  thus  narrates  these  cir- 
cumstances :— "  One  signal  in- 
"  stance  of  his  constancy  and 
"  courage  for  the  Liturgy  of  the 
"  Church  of  England  may  not 
"  be  omitted,  that  is  anno  1 645 . 
•'  He  did,  with  the  consent  of 
"  the  ministers  of  the  reformed 
"  church  of  Charenton  near 
"  Paris,  solemnly,  in  his  priest- 
"  ly  habit,  with  his  surplice 
"  and  with  the  office  of  burial, 
"  used  in  the  Church  of  Eng- 
"  land,  inter  there  the  body  of 
"sir  Wm.  Carnaby  a  noble 
"  and  loyal  knight,  not  with- 
"  out  the  troublesome  contra. 
"  diction  and  contention  of  the 
"  Romish  curate  there.  At 
"  that  time  many  that  were 
"  pur-blind  and  not  able  to 
"  see  the  then  less  visible  face 
"  of  the  Church  of  England 
"  then  in  the  wane ;  a  church 
44  in  the  wilderness  because 
44  under  persecution,  when  sun- 
"  dry  were  wavering  from  the 
"  true  religion ;  our  bishop  did 
"  then  confirm  some  eminent 




•  < 

persons  against  many  immi- 
nent and  importunate  se- 
ducers (another  episcopal  of- 
fice), which  is  in  such  am. 
biguous  times  especially  to 
confirm  the  souls  of  the  dis- 
ciples, exhorting  them  to  con- 
tinue  in  the  faith  (Tit.  i.  11); 
teaching  that  we  must  through 
much  tribulation  enter  into 
the  kingdom  of  God  (Acts 
xiv.  22.). 

"  One  notable  instance  of 
this  our  bishop's  constancy 
and  zeal  in  this  kind  we  may 
not  omit,  which  was  a  solemn 
conference  both  by  word  and 
writing  betwixt  him  and  the 
prior  of  the  English  Benedic- 
tines at  Paris  supposed  to 
be   [  ]  Robinson. 

The  argument  was  concern- 
ing the  validity  of  the  ordi- 
nation of  our  priests,  &c.  in 
the  Church  of  England.  This 
conference  was  undertaken 
to  fix  a  person  of  honour 
then  wavering  about  that 
point.  The  sum  of  which 
conference,  as  I  am  informed, 
was  written  by  Dr.  Cosins  to 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  185 

living,  and  constant  praying  and  preaching,  he  re-  a.  d.  1640. 

_  _  i6Chas.  I. 

duced  some  recusants  to,  and  confirmed  more  doubt 

ers  in  the  protestant  religion.  Many  his  encounters 
with  Jesuits  and  priests,  defeating  the  suspicions  of 
his  foes,  and  exceeding  the  expectation  of  his  friends, 
in  the  success  of  such  disputes  p. 

39.  The  commons  desired  the  lords  to  join  with  a.  D.1641. 
them  to  find  out,  who  moved  the  king  to  reprieve prieatbui* 
John  Goodman  a  seminary  priest,  who  (as  they  said) I^uHfe 
had    been  twice  condemned,  and    now  the   second  and  deftth* 
time  reprieved,  whilst  the  parliament  sat**. 

40.  The  king  sent  a  message  by  the  lord  privy- 
seal,  that  Goodman  was  not  (as  the  commons  were 
informed)  condemned  and  banished,  but  only  sen- 
tenced for  being  a  priest,  and  therefore  that  in  re- 
prieving him  he  shewed  but  the  like  mercy  which 
queen  Elizabeth  and  king  James  had  shewed  in  the 
like  cases. 

41.  The  lords  joined  with  the  commons  in  their 
desire  concerning  Goodman,  that  the  statutes  might 
speedily  be  executed  upon  him,  as  necessary  in  this 
juncture  of  time,  wherein  papists  swarmed  in  all 
parts  presuming  on  indemnity.  With  what  credit 
or  comfort  could  they  sit  to  enact  new  laws,  whilst 
they  beheld  former  statutes  daily  broken  before 
their  eyes? 

42.  The  king  acquainted  the  houses  that  though 

"  Dr.  Morley,  the  now  rt.  rev.  charges    against    Dr.  Cosins ; 

M  lord   bishop   of  Winchester,  but  for   this,   as   well    as   for 

"  in  two  letters  bearing  date,  the  bishop's  own  defence,  the 

"June    ii,    July  n,   1645."  reader  is  referred  to  the  Ap- 

Basire,  p.  60.]  pendix.] 

P  [Our  author  in  his  Wor-         4    [See  Nalson's   Historical 

thies  has  noticed  the  mistakes  Collections,  i.  p.  738,  739.] 
made*  in  this  narrative  of  the 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1 64 1.  queen  Elizabeth  and  king  James  never  condemned  a 

1 !L_1  priest  merely  for  religion,  yet  rather  than  he  would 

discontent  his  subjects  he  left  him  to  the  judgment 
of  both  houses,  to  be  disposed  of  at  their  pleasure. 
Yet  he  «-       48.  Goodman  petitioned  the  king,  that  like  Jonah 
SeatiasL  the  prophet,  he  might  be  cast  into  the  sea,  to  still 
the  tempest  betwixt  the  king  and  his  people,  con- 
ceiving his  blood  well  spent  to  cement  them  toge- 
ther.    But  in  fine  he  escaped  with  his  life,  not  so 
much    by  any  favour  indulged  him,  as  principally 
because  the  accusations  could  not  be  so  folly  proved 
against  himr. 
The  fir»t        44.  About  this  time  was  the  first  motion  of  a  new 
tfaTproL-  protestation,  to  be  taken  all  over  England  (the  copy 
larion*       whereof  is  omitted  as  obvious  every  where),  which 
some  months  after  was  generally  performed,  as  con- 
taining nothing  but  what  was  lawful  and  commend- 
able therein.    Yet  some  refused  it,  as  suspecting  the 
adding   of    new   would    substract    obedience   from 
former  oaths,  (men  being  prone  to  love  that  best 
which  left  the  last  relish  in  their  souls,)  and  in  fine 
such   new  obligations   of  conscience,  like  suckers, 
would  draw  from  the  stock  of  the  old  oaths  of  supre- 
macy and  allegiance9. 

r  [This  letter  is  printed  at 
full  length  in  Nalson's  Collec- 
tions, i.  746.  Though  Good- 
man escaped  this  time  with  his 
life,  he  shortly  after  died  in 
prison.  See  Marsys  La  Mort 
glorieuse,  &c.  p.  51,  ed.  1646. 
Panzani's  Memoirs,  p.  282.] 

8  [Dr.  Heylyn  gives  a  fuller 
history  of  this  protestation. 
He  says,  "  The  occasion  of  it 


M  was  a  speech  made  by  the 
"  king  in  the  house  of  peers 

44  in  favour  of  the  earl  of 
"  Strafford,  upon  the  Saturday 
"  before;  which  moved  them 
"  to  unite  themselves  by  this 
M  protestation  for  •  bringing  to 
"  condign  punishment  all  such 
"  as  shall  either  by  force,  prac- 
"  tice,  plots,  counsels,  conspira- 
"  cies  or  otherwise,  do  any 
'•  thing  to  the  contrary  of  any 
"  thing  in  the  same  protestation 
"  contained/  Which  protests - 
"  tion  being  carried  into  the 


of  Britain. 


45.  March  began  very  blusteringly,  on  the  firstA.D.  i64r. 

day  whereof  archbishop  Laud  was  in  Mr.  Maxfield  his  - 1 

coach  carried  to  the  Tower,  and  not  long  after  the  miSJT0f 
lords  appointed  a  committee  of  their  own  members  ^f^0^.*0 
for  settling  of  peace  in  the  church.     What  hopeful  &on- 
opinion  the  aforesaid  archbishop  had  of  their  pro- 
ceedings, will  appear  by  the  following  note  which 
he  entered  into  his  l diary : 

"  A  committee  for  religion  settled  in  the  upper 
"  house  of  parliament.  Ten  earls,  ten  bishops,  ten 
u  barons.  So  the  lay-votes  will  be  double  to  the 
*  clergy.  This  committee  will  meddle  with  doctrine 
u  as  well  as  ceremonies,  and  will  call  some  divines 
"  to  them  to  consider  of  the  business,  as  appears  by 
"  a  letter  hereto  annexed,  sent  by  the  lord  bishop  of 
u  Lincoln  to  some  divines,  to  attend  this  service. 





house  of  peers,  was,  after 
some  few  days,  generally  taken 
by  that  house  also.  But  the 
prevalent  party  in  the  house 
of  commons  having  further 
aims  than  such  as  our  author 
pleaseth  to  take  notice  of, 
first  caused  it  to  be  printed 
by  an  order  of  the  5th  of 
May.  that  they  might  be  sent 
down  to  the  sheriffs  and 
justices  of  peace  in  the  seve- 
ral shires;  to  whom  they 
intimated,  '  that  as  they 
justified  the  taking  of  it 
in  themselves,  so  they  could 
Dot  but  approve  it  in  all  such 
as  should  take  it.*  But 
finding  that  this  did  not 
much  edify  with  the  country 
people,  they  desired  the  lords 
to  concur  with  them  in  im- 
posing the  same.  Failing 
whereof,  by  an  order  of  their 

"  own  house  only  July  30,  it 
"  was  declared,  that  '  the  pro- 
"  testation  made  by  them  was 
"  fit  to  be  taken  by  every  per- 
"  son  that  was  well  affected  in 
"  religion  and  to  the  good  of 
"  the  commonwealth  ;  and 
"  therefore  what  persons  so- 
"  ever  did  not  take  the  same, 
"  was  unfit  to  bear  office  in  the 
"  church  or  commonwealth.' 
"  Which  notwithstanding,  many 
"  refused  to  take  it,  as  our 
"  author  telleth  us,  not  know- 
"  ing  but  that  some  sinister 
"  use  might  be  made  thereof; 
"  as  afterwards  appeared  by 
"  those  rites  and  protestations 
"  which  conducted  some  of  the 
'•  five  members  to  the  house  of 
"  commons."  See  the  Appeal, 
P.  iii.  p.  47.] 

*  March  15^.24=61.  [See 
Laud's  Diary,  p.  6 1 .] 


The  Church  History 


A.D.1641. "  Upon  the  whole  matter,  I  believe  this  committee 
— ■ — — "  will  prove  the  national  synod  of  England,  to  the 
"  great  dishonour  of  this  church.     And  what  else 
"  may  follow  upon  it,  God  knoweth." 

46.  At  the  same  time  the  lords  appointed  a  sub- 
committee, to  prepare  matters  fit  for  their  cogni- 
zance (the  bishop  of  Lincoln  having  the  chair  in 
both),  authorized  to  call  together  divers  bishops  and 
divines,  to  consult  together  for  correction  of  what 
was  amiss,  and  to  settle  peace,  viz. 

A  sub-com- 
mittee for 
the  same 

uThe  archbishop  of  Armagh 

[Jas.  Usher]. 
The     bishop     of    Durham 

[Thos.  Morton]. 
The  bishop  of  Exeter  [Jos. 

Doctor  Samuel  Ward1. 
Doctor  John  Prideauxy. 
Doctor  William  Twisse2. 
Doctor  Robert  Sanderson  a. 

Doctor  Daniel  Featleyb. 
Doctor  Ralph  Brownriggc. 
Doctor  Richard  Holdsworthd. 
Doctor  John  Hacket6. 
Doctor  Cornelius  Burgesf. 
Master  John  Whites. 
Master  Stephen  Marshall. 
Master  Edmund  Calamy. 
Master  Thomas  Hill. 

11  More  were  named,  but 
these  chiefly  were  present. 
[See  their  names  at  length  in 
Kennet,  iii.  p.  105.  Compare 
also  Plume's  Life  of  Hacket, 
p.  xvi.,  and  Racket's  Life  of 
Williams,  ii.  p.  146.] 

x  [Professor  of  divinity  in 
the  university  of  Cambridge, 
and  archdeacon  of  Taunton.] 

>'  [Professor  of  divinity,  and 
vice-chancellor  in  the  univer- 
sity of  Oxford.] 

2  [The  celebrated  defender 
of  superlapsarianism.] 

*  [Afterwards  bishop  of  Lin- 

b  [A  witness  against  Laud.] 

c  [Afterwards  bishop  of  Ex- 

eter ;  a  good  but  a  weak  man ; 
at  this  time  archdeacon  of  Co- 

d  [Vice-chancellor  of  the 
University  of  Cambridge,  and 
archdeacon  of  Huntingdon.] 

e  [Afterwards  the  good  bishop 
of  Lichfield,  and  restorer  of  its 
cathedral;  at  this  time  arch- 
deacon of  Bedford.] 

f  [A  railer  against  bishops* 
afterwards  a  purchaser  of  bi- 
shops' lands.] 

S  [The  author  of  A  Century 
of  Malignant  Priests,  omitted 
by  Hacket.  The  three  others, 
Marshall,  Calamy,  and  Hill, 
were  concerned  in  writing 

cent.  xvii.  (f  Britain.  189 

Jerusalem-chamber  in  the  dean  of  Westminster's11  a.  d.  1641. 

house  was  the  place  of  their  meeting  (where  they 1 

had  solemn  debates  six  several  days),  always  enter- 
tained at  his  table  with  such  bountiful  cheer  as  well 
became  a  bishop.  But  this  we  behold  as  the  last 
course  of  all  public  episcopal  treatments,  whose 
guests  may  now  even  put  up  their  knives,  seeing 
soon  after  the  voider  was  called  for,  which  took  away 
all  bishops'  lands,  and  most  of  English  hospitality. 

47.  First  they  took  the  innovations  of  doctrine  They  con- 
into  consideration,  and  here  some  complained,  that  novationiin 
all  the  tenets  of  the  Council   of  Trent   had    (bydoctrine- 
one  or  other)  been  preached  and  printed,  abating 

only  such  points  of  state  popery  against  the  king's 
supremacy,  made  treason  by  the  statute.  Good 
works  co-causes  with  faith,  in  justification:  private 
confession,  by  particular  enumeration  of  sins,  need- 
ful necessitate  medii  to  salvation,  that  the  oblation 
(or,  as  others,  the  consumption)  of  the  elements,  in 
the  Lord's  Supper,  holdeth  the  nature  of  a  true 
sacrifice,  prayers  for  the  dead,  lawfulness  of  monas- 
tical  vows,  the  gross  substance  of  Arminianism,  and 
some  dangerous  points  of  Socinianism. 

48.  Secondly,  they  inquired  into  praeter-canonical  And  in  di*. 
conformity,  and  innovations  in  discipline.    Advancing  ap  ne* 
candlesticks  in  parochial  churches  in  the  daytime, 

on  the  altar  so  called.  Making  canopies  over,  with 
traverses  of  curtains  (in  imitation  of  the  vail  before 
the  holy  of  holies)  on  each  side  and  before  it.  Having 
a  credentia  or  side-table  (as  a  chapel  of  ease,  to  the 
mother  altar)  for  divers  uses  in  the  Lord's  Supper. 
Forbidding  a  direct  prayer  before  sermon,  and  min- 

*  [Bishop  Williams.] 

190  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  i^i.isters  to  expound  the  Catechism  at  large  to  their 

- -parishioners,  carrying  children  (when  baptized)  to 

the  altar  so  called,  and  there  offering  them  up  to 
God,  pretending  for  some  of  these  innovations  the 
Injunctions  and  Advertisements  of  queen  Elizabeth, 
which  are  not  in  force,   and   appertaining  to  the 
printed   Liturgy,   secundo   et  tertio  Edvardi  sextU 
which  is  reformed  by  parliament. 
And  am-        49.  Thirdly,  they  consulted  about  the  Common 
c^on    Prayer  Book,  whether  some  legendary   and    some 
Prmyer"     much  doubted  saints,  with  some  superstitious  memo- 
rials, were  not  to  be  expunged  the  calendar l.    Whe- 
ther it  was  not  fit  that  the  lessons  should  be  only 
out  of  canonical   scripture,    the    epistles,   gospels, 
psalms,  and  hymns,  to  be  read  in  the  new  transla- 
tion, &c.     Whether  times  prohibited  for  marriage 
are  not  totally  to  be  taken  away.     Whether  it  were 
not  fit  that  hereafter  none  should  have  a  license,  or 
have  their  banns  of  matrimony  asked,  save  such  who 
should  bring  a  certificate  from  their  minister,  that 
they  were  instructed  in  their  Catechism.     Whether 
the  rubric  is  not  to  be  mended,  altered  and  explained 
in  many  particulars. 
Andiqgu-      50.    Lastly,  they  entered  on   the  regulating  of 
verSnenT"  ecclesiastical  government,  which  was  not  brought  in, 
because  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  had  undertaken  the 
draught  thereof,  but  not  finished  it,  as  employed  at 
the  same  time  in  the  managing  of  many  matters  of 
state :  so  easy  it  is  for  a  great  person  never  to  be  at 
leisure  to  do  what  he  hath  no  great  mind  should  be 
Divm  opi.     51.  Some  are  of  opinion  that  the  moderation  and 

nions  what 

1  This  I  did  write  out  of  the  private  notes  of  one  of  the 

cent,  xvii-  of  Britain.  191 

mutual  compliance  of  these  divines  might  have  pro-A.D.  1641. 

dnced   much   good,  if  not  interrupted,   conceiving-: — 

such  lopping  might  have  saved  the  felling  of  episco-  ence  might' 
pacy.     Yea  they  are  confident,  had  this  expedient°~ 
been  pursued  and  perfected, 

Trqjaque  nunc  stares,  Priamique  arx  alta  maneres. 

Troy  still  had  stood  in  power, 
And  king  Priam's  lofty  tower 
Had  remained  at  this  hour : 

it  might,  under  God,  have  been  a  means,  not  only 
to  have  checked,  but  choked  our  civil  war  in  the 
infancy  thereof.  But  the  court  prelates  expected 
no  good  from  the  result  of  this  meeting,  suspecting 
the  doctrinal  puritans  (as  they  nicknamed  them), 
joined  with  the  disciplinary  puritans,  would  betray 
the  church  betwixt  them.  Some  hot  spirits  would 
not  have  one  ace  of  episcopal  power  or  profit  abated, 
and  (though  since  confuted  by  their  own  hunger) 
preferred  no  bread  before  half  a  loaf.  These  main- 
tained that  any  giving  back  of  ground  was  in  effect 
the  granting  of  the  day  to  the  opposite  party,  so 
covetous  they  be  to  multiply  their  cravings,  on  the 
others9  concessions.  But  what  the  issue  of  this  con- 
ference concluded  would  have  been,  is  only  known 
to  Him  who  knew  what  vtlie  men  ofKeilak  would  do, 
and  whose  prescience  extends,  not  only  to  things 
future,  but  futurable,  having  the  certain  cognizance 
of  contingents,  which  might,  yet  never  actually  shall, 
come  to  pass1. 

k  I  Sam.  xxiii.  12.  been   their  policy  throughout 

1    [The   presbyterian    party  publicly  to  ask  but  little,  and 

broke  it  off  for  fear  that  they  when  that  little  was  like  to  be 

should   not    accomplish    what  granted  them,  to  use  all  kinds 

they  desired,  the  utter  aboli-  of  intrigues  to  prevent  it,  with- 

tion   of  episcopacy.      It    had  out  appearing  to  stir  in  the 


The  Church  History 


A.D.164T.     52.  This  consultation  continued  till  the  middle 

1 7  Chat.  I. 

of  May,  and  the  weaving  thereof  was  fairly  forward 

**  '  on  the  loom,  when  atropos  occat,  the  bringing  in  the 
bill  against  deans  and  chapters,  root  and  branch,  cut 
off  all  the  threads,  putting  such  a  distance  betwixt 
the  foresaid  divines,  that  never  their  judgments 
(and  scarce  their  persons)  met  after  together. 
The  death  53.  In  the  midst  of  these  troublesome  times,  John 
Davenant.  Davenant  bishop  of  Salisbury  ended  his  life.  His 
father  was  a  wealthy  and  religious  citizen  of  London, 
but  born  at  Davenant's-lands  in  Sible  Hedingham 
in  Essex ;  where  his  ancestors  had  continued  in  a 
worshipful  degree  from  sir  John  Davenant,  who  lived 
in  the  time  of  king  Henry  the  Third.  He  bred  his 
son  a  fellow  commoner  in  Queen's  College  in  Cam- 
bridge, and  would  not  suffer  him  to  accept  a  fellow- 
ship, though  offered,  as  conceiving  it  a  bending  of 
these  places  from  the  direct  intent  of  the  founders, 
when  they  are  bestowed  on  such  as  have  plenty. 
Though  indeed  such  preferments  are  appointed,  as 

matter.  So  on  this  occasion 
they  wanted  not  peace,  they 
desired  not  unity,  it  suited 
their  purpose  with  the  people 
of  England  to  appear  moderate 
and  conciliating,  but  nothing 
was  furtherfrom  their  thoughts. 
When  therefore  there  was  a 
probability  of  some  concessions 
being  made,  and  so  the  grounds 
of  their  discontent  would  have 
been  removed,  they  got  sir  Ed- 
ward Deering  to  propose  the 
bill  of  "The  Root  and  Branch/' 
Of  their  most  unscrupulous  re- 
course to  "  lies  and  hypocrisy" 
on  these  occasions,  Dr.  Baillie, 
their  agent,  gives  many  lament- 
able instances ;  and  it  is  strange 

to  see  how  such  a  man  could 
approve,  and  even  take  part  in 
them  apparently,  without  any 
scruple  of  conscience.  Hi 3 
27th  letter  is  a  very  instructive 
one,  in  which  he  describes  the 
dangerous  game  which  they 
had  to  play,  to  gain  the  rabble 
of  London  and  their  money  by 
demanding  the  abolition  of 
episcopacy,  and  yet  at  the 
same  time  to  make  it  appear 
to  the  moderate  party  among 
the  lords,  whom  they  wished 
to  conciliate,  that  they  had  no 
such  design  in  reality.  Alas  !  a 
little  more  firmness  on  the 
part  of  the  king  had  saved  him 
from  all  his  misfortunes.] 

cbnt.  xvi  1.  qf  Britain*  193 

well  for  the  reward  of  those  that  are  worthy,  as  theA.D.1641. 

relief  of  those  that  want :  and  after  his  father's  death  — ■ 

he  was  chosen  into  that  society.  In  his  youthful 
exercises,  he  gave  such  an  earnest  of  his  future 
maturity,  that  Dr.  Whitaker,  hearing  him  dispute, 
said,  "  that  he  would  in  time  prove  the  honour  of  the 
"  university."  A  prediction  that  proved  not  untrue ; 
when  afterward  he  was  chosen  Margaret  professor 
of  divinity,  being  as  yet  but  a  private  fellow  of  the 
college.  Whereof  some  years  after  he  was  made 
master,  and  at  last  bishop  of  Salisbury.  Where 
with  what  gravity  and  moderation  he  behaved  him- 
self, how  humble,  hospitable,  painful  in  preaching 
and  writing,  may  better  be  reported  hereafter,  when 
his  memory  (green  as  yet)  shall  be  mellowed  by 
time.  He  sat  bishop  about  twenty  years,  and  died 
of  a  consumption  anno  1641,  to  which,  sensibleness 
of  the  sorrowful  times  (which  he  saw  were  bad,  and 
foresaw  would  be  worse)  did  contribute  not  a  little, 
I  cannot  omit,  how  some  few  hours  before  his  death, 
having  lien  for  a  long  time  (though  not  speechless, 
yet)  not  speaking,  nor  able  to  speak,  (as  we  beholders 
thought,  though  indeed  he  hid  that  little  strength 
we  thought  he  had  lost,  and  reserved  himself  for 
purpose,)  he  fell  into  a  most  emphatical  prayer  for 
half  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  Amongst  many  heavenly 
passages  therein,  he  thanked  God  for  this  his 
fatherly  correction,  because  in  all  his  lifetime  he 
never  had  one  heavy  affliction,  which  made  him 
often  much  suspect  with  himself,  whether  he  was  a 
true  child  of  God  or  no,  until  this  his  last  sickness. 
Then  he  sweetly  fell  asleep  in  Christ,  and  so  we 
softly  draw  the  curtains  about  him  m. 

m  [See  Lloyd's  Memoirs,  p.  281.  He  died  April  20,  1641.] 


194  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

A'Jixl64i'     54.  The  whole  bodies  of  cathedral  churches,  being 


of  too  great  a  bulk  to  be  blown  up  by  their  adveiv 

chapters  earies  at  once,  they  began  with  the  quires,  accusing 
^ffiy  the  members  thereof  for  useless  and  unprofitable, 
parliament.  r£^e  practical  court  clergy  were  not  so  active  and 

diligent  in  defending  these  foundations,  as  it  was 
expected  from  their  interest  and  relations11.  Whe- 
ther because  they  were  disheartened  at  the  imprison- 
ment of  their  chief  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  or 
because  some  of  them  being  otherwise  obnoxious  to 
the  parliament  were  loath  therein  to  appear;  or 
because  they  vainly  hoped  that  this  heat  once  over, 
all  things  would  continue  in  their  pristine  condition ; 
or  because  they  were  loath  to  plead  in  that  suit, 
wherein  they  despaired  to  prevail,  as  foreseeing  those 
places  destined  to  dissolution. 
An  unjust  55.  Yet  some  of  the  same  side  causelessly  com- 
plained of  the  backwardness  of  other  moderate 
cathedral  men,  that  they  improved  not  their  power 

n  [This  8iipineness  (if  such  this  same  year,  "that  the  clergy 
conduct  deserves  this  name)  "  of  England  convented  in  any 
was  not  more  remarkable  in  the  "  convocation,  or  synod,  or 
"  prelatical  court  clergy/'  as  "  otherwise,  have  no  power  to 
Fuller  odiously  calls  them,  "  make  any  constitutions,  ca- 
than  it  was  in  the  clergy  in  ge-  "  nons  or  acts  whatsoever  in 
neral ;  Laud  and  Wrenn  were  "  matters  of  doctrine,  discl- 
in  custody,  Montague  dying  of  "  pline  or  otherwise  to  bind 
an  ague  which  carried  him  off  "  the  clergy  or  laity  of  this 
about  this  time,  Mauwaring  "  land  without  common  con- 
disabled  from  sitting  in  the  "  sent  in  parliament ;"  and  yet 
house  by  a  censure  passed  on  no  one  exclaimed  against  this 
him  some  time  before.  These  usurpation.  Nor  must  the 
as  they  were  the  ablest  pre-  clergy  be  blamed  as  if  they 
lates,  so  were  they  of  undoubted  were  singular  in  this  respect: 
courage.  But  these  had  been  the  judges  submitted  with  equal 
removed  to  make  safer  way  for  supineness  to  the  interference 
the  tyranny  of  the  commons,  of  the  commons  in  their  juris- 
Far  more  surprising  is  it  that  diction,  and  were  as  tame  and 
parliamenUhould  have  resolved  as  abject  as  others.     To  say 



of  Britain. 


with  their  parliament  friends  so  zealously  as  *heyA.D.id4i. 

might  in  this  cause,  as  beginning  too  late,  and  pro- - 

ceeding  too  lazily  therein,  who  should  sooner  have 
set  their  shoulders  and  backs  to  those  tottering 
quires,  so  either  to  support  them,  or  to  be  buried 
under  the  ruins  thereof.  Whereas  they  did  whatso- 
ever good  men  could,  or  wise  men  would  do  in  their 
condition,  leaving  no  stone  unturned  which  might 
advantage  them  herein. 

56.   Indeed  it  was  conceived  inconsistent  with  The  cathe- 
their  gravity,  to  set  themselves  to  fight  against  the  endewmr 
shadow  of  common  rumour,  (and  so  to  feign  an  enemy  £jfrj£££ 
to  themselves,)  whilst  as  yet  no  certainty  of  the  par-  a***** 
liament's  intentions  to  destroy  deans  and  chapters. 
What  had  this  been  but  perchance  to  put  that  into 
their  brains,  which  otherwise  they  charitably  believed 
would  not  enter  therein  ?     But  no  sooner  were  they 
certified  of  the  reality  of  their   design,   but  they 
vigorously  in  their  callings  endeavoured  the  preven- 
tion thereof: 

that  no  man  possessed  either 
sufficient  courage  or  principle 
to  resist  these  instances  of  ille- 
gal oppression  would  be  unfair : 
some  such  there  were,  but  they 
were  either  paralyzed  by  the 
rapid  movements  of  the  popular 
party,  or  misled  by  the  appa- 
rent zeal  and  sanctity  of  design. 
ing  members.  Great  indeed 
was  the  humiliation  of  the 
church  at  this  period  of  Eng- 
land's history,  but  that  humi- 
liation consisted,  not  so  much 
in  the  loss  of  her  temporal 
power,  and  in  the  success  of 
her  adversaries,  as  in  the  fact, 
that  she  had  now  found  how 
little  she  possessed  of  the  sym- 
pathy of  the  people;  that  the 

lowest  and  the  wickedest  could 
wound  her  with  impunity,  im- 
peach her  ceremonies,  libel  her 
bishops,  blaspheme  her  ordi- 
nances, cry  aloud  for  her  de- 
struction, and  none  came  for- 
ward to  defend  her  cause.  This 
indeed  was  degradation  enough; 
and  it  seems  as  if  that  degrada- 
tion was  needful  to  restore  her 
to  the  affections  of  the  nation. 
It  was  a  degradation,  but  that 
out  of  which  she  came  not 
merely  unscathed  but  brighter 
and  stronger,  a  probation  which 
wiU  be  and  has  been  a  tower 
of  strength  to  her  ever  since, 
and  a  lesson  of  wisdom  if  it  be 
used  aright.] 


196  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

A6ChlfV'     ^  appointing  one  in  each  cathedral  church  to 

solicit  their  friends  on  this  behalf. 

By  drawing  up   a   petition    (the   same   mutatis 
mutandis)  to  house  of  lords  and   commons,  which 
(because  never  formally  presented)  I  forbear  to  insert. 
By  retaining  and  instructing  learned  counsel  to 
move  for  them  in  the  house.     Until  they  were  in- 
formed that  the  orders  of  the  house  would  not  bear 
any  to  plead  for  them,  but  that  they  must  personally 
appear  and  viva  voce  plead  for  themselves. 
Dr.  Hao-        57.  Lest  therefore  their  longer  silence  should  by 
in thed*   posterity  be  interpreted,  either  sullenness  that  they 
d^stnd  would  not,  or  guiltiness  that  they  durst  not,  speak 
chapters.    for  themselves,  by  their  friends  they  obtained  leave 
to  be  admitted  into  the  house  of  commons,  and  to 
be  heard  what  they  could  allege  in  their  own  be- 
half.    They  made  choice  of  Dr.  John  Hacket,  pre- 
bendary of  Paul's,  and   archdeacon  of  [Bedford], 
to  be  the  mouth  in  the  behalf  of  the  rest.     The 
brief  heads  of  whose  speech,  copied  (by  his  leave) 
out  of  his  own  papers,  are  here  inserted0. 

58.  First  he  craved  the  favour  of  that  honourable 
house,  to  whom  he  was  to  speak  on  a  double  disad- 
vantage. One  caused  from  the  shortness  of  time,  this 
employment  being  imposed  on  him  but  in  the  after- 
noon of  the  day  before.  The  other  because  he  had 
not  heard  what  crimes  or  offences  were  charged  on 
deans  and  chapters  (that  so  he  might  purge  them 
from  such  imputations),  reports  only  flying  abroad 
that  they  were  accounted  of  some  of  no  use  and 
convenience ;  the  contrary  whereof  he  should  en- 
deavour to  prove,  reducing  the  same  to  two  heads, 

°  [Printed  at  full  length  by  Dr.  Plume,  in  his  Life,  p.  xviii. 
He  had  but  one  night  to  prepare  himself.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  197 

quoad  res,  et  quoad  personas,  in  regard  of  things  of  a.  d.  i64i. 

great  moment,  and  divers  persons  concerned  in  such — 


59-  To  the  first.  It  is  fit  that  to  supply  the 
defects  of  prayer  committed  by  private  men,  the 
public  duty  thereof  should  be  constantly  performed 
in  some  principal  place  (in  imitation  of  the  primitive 
practice)  and  this  is  daily  done  in  cathedral  churches. 
And  whereas  some  complain  that  such  service  gives 
offence  for  the  super-exquisiteness  of  the  music 
therein  (so  that  what  was  intended  for  devotion 
vanished  away  into  quavers  and  air),  he,  with  the 
rest  of  his  brethren  there  present,  wished  the  amend- 
ment thereof,  that  it  might  be  reduced  to  the  form 
which  Athanasius  commends,  ut  legentibus  sint  quam 
cantantibus  similiores.  And  here  he  spake  much  in 
praise  of  the  church  music,  when  moderated  to 

60.  Hence  he  passed  to  what  he  termeth  the 
other  wing  of  the  cherubin,  which  is  preaching,  first 
planted  since  the  reformation  in  cathedral  churches, 
as  appears  by  the  learned  sermons  which  Dr.  Alley 
(afterwards  bishop  of  Exeter)  preached  in  the  church 
of  St.  Paul's,  and  since  continued  therein.  Where 
by  the  way  he  took  occasion  to  refel  that  slander, 
which  some  cast  on  lecture  preachers  as  an  upstart 
corporation,  alleging  that  the  local  statutes  of  most 
or  all  cathedral  churches  do  require  lectures  on  the 
week  days.  And  in  the  name  of  his  brethren  he  re- 
quested that  honourable  house,  that  the  godly  and 
profitable  performance  of  preaching  might  be  the 
more  exacted. 

61.  In  the  third  place  he  insisted  on  the  advance- 
ment of  learning,  as  the  proper  use  and  convenience 


198  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1641.  of  cathedrals,  each  of  them  being  a  small  academy, 
—  for  the  champions  of  Christ  his  cause  against  the  ad- 
versary by  their  learned  pens.  Here  he  proffered 
to  prove  by  a  catalogue  of  their  names  and  works, 
which  he  could  produce,  that  most  excellent  labours 
in  this  kind  (excepting  some  few)  have  proceeded 
from  persons  preferred  in  cathedrals  or  the  univer- 
sities. Now  what  a  disheartening  would  it  be  to 
young  students,  if  such  promotions  were  taken  away, 
witness  the  fewness  of  such  admitted  this  last  year 
into  the  universities,  and  the  deadness  of  the  sale  of 
good  books  in  St.  Paul's  churchyard,  merely  upon 
a  timorous  imagination  abroad,  that  we  are  now 
shutting  up  learning  in  a  case  and  laying  it  aside. 
But  if  the  bare  threatening  make  such  a  stop  in 
literature,  what  will  the  blow  given  do  thereon  ? 

62.  Fourthly,  he  alleged  that  the  ancient  and 
genuine  use  of  deans  and  chapters  was,  as  senatus 
episcopi,  to  assist  the  bishop  in  his  jurisdiction.  Now 
whereas  some  of  his  reverend  brethren  had  lately 
complained,  that  bishops  have  for  many  years  usurped 
the  sole  government  to  themselves,  and  their  con- 
sistories, the  continuing  of  chapters  rightly  used 
would  reduce  it  from  one  man  to  a  plurality  of 

63.  Lastly,  the  structures  themselves  should  (said 
he)  speak  for  the  structures.  Not  that  he  would 
have  them  with  Christ's  disciples  fondly  to  admire 
the  fabrics,  but  to  put  them  in  remembrance,  that 
cathedral  churches  were  the  first  monuments  of 
Christianity  in  the  kingdom. 

64.  From  things  he  passed  to  persons,  and  began 
with  the  multitude  of  such  members  as  had  main- 
tenance from  cathedrals,  (some  one  of  them  allowing 

cknt.  xvii.  qf  Britain.  199 

livelihood  to  three  hundred,  and)  the  total  amount- a.  D.1641. 

tag  to  many  thousands.    All  which  by  the  dissolu — 

tioiis  of  deans  and  chapters  must  be  exposed  to 
poverty.  Next  he  instanced  in  their  tenants,  who 
holding  leases  from  deans  and  chapters  are  sensible 
of  their  own  happiness,  (as  enjoying  six  parts  of 
seven  in  pure  gain,)  and  therefore  have  petitioned 
the  house  to  continue  their  ancient  landlords. 
Thirdly,  such  cities  wherein  cathedrals  stand,  (if 
maritime,)  being  very  poor  in  trade,  are  enriched  by 
the  hospitality  of  the  clergy,  and  the  frequent  resort 
of  strangers  unto  them. 

65.  Then  proceeded  he  to  speak  of  the  branches 
of  the  whole  kingdom,  all  being  in  hope  to  reap 
benefit  by  the  continuance  of  deans  and  chapters' 
lands  as  now  employed.  For  all  men  (said  he)  are 
not  born  elder  brothers,  nor  all  elder  brothers  in- 
heritors of  land.  Divers  of  low  degree,  but  generous 
spirits,  would  be  glad  to  advance  themselves,  and 
achieve  an  estate  by  qualifying  themselves,  by  in- 
dustry and  virtue,  to  attain  a  share  of  cathedral 
endowments,  as  the  common  possession  of  the  realm, 
inclosed  in  no  private  men's  estate. 

66.  And  whereas  travellers  inform  them,  that  all 
ranks  and  degrees  of  people  in  England,  (knights, 
gentlemen,  yeomen,)  live  more  freely  and  fashion- 
ably than  in  any  other  countries,  he  trusted  their 
honours  would  account  it  reasonable,  that  the  clergy 
had  in  some  sort  a  better  maintenance  than  in 
neighbouring  reformed  churches,  and  not,  with  Jero- 
boam's priests,  to  be  the  basest  of  all  the  people. 

67.  Then  did  he  instance  in  some  famous  pro- 
testants  of  foreign  parts,  who  had  found  great  relief 
and  comfort  by  being  installed  prebendaries  in  our 

o  4 

£00  The  Church  History  book  xt, 

ad.  1641. cathedral  and  collegiate  churches0,  as  Dr.  Saravia, 
16  Chan.  1,  pjgjggjj^  ^y  qUeen  Elizabeth,  Dr.  Casaubon  (father 

and  son)  by  king  James,  Dr.  Primrose,  Mr.  Vossius, 
in  the  reign  of  king  Charles,  and  Dr.  Peter  Moulin 
alive  at  this  day,  and  who  intended  to  leave  Sedan, 
(if  the  warlike  preparations  there  proceeded,)  and 
come  over  into  England,  where  he  should  have  but 
sad  welcome  if  all  his  livelihood  were  taken  away 
from  him. 

68.  Nor  could  an  act  be  done  more  to  gratify 
the  church  of  Rome  than  to  destroy  deans  and 
chapters,  seeing  p  Sanders  himself  seemeth  to  com- 
plain, that  queen  Elizabeth  had  left  provosts,  deans, 
canons  and  prebendaries  in  cathedral  and  collegiate 
churches,  because  he  foresaw  such  foundations 
would  conduce  to  the  stability  of  religion,  so  that 
by  his  words,  a  fetter  sacrifice  could  not  be  offered 
up  to  such  as  himself  than  the  extirpation  of  them. 

69-  He  went  forwards  to  shew  the  benefit  the 
king  and  commonwealth  reaped  by  such  lands  as 
paying  greater  sums  to  the  exchequer  for  first  fruits 
tenths  and  subsidies,  according  to  the  proportion, 
than  any  other  estates  and  corporations  in  the  king* 
dom  ;  and  are  ready  (said  he),  if  called  upon, 
cheerfully  to  contribute  in  an  extraordinary  manner 
to  the  charge  of  the  kingdom. 

70.  Now  as  he  was  by  their  honours'  favour  ad- 
mitted to  plead  under  that  roof,  where  their  noble 

0  [Of  whom  those  who  were  "  losing  his  prebend  at  Canter- 
alive  at  this  time  shewed  their  "  bury,  which  king  Charles  the 
gratitude  by  holding  their  peace  "  First  conferred  upon  him 
in  the  dangers  of  the  church,  "  withgreatliberality."  Plume's 
satisfied  with  their  own  safety,  Life  of  Hacket,  p.  xxv.] 
Vossius  particularly,  "  for  fear  ?  De  schismate  Anglicano, 
"  of  the   parliament,   and   of  p.  163. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  801 

progenitors  had  given  to  the  clergy  so  many  charters,  a.d.  1641. 

privileges,  and  immunities,  so  he  implored  to  find - 

the  ancient  and  honourable  justice  of  the  house 
unto  bis  brethren  who  were  not  charged,  much  less 
convicted  of  any  scandalous  faults,  justly  for  the 
same  to  forfeit  their  estates. 

71.  At  last  he  led  them  to  the  highest  degree 
of  all  considerations,  viz.  the  honour  of  God,  to 
whose  worship  and  service  such  fabrics  and  lands 
were  dedicated,  and  barred  all  alienation  with  (which 
he  said  is  tremenda  too)  curses  and  imprecations; 
he  minded  them  of  the  censers  of  Korah  and  his 
complices,  pronounced  hallowed  %  because  pretended 
to  do  God  service  therewith.  And  lest  any  should 
wave  this  as  a  Levitical  nicety,  it  was  proverbial 
divinity,  as  a  received  rule  in  every  man's  mouth : 
It  is  a  snare  to  a  man  that  devoureth  that  which  is 
hclyx.  He  added  the  smart  question  of  St.  Paul, 
Thou  thai  abhorrest  idols,  dost  thou  commit  sacrilege  f 
and  concluded,  that  on  the  ruins  of  the  rewards 
of  learning  no  structure  can  be  raised  but  ignorance, 
and  upon  the  chaos  of  ignorance  nothing  can  be 
built  but  profaneness  and  confusion. 

72.  This  his  speech  was  uttered  with  such  be-T1*8Peech 

1  well  accept 

coming  gravity,  that  it  was  generally  well  resented,  «l 
and  wrought  much  on  the  house  for  the  present, 
so  that  had  the  aliening  of  such  lands  been  then  put 
to  the  vote,  some  (who  conceived  themselves  know- 
ing of  the  sense  of  the  house)  concluded  it  would 
have  been  carried  on  the  negative  by  more  than  six 
score  suffrages8. 

4  Numbers  xvi.  38.  the  first  instance  it  was  actually 

r  Proverbs  xx.  25.  thrown  out:    "In  the  after- 

•  [Dr.  Plume  says  that  in     "  noon  it  was  put  to  the  ques* 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1 641.     73.  In  the  afternoon  Dr.  Cornelius  Barges,  as 

—speaker  for  his  party,  made  a  vehement  invective 

Us' speech  against  deans  and  chapters,  and  the  unprofitableness 
deras*and  of  such  corporations*    He  heavily  aggravated  the 
chapter*,    debauchedness  of  singing-men,  not  only  useless,  but 
hurtful  by  their  vicious  conversations.     Yet  he  con- 
cluded with  the  utter  unlawfulness  to  convert  such 
endowments  to  any  private  persons'  profit.     So  that 
the  same  doctrine  was  delivered  by  both  the  doctors, 
only  they  differed  in  their  applications,  the  former 
being  for  the  continuing  such  lands  to  their  ancient, 
the  latter  for  diverting  them  to  other,  but  neither 
for  alienating  them  from  public  and  pious  employ- 
Hk  ability      74.  if  since  Dr.  Burges  hath  been  a  large  pur- 
est divinity,  chaser  of  such  lands  to  himself;  if  since  St.  Andrew0, 
the  first  converted,  and  St.  Paul,  the  last  converted 





tion,  and  carried  by  many 
votes,  that  their  revenues 
"  should  not  be  taken  away ; 
yet  not  long  after,  in  the  same 
session,  after  a  most  unparlia- 
mentary manner,  they  put  it 
"  to  a  second  vote,  and  without 
"  a  second  hearing  voted  the 
"  contrary."  Life  of  Hacket, 
p.  xxv.] 

*  [There  was  a  deeper  motive 
at  bottom  for  suppressing  ca- 
thedral endowments;  at  least 
with  the  lower  orders.  To  keep 
the  king  in  good  temper,  the 
Puritans  had  persuaded  the 
commons  to  grant  him  tonnage 
and  poundage  for  three  years ; 
but  not  to  burthen  the  people, 
and  so  become  unpopular, 
they  determined  to  raise  a  fund 
for  the  expenses  of  the  nation 
out  of  the  revenues  of  the 

thedrals.  "  The  scaffolds  in 
"  Westminster  Hall "  (says 
Baillie)  "  are  now  ready — 
"  Monday  is  the  first  day  of 
"  Strafford's  cause.  Some  think 
"  his  process  will  be  short.  To 
"mollifV  the  king,  they  have 
"  given  nim,  the  other  day,  the 
"  tonnage  and  poundage  for  the 
"  next  three  years,  and  some 
"  three  subsidies,  which  with 
"  the  former  make  nine.  The 
stop  of  trade  here,  through 
men's  unwillingness  to  ven- 
"  ture  these  three  or  four  years 
"  bygone,  has  made  this  people 
"  much  poorer  than  ordinary. 
"  They  will  be  no  ways  able  to 
"  bear  their  burthen  if  the  ca- 
"  thedrals  fail  not."  Lett.xxvii. 
P.  S.  See  also  Lett,  xxv.] 
11  Wells  and  London. 



ckht.  xvii.  of  Britain.  90S 

apostle,  have  met  in  his  purse.  I  doubt  not  but  that  a.  d.  1641. 
hVcan  give  Bufficient  rsLn  for  the  same,  both  toi^=± 
himself  and  any  other  that  shall  question  him  there- 
in.     The  rather  because  lately  he  read  his  learned 
lectures  in  St.  Paul's  on  the  Criticisms  of  Conscience, 
no  less  carefully  than  curiously  weighing  satisfaction 
to  scruples,  and  if  there  be  any  fault,  so  able  a  con- 
fessor knows  how  to  get  his  absolution1. 
75.  A  bill  brought  up  from  the  commons  to  the  a  medley 

.  ,  bill  against 

lords  against  bishops  and  clergymen,  which,  having  bishops 
several  branches,  was  severally  voted.  granted, 

i.  That  they  should  have  no  votes  in  parliament.   ^y  de" 

ii.  That  they  should  not  be  in  the  commission 
of  the  peace,  nor  judges  in  temporal  courts. 

iii.  Nor  sit  in  the  Star-chamber,  nor  be  privy 

The  two  last  branches  of  this  bill  passed  by  general 

x  [He  was  afterwards  so  "  thereof  since  fallen  on  Dr. 
large  a  purchaser  of  the  bishops'  "  Burges.  Lond.  1659.  In 
lands,  that  a  little  before  tne  "  two  parts."  After  the  Resto- 
Restoration  he  was  offered  ration,  when  his  ill-gotten  pos- 
20,000/.  for  his  bargain,  which  sessions  reverted  to  their  right- 
he  refused.  Tojustifyhiscon-  ful  owners,  this  man  was  re- 
duct,  he  put  forth  a  tract  en.  duced  to  great  distress,  the 
titled,  "  No  Sacrilege  nor  Sin  anguish  of  which  was  augment- 



to    alien    or   purchase    the  ed  by  a  terrible  disease.     And 

"  Lands  of  Bishops  or  others  being  reduced  to  the  last  ex- 

"  whose  offices  are  abolished."  tremity,  he  who  had  once  pos- 

Lond.   1659;   and  a  shuffling  sessed  more  influence  over  a 

apology  which  he  styled,  "  A  factious  house  of  commons  than 

Case  concerning  the  Buying  ever  was  possessed  by  Laud  in 

of  Bishops'  Lands  with  the  the  upper  house,  was  compelled 

"  Lawfulness  thereof.  And  the  to  sell  his  books  for  his  sup- 

"  Difference  between  the  Con-  port,  and  was  (to  use  his  own 

"  tractors  for    Sale   of  those  words)  reduced  to  want  a  piece 

"  Lands  and  the  Corporation  of  of  bread.     He  died  in  obscu- 

"  Wells,  (ordered,  anno  1650,  rity  in    1665.       See  Wood's 

"  to  be  repaid  to  the  then  par-  Athen.  ii.  p.  347,  and  Fuller's 

"  liament,)  with  the  Necessity  "Appeal"  &c.  at  the  conclusion.] 

204  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  0.1641.000861119  not  above  two  dissenting.     But  the  first 

.! !!U  branch  was  voted  in  the  negative,  wherein  all  the 

bishops  gave  their  own  voices  for  themselves ;  yet, 
had  their  suffrages  been  secluded,  and  the  question 
only  put  to  the  lay  lords,  it  had  been  carried  for  the 
bishops  by  sixteen  decisive  *. 
At  ia§t  76.  After  some  days'  debate,  the  lords  who  were 

wholly  cut 

out.  against  the  bishops  protested  that  the  former  manner 

of  voting  the  bill  by  branches  was  unparliamentary 

and  illegal;  wherefore  they  moved  the  house  that 

they  should  be  so  joined  together  as  either  to  take 

the  bill  in  wholly  or  cast  it  all  out.     Whereupon 

the  whole  bill  was  utterly  cast  out  by  many  voices, 

had  not  the  bishops  (as  again  they  did)  given  their 

suffrages  in  the  same. 

Mr.  May-       77.  Master  Maynard  made  a  speech  in  the  com- 

speecha-    mittee  of  lords  against   the  canons,  made  by  the 

canons,      bishops  in  the  last  convocation,  therein  with  much 

learning  endeavouring  to  prove, 

i.  That  in  the  Saxons9  times  (as  Malmesbury, 
Hoveden,  sir  Henry  Spelman,  &c.  do  witness)  laws 
and  constitutions  ecclesiastical  had  the  confirmation 
of  peers  and  sometimes  of  the  people,  to  which  great 
counsels  our  parliaments  do  succeed. 

ii.  That  it  appears  out  of  the  aforesaid  authors 
and  others,  that  there  was  some  checking  about  the 
disuse  of  the  general  making  of  such  church  laws. 

iii.  That  for  kings  to  make  canons  without  con- 
sent of  parliament  cannot  stand,  because  built  on 
a  bad  foundation,  viz  .on  the  pope's  making  canons 
by  his  sole  power,  so  that  the  groundwork  not  being 
good  the  superstructure  sinketh  therewith. 

7  [See  Clarendon's  Rebellion,  i.  p.  410.] 

cent.  xvn.  of  Britain.  £05 

iv.  He  examined  the  statute  25th  of  Henry  VIII,  ^£tf; 

avouching  that  that  clause,  "The  clergy  shall  not 

u  make  canons  without  the  king's  leave/'  implieth 
not  that  by  his  leave  alone  they  may  make  them. 

Lastly,  He  endeavoured  to  prove  that  these  canons 
were  against  the  king's  prerogative,  the  rights,  liber- 
ties, and  properties  of  the  subject,  insisting  herein  on 
several  particulars. 

i.  The  first  canon  puts  a  penalty  on  such  as  dis- 
obey them. 

ii.  One  of  them  determineth  the  king's  power  and 
the  subject's  right. 

iii.  It  sheweth  that  the  ordinance  of  kings  is  by 
the  law  of  nature,  and  then  they  should  be  in  all 
places  and  all  alike. 

iv.  One  of  the  canons  saith  that  the  king  may  not 
be  resisted. 

v.  Another  makes  a  holy  day,  whereas  that  the 
parliament  saith  there  shall  be  such  and  no  more. 

This  his  speech  lost  neither  life  nor  lustre,  being 
reported  to  the  lords  by  the  bishop  of  Lincoln,  a 
back  friend  to  the  canons,  because  made  during  his 
absence  and  durance  in  the  tower. 

78.  One  in  the  house  of  commons  heightened  the  Several 
offence  of  the  clergy  herein  into  treason,  which  their  if  tSeder- 
more  moderate  adversaries  abated  into  a  praemunire.  ** 8   ence# 
Many  much  insisted  on  the  clerks  of  the  convocation 
for  presuming  (being  but  private  men  after  the  dis- 
solution of  the  parliament)  to  grant  subsidies,  and  so 
without  law  to  give  away  the  estates  of  their  fellow- 

79-  A  bill  was  read  to  repeal   that  statute  ofAHiiread 

against  the 

1  Elizabeth  whereby  the  high  commission  court  is  high  com- 
erected.  This  bill  afterwards  forbade  any  archbishop, 

206  The  Church  History  of  Britain.        book  xi. 

a.d.  1641.  bishop,  &c,  deriving  power  from  the  king  to  assess, 
or  inflict  any  pain,  penalty,  amercement,  imprison- 
ment, or  corporal  punishment  for  any  ecclesiastical 
offence  or  transgression.  Forbidding  them  likewise 
to  administer  the  oath  ex  officio,  or  give  oath  to 
churchwardens,  sidesmen,  or  any  others,  whereby 
their  own  or  others'  offences  should  be  discovered. 

SECT.   IX. 



Cum  insignia  tua  gentilitia  intueor,  non  turn  adeo  heraldicte. 

tartit  iananu,  quim  probe  soiam,  quid  ribi  velit  manus  iUa, 

tatteUo  interta. 
Tfi  tcilieet  baronettum  detignat,  cum  omnee  in  ilium  ordmem 

cooptati,  ex  institutions  sua,  adb  VJtoniam,  (Hibernice  pro- 

vinciam,)  forti  dsxtra  defandendam  teneantur. 
At  censum  (prater  hunc  vulgarem)  alium  latiorem,  et  (quoad 

meipiwn)  latiorem,  manui  illi  expanses,  qua  in  too  clypeo 

spectabilu,  tubem  video.      Index  at  tvmma  tuts  munifi- 

eentia,  quo  nomine  me  tibi  devindimmum  projiteor. 

MUTING  matters  of  greater  conse- a. D.164L 
quence,  know  that  the  bill  against  the 

Z-   \.  ■     ■  ,.         .f.    .     ..         The  high 

high  commission  was  the  third  tune-^^ns^- 
read  in  the  house  of  lords  and  passed  ^^_pot 
it,   which    some  days  after  was  con- 
firmed by  his  majesty.    Thus  the  edge  of  the  spi- 

*  [Arms.  Three  demi-Jions  Jane,  daughter  of  sir  J.  Prescot, 
rampant  gules,  a  chief  indented  lent,  of  Hoxne,  Suffolk ;  and 
of  tie  second.  This  air  Thomas  died  in  1670.  See  Lyson's  En- 
Fisher,  bart.  the  second  of  that  virons  of  London,  lii.  p.  153. 
name,  was  son  of  sir  Thomas  He  is  sometimes  described  as 
Fisher  (who  received  his  ba-  being  of  St.  Giles',  Middlesex, 
roaetcy  in  1637)  and  Sarah,  The  title  was  extinct  ia  1707.] 
daughter  of  sir  Thomas  Fowler,  b  Seldenus  in  Titulia  Ho- 
bart.  of  Islington.    He  married  noria.  [p.  680,  ed.  673.] 

808  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1641.  ritual  sword,  as  to  discipline,  was  taken  away.     For 

- —  although  I  read  of  a  proviso  made  in  the  house  of 

lords,  that  the  general  words  in  this  bill  should 
extend  only  to  the  high  commission  court,  and  not 
reach  other  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction;  yet  that  proviso 
being  but  written  and  the  statute  printed,  all  coer- 
cive power  of  church  consistories  was  taken  away. 
Mr.  Pym  triumphed  at  this  success,  crying  out,  Digit- 
us Dei9  "  It  is  the  finger  of  God,"  that  the  bishops 
should  so  supinely  suffer  themselves  to  be  surprised 
in  their  power.  Some  disaffected  to  episcopacy  ob- 
served a  justice,  that  seeing  many  simple  souls  were 
in  the  high  commission  court  by  captious  interro- 
gatories circumvented  into  a  self-accusation,  an  un- 
suspected clause  in  this  statute  should  abolish  all 
their  lawful  authority. 
a  bm  for  g.  The  bishop  of  Lincoln  brought  up  a  bill  to 
of  bithopt.  regulate  bishops  and  their  jurisdiction,  consisting  of 
several  particulars : 

i.  That  every  bishop  being  in  his  diocese  not  sick, 
should  preach  once  every  Lord's  day,  or  pay  five 
pounds  to  the  poor,  to  be  levied  by  the  next  justice 
of  peace,  and  distress  made  by  the  constable. 

ii.  That  no  bishop  shall  be  justice  of  peace,  save 
the  dean  of  Westminster  in  Westminster  and  St. 

iii.  That  every  bishop  should  have  twelve  assist- 
ants, (besides  the  dean  and  chapter,)  four  chosen  by 
the  king,  four  by  the  lords,  and  four  by  the  com- 
mons, for  jurisdiction  and  ordination. 

iv.  That  in  all  vacancies  they  should  present  to 
the  king  three  of  the  ablest  divines  in  the  diocese, 
out  of  which  his  majesty  might  choose  one  to  be 


of  Britain. 


v.  Dean8  and   prebends  to   be   resident   at   theA.D.  1641. 

,     _     _  .  ,  i6Chai.  I. 

cathedrals  but  sixty  days.  

Ti.  That  sermons  be  preached  therein  twice  every 
Lord's  day,  once  every  holy  day,  and  a  lecture  on 
Wednesday  with  a  salary  of  one  hundred  marks. 

viL  All  archbishops,  bishops,  collegiate  churches, 
&c.  to  give  a  fourth  part  of  their  fines  and  improved 
rents,  to  buy  out  impropriations. 

viii.  All  double  beneficed  men  to  pay  a  moiety  of 
their  benefice  to  their  curates. 

ix.  No  appeal  to  the  court  of  arches  or  audience. 

x.  Canons  and  ecclesiastical  capitulations  to  be 
drawn  up  and  fitted  to  the  laws  of  the  land  by  six- 
teen learned  men,  chosen  six  by  the  king,  five  by 
the  lords,  and  five  by  the  commons. 

This  bill  was  but  once  read  in  the  house,  and  no 
great  matter  made  thereof;  the  anti-episcopal  party 
conceived  it  needless  to  shave  their  beards,  whose 
beads  they  intended  to  cut  off,  designing  an  utter 
extirpation  of  bishops  c. 

3.  By  the  way  the  mention  of  a  moiety  to  the  a  crying 
curates,  minds  me  of  a  crying  sin  of  the  English  English 
clergy  conceived  by  the  most  conscientious  amongst  ergy" 
them,    a  great   incentive   of  divine   anger   against 
them ;    namely,  the  miserable  and  scandalous  sti- 
pends afforded  to  their  curates,  which  made  laymen 
follow  their  pattern  in  vicarages  unendowed,  seeing 

*  [This  seems  to  have  been 
in  furtherance  of  a  scheme 
which  the  bishop  entertained  at 
this  period,  of  taking  off  the 
edge  of  Presbyterian  hosti- 
lity, by  moderating  the  power 
of  the  bishops,  and  making 
some  provision  for  "  painful 
"  preachers."      "  The   bishop 


"  was  sure  (says  Williams)  he 
••  dealt  with  such  as  were  bare 
"and  necessitous,  from  the 
"  Orcades  to  Berwick,  and  that 
it  was  part  of  their  errand 
"into  England  to  carry  away 
"  gold  and  to  get  pensions." 
Ibid,  p-143-] 


210  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

A.D.i64i.guch   who   knew  most  what  belong  to  the  work 

:  allowed  the  least  wages  to  the  ministry.     Hence 

is  it  that  God  since  hath  changed  his  hand,  making 

many  who  were  poor  curates  rich  rectors,  and  many 

wealthy  incumbents  to  become  poor  curates.      It 

will  not  be  amiss  to  wish  thankfulness  without  pride 

to  the  one,  and  patience  without  dejection  to  the 


a  bill  a.         4#  a  bill  was  sent  up  by  the  commons  against 

shop         Matthew  Wren,  bishop  of  Ely,  containing  twenty- 

five  articles,  charging  him  for  being  popishly  affected, 

a  suppressor  of  preaching,  and  introducer  of  arbitrary 

power  to  the  hazard  of  the  estates  and  lives  of  many. 

They  desired  he  might  be  sequestered  from  the  king's 

person  and  service  d. 

The  M-         5.  To  return  to  the  bishops :  the  commons  per- 

shopf  im-  ••ti  •  n     i     • 

peached  for  cei ving  that  they  were  so  tenacious  of  their  votes 
mgo   in  parliament,  resolved  vigorously  to  prosecute  the 


impeachment  against  them  for  making  of  canons, 
expecting  the  bishops  should  willingly  quit  their 
votes  as  barons  to  be  acquitted  of  their  praemunire, 
whereby  they  forfeited  all  their  personal  estates; 
yet  the  sound  of  so  great  a  charge  did  not  so  affright 
them  but  that  they  persisted  legally  to  defend  their 
Have  time       6#  The  bishops  that  were  impeached  for  making 

and  counsel  \  *  ° 

allowed  canons  craved  time  till  Michaelmas  term  to  make 
their  answer.  This  was  vehemently  opposed  by 
some  lords,  and  two  questions  were  put : 

d  [See  these  articles  in  Nal-  unworthy  to  hold  any  spiritual 

son's    Collections,    ii.    p.  398.  promotion  or  office  in  the  church 

Though  they  assumed  merely  or  commonwealth,  he  was  de- 

the  form  of  a  charge,  and  the  prived,  and  imprisoned  in  the 

bishop  was  never  brought  to  tower    until    the     restoration, 

his  answer,  yet  being  declared  See  Lloyd's  Memoirs,  p.  613.] 

cknt.  jbvii.  o/Britam.  211 

i.  Whether  the  bishops  should  sit  still  in   theA.D.1641. 

house,  though  without  voting,  (to  which  themselves 

consented,)  whilst  the  circumstance  of  time  for  their 
answer  was  in  debate. 

ii.  What  time  they  should  have  for  their  answer. 

The  first  of  these  was  carried  for  them  by  one 
present  voice  and  four  proxies ;  and  for  the  second, 
time  was  allowed  them  till  the  tenth  of  November. 
And  although  the  adverse  lords  pleaded  that  in 
offences  criminal,  for  matters  of  fact,  no  counsel 
should  be  allowed  them,  but  to  answer  yea  or  no ; 
yet  on  the  lord  keeper's  affirming  it  ordinary  and 
just  to  allow  counsel  in  such  cases,  it  was  permitted 
onto  them  e. 

7.  Bishop  Warner  of  Rochesterf  is  chosen  by  joint  The  im- 
oonsent  to  solicit  the  cause,  sparing  neither  care  nor^t^™" 
cost  therein.     Of  the  counsel  he  retained  two  only^*JHV" 
appeared,  sergeant  Jermin,  who  declined  to  plead  for  why- 
them,  except  the  bishops  would  first  procure  him  a 
warrant  from  the  house  of  commons,  (which  they 
refused    to   do,)   and    Mr.  Chute,    who,    being    de- 
manded of  the  lords  whether  he  would  plead  for  the 
bishops,  "  Yea,"  said  he,  "  so  long  as  I  have  a  tongue 

"  to  plead  with."  Soon  after  he  drew  up  a  de- 
murrer in  their  behalf,  that  their  offence  in  making 
canons  could  not  amount  to  a  praemunire  ;  this  being 
shewn  to  the  bishop  of  Lincoln,  be  protested  that 
he  never  saw  a  stronger  demurrer  all  the  days  of  his 
life,  and  the  notice  hereof  to  the  lords  was  probably 
the  cause,  that  they  waved  any  further  prosecution 
of  die  charge,  which  henceforward  sunk  in  silence. 

8.  Pass  we  now  from  the  outworks  of  espicopacy 

e  [Ruthworth,  iv.  282.]  f  [Wood's  Athen.  ii.  p. 373.] 

p  2 

218  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.Dli64i.(I  mean  the  deans  and  chapters)  thus  fiercely  storm- 

!  ed  (but  as  yet  not  taken)  to  the  bishops  themselves, 

dui^ac.    wh°  began  to  shake,  seeing  their  interest  and  re- 

mean  Mrtfi.  8Pects  *n  ^e  house  of  lords  did  daily  decay  and 

decline.     Yea,  about  this  time  came  forth  the  lord 

Brooke  his  book  against  bishops,  accusing  them  in 

respect  of  their  parentage  to  be  de  face  popidi,  "  of 

"  the  dregs  of  the  people,"  and  in  respect  of  their 

studies  no  way  fit  for  government,  or  to  be  barons 

in  parliament. 

Sri?0***1      9«  Whereupon  the  bishops,  taking  this  accusation 

«n*g*     to  heart,  meet  together,  and  in  their  own  necessary 

defence  thought  fit  to   vindicate  their  extractions, 

some  publicly,  some  in  private  discourse. 

Dr.  Williams  e  began,  then  archbishop  of  York, 
(Canterbury  being  in  the  tower,)  was  accused  in  the 
Star-chamber  for  purchasing  the  two  ancientest 
houses  and  inheritances  in  North  Wales,  (which  are 
Penrhyn  and  Quowilocke, )  in  regard  he  was  de- 
scended from  them.  So  that  he  might  as  truly 
accuse  all  the  ancient  nobility  of  Britain  as  tax  him 
for  meanly  descended. 

Dr.  Juxon,  bishop  of  London,  did  or  might  plead 
that  his  parents  lived  in  good  fashion,  and  gave  him 
large  allowance,  first  in  the  university,  then  in  Gray's 
Inn,  where  he  lived  as  fashionably  as  other  gentle- 
men, so  that  the  lord  Brooke  might  question  the 
parentage  of  any  inns-of-court-gentleman  as  well 
as  his. 

Bishop  Morton  of  Durham  averred  that  his  father 
had  been  lord  mayor  of  York,  and  borne  all  the 
offices  of  that  city  with  credit  and  honour,  so  that 

*  [See  Hacket's  Life  of  Williams,  p.  6—7.] 

CENT.  XV11. 

of  Britain. 


the  lord  Brooke  might  as  justly  quarrel  the  descent  a.  p.  1641. 
of  any  citizens'  sons  in  England  h.  — 

Bishop  Curie  of  Winchester  his  father  was  for 
many  years  auditor  in  the  court  of  wards  to  queen 
Elizabeth  and  king  James;  and  the  aforesaid  lord 
may  as  well  condemn  all  the  sons  of  officers  to  be 
meanly  born  as  accuse  him. 

Bishop  Cook  of  Hereford  his  father's  family  had 
continued  in  Derbyshire,  in  the  same  house  and  in 
the  same  means,  four  hundred  years  at  least ;  often 
sheriffs  of  that  county,  and  matched  to  all  the  best 



•  f 

h  ["  His  coat  armour  and 
pedigree  will  shew  him  to  be 
of  the  same  original  and  stock 
with  that  eminent  prelate  and 
wise  statesman,  John  Morton, 
bishop  of  Ely,  and  lord  chan- 
cellor of  England,  afterward 
archbishop  of  Canterbury  and 
cardinal.    (See  this  History 

under  the  year  i486.) 

And  from  hence  the  judicious 
reader  will  conclude  his  an- 
cestors could  not  be  obscure, 
at  least  since  this  cardinal's 
time,  for  such  persons  as  he 
have  seldom  left  their  kin- 
dred without  some  consider- 
able preferments.  If  I  were 
so  good  an  herald  as  to  trace 
up  his  pedigree  to  those  times, 
it  is  possible  it  would  reach 
to  Thomas  or  John  Morton, 
whom  the  cardinal  made  his 
heirs,  as  being  sons  to  two  of 
his  brothers,  (Jo.  Budden  vit. 
Jo.  Mort.  archiep.  Cant.  p. 
50.)  Sure  I  am  that  sir 
Thomas  Morton  of  Dorset- 
shire, who  reckoned  his  de- 
scent from  one  of  them, 
sought  him  out  and  acknow- 
ledged his  kindred,  and  de- 



"  sired  his  acquaintance,  pre- 
"  sently  after  he  appeared  in 
'*  print,  and  long  before  he 
"  ascended  to  any  considerable 
eminency  in  the  church.  His 
parents  were  Mr.  Richard 
"  Morton,  citizen  and  mercer, 
"  of  York,  and  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
"  Leedale  his  wife,  who  enrich- 
"  ed  the  world  with  him  on 
"  Thursday,  20th  of  March, 
"  1564.  His  father  was  so 
"  eminent  in  his  calling,  that 
"  there  is  not  at  this  day 
"  [1660],  nor  hath  been  for 
many  years  by-past,  any  mer- 
cer in  that  city  [York]  who 
"  were  not  his  apprentices  either 
"  immediately  or  mediately. 
*'  His  mother  also  was  a  gentle* 
"  woman  of  very  good  family, 
"  descended  from  the  Valva- 
sours  by  her  mother's  side* 
and  by  whom  not  only  the 
"  Valvasours',  but  the  Lang- 
"  dales  also,  and  other  gen* 
"  tlemen  of  eminent  worth 
*'  in  Yorkshire,  acknowledged 
"  themselves  to  be  of  his  kin- 
"  dred."  Barwick's  Life  of 
Bishop  Morton»p.6i.  ed.  Lond. 






214  T/te  Church  History  book  zi. 

a.  D.1641.  houses  therein.     So  that  the  lord  Brooke  might  as 

—  well  have  charged  all  the  ancient  gentry  of  that 

sb ire  for  mean  parentage  as  accuse  him. 

Bishop  Owen  of  Asaph,  that  there  was  not  a 
gentleman  in  the  two  counties  of  Carnarvon  and 
Anglesea  of  three  hundred  pounds  a  year  but  was 
his  kinsman,  or  allieman,  in  the  fourth  degree,  which 
he  thinks  will  sufficiently  justify  his  parentage. 

Bishop  Goodman  of  Gloucester,  that  though  his 
very  name  seemed  to  point  out  his  descent  from 
yeomanry,  yet  (though  the  youngest  son  of  the 
youngest  brother)  he  had  more  left  unto  him  than 
the  lord  Brooke  his  father  had  to  maintain  him  and 
all  his  family.  That  his  grandfather  by  his  father's 
side  purchased  the  whole  estate  of  sir  Thomas  Exmew, 
lord  mayor  of  London  1517,  and  that  by  his  mother's 
side  he  was  descended  of  the  best  parentage  of  the 
city  of  London. 

The  rest  of  the  bishops  might  sufficiently  vindicate 

their  parentage,  as  most  the  sons  of  ministers  or  lay 

gentlemen,  whose  extractions  ran  not  so  low  as  to 

any  such  feculancy  charged  upon  them. 

Thede-  io.  But  moe  symptoms  of  their  dying  power  in 

wherebythe  parliament  daily  discovered  themselves,  some  where- 

cHnecHn     of  we  will  recount,  that  posterity  may  perceive  by 

parliament.  ^j^  degrees  they  did  lessen  in  the  house  before 

they  lost  their  votes  therein. 

First,  Whereas  it  was  customary  that  in  all  com- 
missions such  a  number  of  bishops  should  be  joined 
with  the  temporal  lords,  of  late  their  due  proportions 
were  not  observed. 

The  clerk  of  the  parliament,  applying  himself  to 
the  prevalent  party  in  the  reading  of  bills,  turned  his 
back  to  the  bishops,  who  could  not  (and  it  seems  he  in- 


of  Britain. 


tended  they  should  not)  distinctly  hear  any  thing,  as  i^:^*,1, 
their  consent  or  dissent  were  little  concerned  therein. 

When  a  bill  passed  for  exchange  of  lands  betwixt 
the  bishop  of  London  and  sir  Nicholas  Crisp,  the 
temporal  lords  were  offended  that  the  bishop  was 
styled  "right  honourable"  therein,  which  at  last  was 
expunged,  and  he  entitled  "  one  of  her  majesty's 
"  most  honourable  privy  council,"  the  honour  being 
fixed  upon  his  state  employment,  not  episcopal 

On  a  solemn  fast,  in  their  going  to  church,  the 
temporal  lords  first  took  precedence  of  the  bishops, 
(who  quietly  submitted  themselves  to  come  behind,) 
on  the  same  token  that  one  of  the  lay  lords1  said, 
u  Is  this  a  day  of  humiliation,  wherein  we  shew 
u  so  much  pride  in  taking  place  of  those  to  whom 
u  our  ancestors  ever  allowed  it  ? " 

But  the  main  matter  was,  that  the  bishops  were 
denied  all  meddling  even  in  the  commission  of  pre- 
paratory examinations  concerning  the  earl  of  Straf- 
ford, as  causa  sanguinis,  and  they,  as  men  of  mercy, 
not  to  deal  in  the  condemnation  of  any  person.  The 
bishops  pleaded,  though  it  was  not  proper  for  them 
to  condemn  the  guilty,  yet  they  might  acquit  the 
innocent,  and  such  an  one  as  yet  that  earl  was  cha- 
ritably presumed  to  be,  until  legally  convicted  to  be 
otherwise11.     They  alleged  also  in  their  own  behalf, 

'  The  young  lord  Spencer, 
afterwards  earl  of  Sunderland. 

k  [The  subject  has  been 
learnedly  handled  by  the  in- 
imitable bishop  Hacket  in  his 
Life  of  Williams,  (ii.  p.  151.) 
By  the  same  canon  law  (with 
which  these  lords  played  fast 
and   loose   as  it  served   their 

purpose)  bishops  are  strictly 
inhibited  from  giving  testimony 
in  causes  of  blood;  yet  the 
archbishops  of  Canterbury  and 
Armagh,  and  the  bishop  of 
London,  were  brought  forward 
by  the  house  to  give  evidence 
against  the  earl.  But  what 
could  be  expected  of  those  who 

P  4 

216  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

^^'^j-that  a  commission  was  granted  in  the  reign  of  queen 
Elizabeth  to  certain  privy  councillors,  for  the  exa- 
mination of  the  queen  of  Scots,  even  to  her  con- 
demnation, if  just  cause  appeared1,  and  John  Whit- 
gift,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  first  named  therein. 
All  would  not  prevail,  the  bishops  being  forbidden 
any  interposing  in  that  matter. 

ftSe^ii?*"  11-  I*  must  not  be  forgotten,  how  about  this  time 
ingiytore-  the  lord  Kimbolton  made  a  motion  to  persuade  the 
votes.  bishops  willingly  to  depart  with  their  votes  in  par- 
liament; adding,  that  if  the  same  would  surrender 
their  suffrages,  the  temporal  lords  who  remained  in 
the  house  were  obliged  in  honour  to  be  more  tender 
of  and  careful  for  the  bishops'  preservation  in  their 
jurisdictions  and  revenues.  An  instrument  was  em- 
ployed by  the  earl  of  Essex,  (or  else  he  employed 
himself,  conceiving  the  service  acceptable,)  who 
dealt  privately  with  several  bishops  to  secure  them- 
selves by  prevention,  to  surrender  that  which  would 
be  taken  away  from  them.     But  the  bishops  per* 

pulled  down  their  king  and  their  "  them/'  says  Hacket,  "  prance 

church,  and  then  bowed  their  "  about  the  streets  in  London, 

nobility  to  the  mock  majesty  of  "  with  pistols  in  their  holsters 

Pym,  homo  ex  argilla,  el  luto  "  and  swords  by   their   sides ; 

facus  Epicturao  ?~\  "  And  so  for  Edge  Hill,  and 

1  Camden's   Eliz.    in    anno  "  Newbury,  &c.      Could  they 

1586.  [Could  there  be  any  hy-  "  rush  into  so  many  fights  and 

pocrisy,  any   dishonesty  more  "  be  clear  from  cause  of  blood?" 

flagrant  than  this  ?    When  the  Life  of  Williams,  part  ii.  p.  153. 

very  same  parliament  appointed  Baillie  and  Baxter,  two  of  the 

armed  chaplains  to  attend  their  most  celebrated  among  them, 
armies ;  when  it  was  a  common  speak  with  sufficient  satisfac- 
practice  with  the  Scotch  and  tion  of  the  part  which  they 
English  rebels  to  inspire  fresh  took  in  animating  their  sol- 
courage  into  their  soldiers  by  diers  to  flesh  their  swords  in 
appointing  ministers  to  preach  the  blood  of  their  fellows ;  but 
before  them  on  the  very  field  the  fact  is  too  notorious  to  re- 
of  battle.     "  Have  I  not  seen  quire  further  comment.] 


of  Britain. 


8isted  in  the   negative,  refusing  by  any  voluntary  a.  d.  1641. 
act  to  be  accessary  to  their  own  injury,  resolving  l__!t_l 
to  keep  possession  of  their  votes,  till  a  prevalent 
power  outed  them  thereof"1. 

12.  Now  no  day  passed  wherein  some  petition  Multitude 
was   not  presented  to  the  lords  or  commons  from  ^gdrSTw.8 
several  persons  against  the  bishops  as  grand  griev-,ho,>s, 
ancers,  causing  the  general  decay  of  trade,  obstruct- 
ing the  proceedings  in  parliament,  and  what  not. 
Insomuch  that  the  very  porters  (as  they  said)  were 
able  no  longer  to  undergo  the  burden  of  episcopal 
tyranny,  and   petitioned   against   it.     But  hitherto 
these  were  but  blunt  petitions,  the  last  was  a  sharp 

«"    [The  adviser  was  after- 
wards that  earl  of  Manchester 
who  plundered  the  universities. 
Nothing  could  exceed  the  mi- 
serable   selfishness    and    cow- 
ardice of  the  temporal   lords, 
on  this  as  on  other  occasions; 
plundering  the  church  in  pros- 
perity, and  forsaking  it  in  its 
adversity.      With    the    excep- 
tion of  Strafford,  and  perhaps 
one    or    two   others,    not    one 
came  nobly  forward  in  its  de- 
fence,  noble  in  nothing  but  their 
names.     Their  aid  was  like  the 
reed,  whereon  if  a  man  leans  it 
shall   even  pierce  through  his 
hand  ;  throughout  the  troubles 
of  the  church,  the  first  to  pierce, 
and   then  desert   it.     Strange 
does  it  seem,  that,  in  this  reign 
especially,  more  than  all  in  one 
whose  heart  was  truly  catho- 
lic, such  as  Laud's,  no  attempt 
should  have  been  made  to  gain 
the  sympathies  of  the  people, 
even   at    this   last   and   latest 
hour,     the     only    trustworthy 
and     hearty    friends    of    the 

church.    "  So  am  I  full  of  this," 
(to  use  the  words  of  Hacket,) 
"  to  tell  it  to  posterity,  that 
"  the  pitiful  handful  of  lords 
"  temporal   (and  now  tempo- 
"  rary)    that   adhered   not   to 
"  the  king,  and  cashiered  the 
••  lords  spiritual  out  of  their 
"  society,  for  their  immoveable 
"  fidelity,  were  dismounted  for 
"  ever  from  their  own   privi- 
"  lege  and  honour,  and  might 
•'  pawn  their  parliament-robes 
•'  if  they   pleased.     And   the 
"  remainder  of  the  commons, 
"  after  Pride's  purge,  was  so 
"  despicable,  that  every  tongue 
"  was    so    audacious   to    give 
"  them  the  nickname   of  the 
"  posteriors  of  a  beast ;    and 
"  they  put  it   up,  lest  angry 
"  wits  should  paste  a  greater 
"  scorn  upon  them."     Life  of 
Williams,  ii.  139.     In  its  mi. 
sery  this   church   might   have 
long  looked  for  help  from  those 
whom  she  had  befriended.    The 
people  restored  her,  and  they 
only  made  her  strong.] 

218  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1641.  one  (with  point  and  edge)  brought  up  for  the  same 

16  Chas.  1.  ,       .  -  1  , . 

purpose  by  the  armed  apprentices. 

a  land-tide  13.  Now,  seeing  men's  judgments  are  at  such  a 
tices  Aw  to  distance  about  the  nature  of  this  their  practice,  some 
Westmin-  Arming  it  a  tumult,  mutiny,  riot,  others  calling  it 
courage,  zeal,  and  industry ;  some  admiring  them  as 
acted  with  a  public  spirit  above  their  age  and  edu- 
cation, others  condemning  them  much,  their  counte- 
nancers  more,  their  secret  abettors  and  contrivers 
most  of  all :  I  say,  when  men  are  thus  divided  in 
point  of  judgment,  it  will  be  safest  for  us  to  confine 
ourselves  merely  to  matter  of  fact.  Wherein  also  we 
meet  with  much  diversity  of  relation,  though  surely 
wrhat  a  parliamentary  chronicler"1  writes  thereof 
must  be  believed : 

"  Now,  see  how  it  pleased  the  Lord  it  should 

"  come  to  pass ;  some  of  the  apprentices  and  citizens 

were  again  affronted  about  Westminster  Abbey, 

and  a  great  noise  and  hubbub  fell  out  thereabouts. 

"  Others  some  of  them  watched  (as  it  seems  by  the 

sequel)  the  bishops'  coming  to  the  parliament,  who, 

considering  the  great  noise  and  disquiet  which  was 

by  land  all  about  Westminster,  durst  not  come  to 

the  parliament  that  way  for  fear  of  the  apprentices, 

"  and  therefore  intended  to  have  come  to  parliament 

"  by  water  in  barges.     But  the  apprentices  watched 

"  them  that  way  also ;  and  as  they  thought  to  have 

"  come  to  land,  they  were  so  pelted  with  stones,  and 

"  frighted  at  the  sight  of  such  a  company  of  them, 

"  that  they  durst  not  land,  but  were  rowed  back,  and 

"  went  away  to  their  places." 

m  John  Vicars,  God  in  the  Mount,  or  Parliamentary  Chro- 
nicle,  i.  p.  58. 




of  Britain. 


Thus  the  bishops  were  fain  to  shelter  themselves  a.  d  1641. 

from  the  shower  of  stones  ready  to  fall  upon  them, — 

and  with  great  difficulty  made  their  escape;  who 
otherwise  on  St.  Stephen's  day  had  gone  St.  Ste- 
phen's way  to  their  graves. 

14.  As  for  the  hubbub  at  Westminster  Abbey  The  man- 
lately  mentioned,  eyewitnesses  have  thus  informed  "Jmuit  at 
me  of  the  manner  thereof.     Of  those  apprentices  2^"SSy 
who  coming  up  to  the  parliament  cried,  "No  bishops,  J^Shite" 
"  no  bishops,"  some  rudely  rushing  into  the  Abbey  to  the  pens 
church,  were  reproved   by  a  verger  for  their  irre-torians. 
verent  behaviour  therein.     Afterwards,  quitting  the 
church,   the  doors  thereof  by  command  from   the 
dean  were  shut  up,  to  secure  the  organs  and  monu- 
ments therein  against  the  return  of  apprentices.    For 
though  others  could  not  foretell  the  intentions  of 
such   a  tumult,  who  could  not  certainly  tell  their 
own,  yet  the  suspicion  was  probable,  by  what  was 
uttered  amongst  them.     The  multitude  presently 
assault  the  church,   (under  pretence  that  some  of 
their  party  were  detained  therein,)  and  force  a  pane 
out  of  the  north  door,  but  are  beaten  back  by  the 
officers  and  scholars  of  the  college.     Here  an  un- 
happy tile  was  cast  by  an  unknown  hand  from  the 
leads  or  battlements  of  the  church,  which  .so  bruised 
sir  Richard  Wiseman  (conductor  of  the  apprentices) 
that  he  died  thereof,  and  so  ended  that  day's  dis- 

n  ["  These  Wat  Tylers  and 
"  Round  Robins,"  says  Hacket, 
"  being  driven  or  persuaded 
"  out  of  Whitehall,  there  was 
"  a  buz  among  them  to  take 
"  their  way  to  Westminster 
"  Abbey.     Some  said,  Lei  us 

"  pluck  down  the  organs;  some 
"  cried,  Let  us  deface  the  mo- 
"  numents  ;  that  is,  prophane 
the  tombs  and  burying-places 
of  king  and  queens.  This 
"  was  carried  with  all  speed  to 
"  the   archbishop    (Williams), 




The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1641.  15.  To  return  to  the  bishops.  The  next  day  twelve 
— —  *  of  them  repaired  to  Jerusalem  chamber,  in  the 
more  than  dean  s  lodgings ;  and  if  any  demand  where  were  the 
the  bishops  rest  of  them  to  make  up  twenty-six,  take  this  account 

5££. of  their  absence : 

18.  Dr.  Laud,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  in 
the  tower. 


•  • 

•  ( 


the  dean,  who  made  fast  the 
doors,  which  they  found  shut 
against  them ;  and  when  they 
would  have  forced  them,  they 
were  beaten  off  with  stones 
from  the  top  of  the  lends, 
the  archbishop  all  this  while 
maintaining  the  Abbey  in  his 
own  person,  with  a  few  more, 
for  fear  they  should  seize  on 
the  regalia,  which  were  in 
that  place  under  his  custody. 
The  spite  of  the  mutineers 
was  most  against  him,  yet 
his  followers  could  not  entreat 
him  to  go  aside,  as  the  disci- 
ples restrained  Paul  from 
rushing  into  an  uproar.  After 
an  hour's  dispute,  when  the 
multitude  had  been  well 
pelted  from  aloft,  a  few  of 
the  archbishop's  train  open- 
ed a  door,  and  rushed  out 
with  swords  drawn,  and 
drove  them  before  them  like 
fearful  hares.  They  were 
already  passed  their  duty, 
but  short  of  their  malice,  and 
every  day  made  battery  on 
all  the  bishops  as  they  came 
to  parliament,  forcing  their 
coaches  back,  tearing  their 
garments,  menacing  if  they 
came  any  more. — What  aid 
did  the  lords  afford  to  quell 
these  affronts?  Why,  Let 
Sosthenes  be  beaten  before  the 




"judgment  seal,  Gallia  cares 
for  none  of  these  things. 
"  Acts  xviii.  17."  In  these 
tumults  Morton,  bishop  of 
Durham,  as  well  as  the  rest, 
was  in  great  danger  of  his  life. 
•'  I  am  sure,"  says  Dr.  Bar- 
wick,  "  there  could  hardly  be 
"  a  fitter  parallel  to  that  at 
"  Ephesus  (Acts  xix.  31.) 
"  than  these  at  Westminster, 
"  in  one  whereof  this  reverend 
"  bishop  was  in  extreme  hazard 
"  of  his  life,  by  the  multitude 
that  were  beckoned  thither 
by  the  contrivers  of  our  late 
miseries.  Whereof  some 
•'  cried,  Pull  him  out  of  his 
"  coach :  others,  Nay,  he  is  a 
ce  good  man :  others,  But  for 
"  all  that  he  is  a  bishop.  And 
"  I  have  often  heard  him  say, 
"  he  believed  he  should  not 
"  have  escaped  alive,  if  a  lead- 
"  ing  man  among  that  rabble 
"  had  not  cried  out,  Let  him  go 
"  and  hang  himself  Which 
"  he  was  wont  to  compare  to 
"  the  words  of  the  angel  utter- 
"  ed  by  Balaam's  ass ;  though 
"  the  rudeness  of  the  expres- 
"  sion  argued  more  of  the  ass 
"  than  the  angel."  Life  of 
Morton,  p.  103.  This  graphic 
description  clearly  shews  the 
temper  and  conduct  of  nobles  as 
well  as  people  at  that  time.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  821 

14.  Dr.  Juxon,  bishop  of  London,  was  keeping  A-£-  l6y. 
his  hospitality  (it  being  Christmas)  at  Fulham.  

15.  So  was  Dr.  Curie,  at  Winchester  house,  and  it 
was  conceived  unsafe  (though  but  cross  the  Thames) 
to  send  unto  him. 

16.  So  also  was  Dr.  Warner  of  Rochester  returned 
to  entertain  his  neighbours  in  the  country. 

17.  Dr.  Bridgman  of  Chester  was  not  as  yet  come 
out  of  the  country. 

18.  Dr.  Roberts  of  Bangor  was  not  as  yet  comfe 
out  of  the  country. 

19.  Dr.  Man  waring,  bishop  of  St.  David's,  sat  not 
in  the  house,  as  disabled  long  since  by  his  censure  in 

20.  Dr.  Duppa,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  was  attending 
his  charge,  prince  Charles. 

21.  Dr.  John  Prideaux  was  not  yet  consecrated 
bishop  of  Worcester. 

22.  Dr.  Winniffe  was  not  yet  consecrated  bishop 
of  Lincoln. 

23.  Dr.  Ralph  Brownrigg  was  not  yet  consecrated 
bishop  of  Exeter. 

24.  Dr.  Henry  King  was  not  yet  consecrated 
bishop  of  Chichester. 

25.  Dr.  John  Westfield  was  not  yet  consecrated 
bishop  of  Bristol. 

26.  Carlisle  was  void  by  the  late  death  of  Dr.  Potter, 
only  conferred  by  the  king  on  archbishop  Usher  to 
hold  it  in  commendam. 

Thus  have  we  made  up  their  numbers,  and  must  not 
forget,  that  a  secret  item  was  given  to  some  of  the 
bishops  by  some  of  their  well-wishers  to  absent 
themselves    in    this   licentious   time   of  Christmas, 

£9£  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  D.1641.  though  they  had  not  the  happiness  to  make  use  of 

16  Chas.  I.  ,,  ,    . 

the  advice. 

The  form  16.  The  other  twelve  bishops,  being  not  yet  fully 
recovered  from  their  former  fear,  grief,  and  anger, 
(which  are  confessed  by  all  to  be  bad  counsellors  in 
cases  of  importance,)  drew  up  in  haste  and  disturb- 
ance such  a  protestation,  that  posterity  already  hath 
had  more  years  to  discuss  and  examine,  than  they 
had  hours  (I  had  almost  said  minutes)  to  contrive 
and  compose,  and  (most  of  them  implicitly  relying  on 
the  conceived  infallibility  of  the  archbishop  of  York 
in  point  of  common  law)  all  subscribed  as  folio  we  th : 

To  the  king's  most  excellent  majestyy  and  the  lords 
and  peers  now  assembled  in  parliament  p. 

"  Whereas  the  petitioners  are  called  up  by  se- 
"  veral  and  respective  writs,  and  under  great  penal 
ties  to  attend  tliQ  parliament,  and  have  a  clear  and 
indubitable    right    to    vote   in    bills    and    other 
matters,  whatsoever  debatable  in   parliament   by 
"  the  ancient   customs,  laws,  and  statutes  of  this 
"  realm,  and  ought  to  be  protected  by  your  majesty, 
"  quietly  to  attend  and  prosecute  that  great  service : 
"  They  humbly  remonstrate,  and  protest  before  God, 
"  your  majesty,  and  the  noble  lords  and  peers  now 
"  assembled  in  parliament,  that  as  they  have  an  in- 
d  ub  it  ate  right  to  sit  and  vote  in  the  house  of  the 
lords  ;  so  are  they,  if  they  may  be  protected  from 
"  force  and   violence,   most   ready   and  willing   to 

P  [See  Hacket's  Life  of  Wil-  He  called  the  bishops  together, 

liams,  ii.  p.  178.     The  archbi-  according  to  Dr.  Hacket,  and 

shop  is  said  to  have  drawn  this  got  them  to  put  their  hands  to 

protest    from    a    similar    one  this  protestation.] 
which  he  found  in  the  Tower. 



cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  fStS 

u  perform  their  dutiee  accordingly:    And  that  theyA.D.i64i. 

"  do  abominate  all  actions  or  opinions  tending  to 

"  popery  and  the  maintenance  thereof,  as  also  all 
"  propension  and  inclination  to  any  malignant  party, 
"  or  any  other  side  or  party  whatsoever,  to  the 
44  which  their  own  reasons  and  conscience  shall  not 
u  move  them  to  adhere.  But  whereas  they  have 
44  been  at  several  times  violently  menaced,  affronted, 
44  and  assaulted  by  multitudes  of  people  in  their 
44  coming  to  perform  their  services  in  that  honour- 
"  able  house,  and  lately  chased  away  and  put  in 
44  danger  of  their  lives,  and  can  find  no  redress  or 
44  protection  upon  sundry  complaints  made  to  both 
"  houses  in  these  particulars,  they  humbly  protest 
44  before  your  majesty  and  the  noble  house  of  peers, 
44  that  saving  unto  themselves  all  their  rights  and 
44  interest  of  sitting  and  voting  in  that  house  at  other 
44  times,  they  dare  not  sit  or  vote  in  the  house  of 
u  peers,  until  your  majesty  shall  further  secure  them 
44  from  all  affronts,  indignities,  and  dangers  in  the 
44  premises.  Lastly,  whereas  their  fears  are  not 
44  built  upon  phantasies  and  conceits,  but  upon  such 
44  grounds  and  objects  as  may  well  terrify  men  of 
"  resolution  and  much  constancy,  they  do  in  all 
humility  and  duty  protest  before  your  majesty  and 
peers  of  that  most  honourable  house  of  parliament, 
against  all  laws,  orders,  votes,  resolutions,  and 
determinations,  as  in  themselves  null  and  of  none 
44  effect,  which  in  their  absence,  since  the  27th  of 
"  this  instant  month  of  December  1641,  have  al- 
44  ready  passed,  as  likewise  against  all  such  as  shall 
44  hereafter  pass  in  that  most  honourable  house, 
44  during  the  time  of  this  their  forced  and  violent 
44  absence  from  the  said  most  honourable  house :  not 


2£4  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  164 i.  "  denying,  but  if  their  absenting  of  themselves  were 
- 1 "  wilful  and  voluntary,  that  most  honourable  bouse 

"  might  proceed  in  all  their  premises,  their  absence 

u  or  this  protestation  notwithstanding.    And  humbly 

"  beseeching  your  most  excellent  majesty  to  com- 

"  mand  the  clerk  of  that  house  of  peers  to  enter 

"  this   their   petition   and    protestation   among   his 

"  records, 

"  They  will  ever  pray  God  to  bless,  &c. 

"  John  Eborac.  Geo.  Heref. 

"  Tho.  Duresme.  Robt.  Oxon. 

"  Ro.  Co.  &  Lich.  Ma.  Ely. 

"  Jos.  Norw.  Godfr.  Glouc. 

"  Jo.  Asaph.  Jo.  Petroburg. 

"  Guli.  Ba.  &  Wells.  Maur.  Landav.^ 
This  instrument  they  delivered  to  archbishop  Wil- 
liams, who,  according  to  their  desire,  his  own 
counsel  and  promise,  at  the  next  opportunity  pre- 
sented it  to  his  majesty. 
Thebj-  17.  hjs  majesty  would  not  meddle  therewith  in 

shops  1m-  "       " 

peached  of  this  dangerous  juncture  of  time,  (his  great  council 
got!;  then  sitting,)  but  wholly  remitted  the  matter  to  the 
parliament.  The  next  morning  a  privy  councillor 
brought  this  protestation  into  the  house,  at  the 
reading  whereof  the  anti-episcopal  party  much 
triumphed  that  the  bishops  had  gratified  them  with 
such  an  advantage  against  themselves,  which  their 
adversaries  might  wish,  but  durst  not  hope  for  here- 
tofore. A  conference  is  desired  with  the  commons 
in  the  painted  chamber,  and  therein  concluded,  that 

q  [Williams  gave  it  to  lord  such  a  time  to  the  king,  when 

keeper  Littleton  to  present  to  he  thought  it  would  be  unftu 

the   king.      And   Hacket   in-  vourably  received  and  produce 

sinoates,  that  the  lord  keeper  most  mischief.     Life  of  Wil- 

intentionally   presented    it    at  Hams,  p.  178.] 


of  Britain. 


the  bishops  should  be  impeached  of  high  treason,  for  a.d.  1641. 

endeavouring  to  subvert  the  fundamental  laws  of? — 

the  land,  and  the  very  being  of  parliaments r. 

18.  Hereupon  the  next  day  the  twelve  subscribers  And  com. 
were  voted  to  be  committed  to  the  Tower,  save  that  Zhe  tw. 
bishop  Morton,  of  Durham,  and  Dr.  Wright,  bishop 
of  Coventry  and  Lichfield,  found  some  favour,  partly 
iu  respect  of  their  old  age,  and  partly  in  regard  of 
the  great  good  they  had  done  with  their  pens  and 
preaching  to  the  church  of  God :  so  that  they  alone 
were  sent  to  the  custody  of  the  black  rod.  The  rest 
being  brought  into  the  Tower,  had  that  honour 
granted  them  in  the  prison  which  was  denied  them 
in  the  parliament,  to  be  esteemed  equal  with,  yea 
above,  temporal  lords,  as  appeared  by  the  fees  de- 
manded of  them;  though  in  fine  sir  John  Byron, 
lieutenant  of  the  Tower,  proved  very  courteous  in 
removing  the  rigour  thereof.  The  archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  by  a  civil  message,  excused  himself  for 
not  conversing  with  them,  because  he  was  com- 
mitted on  a  different  account  from  them,  and  pro- 
bably they  might  mutually  fare  the  worse  for  any 
intercourse.  And  here  we  leave  them  prisoners  for 
eighteen  weeks  together,  and  proceed. 

*  ["  That  day"  (says  Hacket) 
"  it  broke  forth  that  the  largest 
"  part  of  the  lords  were  fer- 
"  men ta ted  with  an  anti-cpi- 
"  scopal  sourness.  If  they  had 
*  loved  that  order,  they  would 
"  never  have  doomed  them  to 
a  prison,  and  late  at  night, 
in  bitter  frost  and  snow,  upon 
no  other  charge  but  that  they 
"  presented  their  mind  in  a 
"  most  humble  paper  to  go 
"  abroad  in  safety.     Here  was 




"  no  sign  of  any  filial  respect 
"  to  their  spiritual  fathers. 
"  Nothing  was  offered  to  the 
"  peers,  but  the  substance  was 
"  reason,  the  style  lowly,  the 
"  practice  ancient;  yet  upon 
"  their  pleasure,  without  de- 
"  bate  of  the  cause,  the  bishops 
"  are  packed  away  the  same 
"  night  to  keep  their  Christmas 
"  in  durance  aud  sorrow." 
Hacket's  Williams,  ii.  179.] 



226  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.p.  1641.      19.  Now  was  the  bill  against  the  bishops'  sitting 

— -in  parliament  brought  up  into  the  house  of  lords, 

Newark  and  the  matter  agitated  with  much  eagerness  on 
•peecfaes  in  b°th  sides.  Amongst  those  who  sided  with  them, 
of  w2ibalf  none  appeared  in  print  more  zealous  than  the  lord 
viscount  Newark,  (afterward  earl  of  Kingston,  &c. 8) 
whose  two  speeches  in  parliament,  although  spoken 
some  months*  before,  yet  for  the  entireness  of  the 
history  may  now  seasonably  be  inserted  u. 

"  T  shall  take  the  boldness  to  speak  a  word  or 
"  two  upon  this  subject,  first  as  it  is  in  itself,  then  as 
it  is  in  the  consequence :  for  the  former,  I  think 
he  is  a  great  stranger  in  antiquity,  that  is  not  well 
acquainted  with  that  of  their  sitting  here  they 
"  have  done  thus,  and  in  this  manner,  almost  since 
"  the  conquest ;  and  by  the  same  power  and  the 
"  same  right  the  other  peers  did,  and  your  lordships 
"  now  do ;  and  to  be  put  from  this  their  due,  so 
"  much  their  due  by  so  many  hundred  years, 
"  strengthened  and  confirmed,  and  that  without  any 
w  offence,  nay,  pretence  of  any,  seems  to  me  to  be 
"  very  severe ;  if  it  be  jus,  I  dare  boldly  say  it  is 
"  sum  mum.  That  this  hinders  their  ecclesiastical 
"  vocation,  an  argument  I  hear  much  of,  hath  in  my 
"  apprehension  more  of  shadow  than  substance  in  it : 
"  if  this  be  a  reason,  sure  I  am  it  might  have  been 
"  one  six  hundred  years  ago. 

"  A  bishop,  my  lords,  is  not  so  circumscribed 
"  within  the  circumference  of  his  diocese,  that  his 
"  sometimes  absence  can  be  termed,  no  not  in  the 

8  [Robert  Pierrepoint,  ere-         *  The  first  May  21,  the  se- 
ated earl  of  Kingston  in  1628.  cond  May  24,  anno  1641. 
See   his  character  in  Lloyd's         u  [See  Nalson's  Collections, 
Memoirs,  p.  434.    See  also  this  ii.  p.  251.] 
History,  i.  125.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  287 

"most  strict  sense,  a  neglect  or  hinderance  of  his*;?:1**1- 

"  duty,  no  more  than  that  of  a  lieutenant  from  his 

u  county;  they  both  have  their  subordinate  min- 
u  isters,  upon  which  their  influences  fall,  though  the 
"  distance  be  remote. 

u  Besides,  my  lords,  the  lesser  must  yield  to  the 

*  greater  good ;  to  make  wholesome  and  good  laws 
"  for  the  happy  and  well  regulating  of  church  and 
"  commonwealth,  is  certainly  more  advantageous  to 
u  both,  than  the  want  of  the  personal  execution  of 

*  their  office,  and  that  but  once  in  three  years,  and 
"  then  peradventure  but  a  month  or  two,  can  be 
"  prejudicial  to  either.  I  will  go  no  further  to 
"  prove  this,  which  so  long  experience  hath  done  so 
tf  fully,  so  demonstratively. 

"  And  now,  my  lords,  by  your  lordships'  good 
u  leave,  I  shall  speak  to  the  consequence  as  it 
"  reflects  both  on  your  lordships  and  my  lords  the 
u  bishops.  Dangers  and  inconveniences  are  ever 
"  best  prevented  e  longinquo ;  this  precedent  comes 
u  near  to  your  lordships,  the  bill  indeed  hath  a 
"  direct  aspect  only  upon  them,  but  an  oblique  one 
u  upon  your  lordships,  and  such  a  one,  that  mutato 
u  nomine  dc  vobis.  Pretences  are  never  wanting, 
"  nay,  sometimes  the  greatest  evils  appear  in  the 
most  fair  and  specious  outsides ;  witness  the  ship- 
money,  the  most  abominable,  the  most  illegal 
u  thing  that  ever  was,  and  yet  this  was  painted  over 
"  with  colour  of  the  law ;  what  bfcnch  is  secure,  if 
"  to  allege  be  to  convince,  and  which  of  your  lord- 
u  ships  can  say  that  he  shall  continue  a  member  of 
44  this  house,  when  at  one  blow  six  and  twenty  are 
u  cut  off?  It  then  behoves  the  neighbour  to  look 
u  about  him,  cum  prtwimus  ardet  Ucalegon. 

Q  2 

228  3FAe  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1641.      "  And  for  the  bishops,  my  lords,  in  what  condition 

1 "  will  you   leave  them?    The   house   of  commons 

"  represents  the  meanest  person,  so  did  the  master 
"  his  slave;  but  they  have  none  to  do  so  much  for 
"  them,  and  what  justice  can  tie  them  to  the  ob- 
"  servation  of  those  laws,  to  whose  constitution  thev 
"  give  no  consent  ?  The  wisdom  of  former  times 
"  gave  proxies  unto  this  house  merely  upon  this 
"  ground,  that  every  one  might  have  a  hand  in  the 
"  making  of  that  which  he  had  an  obligation  to 
"  obey :  this  house  could  not  represent,  therefore 
"  proxies  in  room  of  persons  were  most  justly 
"  allowed. 

And  now,  my  lords,  before  I  conclude,  I  beseech 
your  lordships  to  cast  your  eyes  upon  the  church, 
"  which  I  know  is  most  dear  and  tender  to  your 
"  lordships ;  you  will  see  her  suffer  in  her  most  prin- 
cipal members,  and  deprived  of  that  honour  which 
here  and  throughout  all  the  Christian  world  ever 
since  Christianity   she   constantly   hath   enjoyed; 
"  for  what  nation  or  kingdom   is   there   in  whose 
"  great  and   public  assemblies,  and  that  from  her 
"  beginning,  she  had  not  some  of  hers,  if  I  may  not 
"  say  as  essential,  I  am  sure  I  may  say  as  integral 
"  parts  thereof?    and  truly,  my  lords,  Christianity 
"  cannot  alone  boast  of  this,  or  challenge  it  only  as 
"  hers,  even  heathenism  claims  an  equal  share. 

"  I  never  read  of  any  of  them,  civil  or  barbarous, 
"  that  gave  not  due  honour  to  their  religion,  so  that 
u  it  seems  to  me  to  have  no  other  original,  to  flow 
"  from  no  other  spring,  than  nature  itself. 

"  But  I  have  done,  and  will  trouble  your  lord- 
"  ships  no  longer ;  how  it  may  stand  with  the 
"  honour  and  justice  of  this  house  to  pass  this  bill, 



cekt.  xvii.  of  Britain.  229 

"I  most  humbly  submit  unto  your  lordships,  the  a.  d.  1641. 
"  most  proper  aud  only  judges  of  them  both."  -1 !t_l 

His  second  speech  x. 

"  I  shall  not  speak  to  the  preamble  of  the  bill, 
tt  that  bishops  and  clergymen  ought  not  to  inter- 
u  meddle  in  temporal  affairs.  For  truly,  my  lords, 
"  I  cannot  bring  it  under  any  respect  to  be  spoken 
"  of.  Ought  is  a  word  of  relation,  and  must  either 
"  refer  to  human  or  divine  law :  to  prove  the  law- 
M  fulness  of  their  intermeddling  by  the  former,  would 

*  be  to  no  more  purpose,  than  to  labour  to  convince 
M  that  by  reason  which  is  evident  to  sense.  It  is 
u  by  all  acknowledged.  The  unlawfulness  by  the 
tt  latter  the  bill  by  no  means  admits  of,  for  it  ex- 
u  cepts  universities  and  such  persons  as  shall  have 

*  honour  descend  upon  them.  And  your  lordships 
"  know  that  circumstance  and  chance  alter  not  the 
"  nature  and  essence  of  a  thing,  nor  can  except  any 
"  particular  from  an  universal  proposition  by  God 
"  himself  delivered.  I  will  therefore  take  these  two 
"  as  granted,  first  that  they  ought  by  our  law  to 
44  intermeddle  in  temporal  affairs ;  secondly,  that 
u  from  doing  so  they  are  not  inhibited  by  the  law 
41  of  God,  it  leaves  it  at  least  as  a  thing  indifferent. 
u  And  now,  my  lords,  to  apply  myself  to  the  business 
"  of  the  day,  I  shall  consider  the  conveniency,  and 
u  that  in  the  several  habitudes  thereof.  But  very 
"  briefly ;  first  in  that  which  it  hath  to  them  merely 
"  as  men,  qua  tales :  then  as  parts  of  the  common- 
"  weal :  thirdly,  from  the  best  manner  of  consti- 
tuting laws:  and  lastly,  from  the  practice  of  all 
"  times  both  Christian  and  heathen. 

*  [See  Nalson,  ibid.  p.  252.] 
Q  3 

830  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1641.  "  Homo  sum,  nihil  humanum  a  me  alienum  puto9 
***  *"  was  indeed  the  saying  of  the  comedian,  but  it 
"  might  well  have  become  the  mouth  of  the  greatest 
"  philosopher.  We  allow  to  sense  all  the  works 
"  and  operations  of  sense,  and  shall  we  restrain 
"  reason  ?  Must  only  man  be  hindered  from  his 
"  proper  actions  ?  They  are  most  fit  to  do  reasonable 
"  things  that  are  most  reasonable.  For  science 
"  commonly  is  accompanied  with  conscience ;  so  is 
"  not  ignorance :  they  seldom  or  never  meet.  And 
"  why  should  we  take  that  capacity  from  them 
44  which  God  and  nature  have  so  liberally  bestowed  ? 
"  My  lords,  the  politic  body  of  the  commonwealth 
"  is  analogical  to  the  body  natural :  every  member 
"  in  that  contributes  something  to  the  preservation 
"  of  the  whole,  the  superfluity  or  defect  which 
44  hinders  the  performance  of  that  duty,  your  lord- 
"  ships  know  what  the  philosopher  calls  dfxaprlav 
"  T179  (frvo-cm,  '  nature's  sin.'  And  truly,  my  lords,  to 
"  be  part  of  the  other  body,  and  do  nothing  bene- 
"  ficial  thereunto,  cannot  fall  under  a  milder  term. 
"  The  commonwealth  subsists  by  laws  and  their 
"  execution :  and  they  that  have  neither  head  in  the 
44  making  nor  hand  in  the  executing  of  them,  confer 
"  not  anything  to  the  being  or  well-being  thereof. 
44  And  can  such  be  called  members  unless  most 
"  unprofitable  ones?  onljfruges  conmmere  nati. 

44  Methinks  it  springs  from  nature  itself,  or  the 
"  very  depths  of  justice,  that  none  should  be  tied  by 
"  other  laws  than  himself  makes ;  for  what  more 
44  natural  and  just,  than  to  be  bound  only  by  his 
own  consent?  to  be  ruled  by  another's  will  is 
merely  tyrannical.  Nature  then  suffers  violence, 
and  man  degenerates  into  beast.   The  most  flourish- 

ckkt.  xvii.  of  Britain.  231 

"  ing  estates  were  ever  governed  by  laws  of  an  uni-  a.d.  1641. 

"  versal   constitution  ;    witness   this    our   kingdom,  1 —1 

"  witness  senatus  populusque  Romanics,  the  most 
"  glorious  commonwealth  that  ever  was,  and  those 
u  many  others  in  Greece  and  elsewhere  of  eternal 
u  memory. 

"  Some  things,  my  lords,  are  so  evident  in  them- 
"  selves,  that  they  are  difficult  in  their  proofs, 
"  Amongst  them  I  reckon  this  conveniency  I  have 
"  spoken  of:  I  will  therefore  use  but  a  word  or  two 
"  more  in  this  way.  The  long  experience  that  all 
"  Christendom  hath  had  hereof  for  these  1300  years 
"  is  certainly  argumentum  ad  hominem.     Nay,  my 

*  lords,  I  will  go  further,  (for  the  same  reason  runs 
u  through  all  religions,)  never  was  there  any  nation 

*  that  employed  not  their  religious  men  in  the 
"  greatest  affairs.  But  to  come  to  the  business  that 
"  now   lies   before   your   lordships.      Bishops   have 

*  voted  here  ever  since  parliaments  began,  and  long 
before  were  employed  in  the  public.  The  good 
they  have  done  your  lordships  all  well  know,  and 
at  this  day  enjoy :  for  this  I  hope  ye  will  not  put 

**  them  out,  nor  for  the  evil  they  may  do,  which  yet 
u  your  lordships  do  not  know,  and  I  am  confident 
u  never  shall  suffer.  A  position  ought  not  to  be 
"  destroyed  by  a  supposition,  et  a  posse  ad  esse  non 
"  valet  consequential  My  lords,  I  have  done  with 
u  proving  of  this  positively ;  I  shall  now  by  your 
"  good  favours  do  it  negatively  in  answering  some 
"  inconveniences  that  may  seem  to  arise. 

"  For  the  text,  No  man  that  wars  entangles  himself  'object  1. 
"  with  the  affairs  of  this  life,  which  is  the  full  sense 
u  of  the  word  both  in  Greek  and  Latin,  it  makes  not 
"  at  all  against  them,  except   to  intermeddle  and 

Q  4 



232  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  D.  1641."  entanqle  be  terms  equivalent.     Besides,  my  lords, 

i6Chas.I.         .  ,      ,  .  1.1  11  •      • 

«  though  this  was  directed  to  a  churchman,  yet  it  is 

"  of  a  general  nature,  and  reaches  to  ail,  clergy  and 
"  laity,  as  the  most  learned  and  best  expositors 
"  unanimously  do  agree.  To  end  this,  Argumentum 
"  symbolicum  non  est  argumentativum. 

Object. «.  «  It  may  be  said,  that  it  is  inconsistent  with  a 
"  spiritual  vocation :  truly,  my  lord,  grace  and  nature 
"  are  in  some  respects  incompatible,  but  in  some 
"  others  most  harmoniously  agree ;  it  perfects  nature, 
"  and  raises  it  to  a  height  above  the  common  aiti- 
44  tude,  and  makes  it  most  fit  for  those  great  works 
44  of  God  himself,  to  make  laws,  to  do  justice.  There 
"  is  then  no  inconsistency  between  themselves,  it 
"  must  arise  out  of  scripture ;  I  am  confident  it  doth 
44  not  formally  out  of  any  place  there,  nor  did  I  ever 
44  meet  with  any  learned  writer  of  these  or  other 
44  times  that  so  expounded  any  text. 

Object  3.  «  But  though  in  strict  terms  this  be  not  incon- 
"  sistent,  yet  it  may  peradventure  hinder  the  duty 
44  of  their  other  calling.  My  lords,  there  is  not  any 
44  that  sits  here  more  for  preaching  than  I  am ;  I 
•'  know  it  is  the  ordinary  means  to  salvation ;  yet 
"  I  likewise  know  there  is  not  that  full  necessity  of 
44  it  as  was  in  the  primitive  times.  God  defend  that 
44  1600  years'  acquaintance  should  make  the  gospel 
44  of  Christ  no  better  known  unto  us.  Neither,  my 
44  lords,  doth  their  office  merely  and  wholly  consist 
44  in  preaching ;  but  partly  in  that,  partly  in  praying 
"  and  administering  the  blessed  sacraments ;  in  a 
44  godly  and  exemplary  life ;  in  wholesome  admo- 
44  nitions ;  in  exhortations  to  virtue,  dehortations  from 
44  vice ;  and  partly  in  easing  the  burdened  conscience. 
44  These,  my  lords,  complete  the  office  of  a  church- 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  283 

"  man.     Nor  are  they  altogether  tied  to  time  orA.D.  1641. 

"  place,  though  I  confess  they  are  most  properly - 

"  exercised  within  their  own  verge,  except  upon 
"  good  occasion,  nor  then  the  omission  of  some  can 
"  be  termed  the  breach  of  them  all.  I  must  add 
"  one  more,  an  essential  one,  the  very  form  of 
"  episcopacy  that  distinguished  it  from  the  inferior 
"  ministry,  the  orderly  and  good  government  of  the 
"  church :  and  how  many  of  these,  I  am  sure  not 
tt  the  last,  my  lords,  is  interrupted  by  their  sitting 
14  here  once  in  three  years,  and  then  perad venture 
"  but  a  very  short  time  ?  And  can  there  be  a  greater 

*  occasion  than  the  common  good  of  the  church  and 
"state?    I  will  tell  your  lordships  what  the  great 

*  and  good  emperor  Constentine  did  in  his  expe- 
"  dition  against  the  Persians ;  he  had  his  bishops 
u  with  him,  whom  he  consulted  about  his  military 
"  affairs,  as  Eusebius  has  it  in  his  life,  lib.  iv. 
"  c.  56. 

"  Reward  and  punishment  are  the   great  nego-  Object  4. 

*  tiators  in  all  worldly  business ;  these  may  be  said 
"  to  make  the  bishops  swim  against  the  stream  of 
"  their  consciences.     And  may  not  the  same  be  said 

*  of  the  laity  ?  Have  these  no  operations  but  only 
u  upon  them  ?  Has  the  king  neither  frown,  honour, 
u  nor  offices,  but  only  for  bishops  ?  Is  there  nothing 
"  that  answers  their  translations  ?  Indeed,  my  lords, 
"  I  must  needs  say,  that  in  charity  it  is  a  supposition 
u  not  to"  be  supposed ;  no,  nor  in  reason,  that  they 
"  will  go  against  the  light  of  their  understanding. 
"The  holiness  of  their  calling,  their  knowledge, 
14  their  freedom  from  passions  and  affections  to  which 
14  youth  is  very  obnoxious,  their  vicinity  to  the  gates 
11  of  death,  which,  though  not  shut  to  any,  yet  always 


284  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1641."  stand  wide  open  to  old  age:  these,  my  lords,  will 
1 — --'.  "  surely  make  them  steer  aright. 
Object  5.  "  But  of  matter  of  feet  there  is  no  disputation, 
"  some  of  them  have  done  ill ;  crimine  ab  uno  disce 
"  omnes  is  a  poetical  not  a  logical  argument.  Some 
"  of  the  judges  have  done  so,  some  of  the  magis- 
"  trates  and  officers ;  and  shall  there  be  therefore 
"  neither  judge,  magistrate,  nor  officer  more  ?  A 
"  personal  crime  goes  not  beyond  the  person  that 
"  commits  it,  nor  can  another's  fault  be  mine  offence. 
If  they  have  contracted  any  filth  or  corruption 
through  their  own  or  the  vice  of  the  times,  cleanse 
and  purge  them  throughly:  but  still  remember  the 
great  difference  between  reformation  and  extirpa- 
"  tion.  And  be  pleased  to  think  of  your  triennial 
"  bill,  which  will  save  you  this  labour  for  the  time 
to  come;  fear  of  punishment  will  keep  them  in 
order,  if  they  should  not  themselves  through  the 
"  love  of  virtue.  I  have  now,  my  lords,  according 
"  to  my  poor  ability,  both  shewed  the  conveniences 
"  and  answered  those  inconveniences  that  seem  to 
"  make  against  them.  I  should  now  propose  those 
"  that  make  for  them :  as,  their  falling  into  a  con- 
"  dition  worse  than  slaves,  not  represented  by  any ; 
"  and  then  the  dangers  and  inconveniences  that  may 
"  happen  to  your  lordships :  but  I  have  done  this 
"  heretofore,  and  will  not  offer  your  lordships  cram- 
"  ben  bis  coctam" 

These  speeches  (though  they  converted  none  of 

the  opposite)  confirmed  those  of  the  episcopal  party, 

making  the  lords  very  zealous  in  the  bishops'  behalf. 

Temporal       20.  There  were  in  the  house  many  other  defenders 

vouren  of  of  episcopacy ;  as  William  [Seymour],  lord  marquess 

"*■»■■     of  Hertford,   the   earl   of  Southampton    [Thomas 



of  Britain. 


"Wriothesley],  the  earl  of  Bristol  [John  Digby],  and  A.D.1641. 

the  lord  Digby  his  son,  and  (the  never  to  be  for- 1 

gotten)  Henry  [Bourchier],  earl  of  Bath,  a  learned 
lord  and  lover  of  learning,  oftentimes  on  occasion 
speaking  for  bishops ;  once  publicly  professing  it  one 
of  the  greatest  honours  which  ever  happily  happened 
to  his  family,  that  one  thereof  (Thomas  Bourchier 
by  name)  was  once  dignified  with  the  archbishopric 
of  Canterbury.  Many  other  lords  (though  not 
haranguing  it  in  long  orations),  by  their  effectual 
votes  for  bishops,  manifested  their  unfeigned  affec- 
tions unto  them. 

21.    About  this  time   there  were  many  vacant  The  death 
cathedrals,  which  the  king  lately  had  or  now  didMouii-0p 
furnish  with  new  bishops;    Dr.  Joseph  Hall  being tague' 
removed  from  Exeter  to  Norwich,  void  by  the  death 
of  Richard  Mountague,  born  in  Westminster  v,  bred 
in  Eton  School,  fellow  in  King's  College;  a  great 
Grecian,  and   church  antiquary,  well   read   in   the 

J  [Born  at  Dorney,  according 
to  Wood,  Ath.  i.  732.  He  was 
translated  from  Chichester  to 
Norwich  4th  of  May  1638, 
where  he  died,  and  was  buried 
in  the  choir  of  the  cathedral 
church  ;  "  where  to  this  day," 
say 8  Wood, "  is  this  only  written 
"  on  his  grave,  *  Depositum 
"  Montacutii  episcopi.'  He 
"  came  to  Norwich  with  the 
"  evil  effects  of  a  quartan  ague 
"  which  he  had  about  a  year 
"  before,  and  which  accom- 
"  panied  him  to  his  grave  ;  yet 
"  he  studied  and  wrote  very 
"  much,  had  an  excellent  li- 
brary of  books,  and  heaps  of 
papers  fairly  written  with  his 




own  hand  concerning  the 
"  ecclesiastical  history.  He 
"  was  a  person  exceedingly 
"  well  versed  in  all  the  learning 
"  of  Greeks  and  Romans,  and 
"  as  well  studied  in  the  fathers, 
"  councils,  and  all  other  monu- 
"  Dients  of  the  Christian  world 
"  as  any  man  beside  in  the 
"  whole  nation."  He  was  much 
esteemed  by  the  learned  sir 
Hen.  Saville,  whom  he  assisted 
in  his  edition  of  St.  Chrysostom, 
and  besides  the  pieces  men- 
tioned before  in  this  History, 
was  the  author  of  an  ecclesias- 
tical history  which  he  left  un- 
finished, and  editor  also  of 
the  Epistles  of  Photius.] 

286  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1641.  fathers.     But  (all  in  his  diocese  not  being  so  well 

—  skilled  in  antiquity  as  himself)  some  charged  him 

with  suj>er8titious  urging  of  ceremonies,  and  being 

accused  in  parliament  he  appeared  not,  (being  very 

weak,)   but   went"   a   more   compendious   way,   to 

answer  all  in  the  high  court  of  heaven. 

Eminent         22.  As  for  new  elected  bishops,  his  majesty  was 

persons '    most  careful  to  choose  them  out  of  the  most  sound 

bishops,      for  judgment  and  blameless  for  conversation. 

i.  Dr.  John  Prideaux,  almost  grown  to  the  king's 
professor's  chair  in  Oxford,  he  had  sat  so  long  and 
close  therein :  procuring,  by  his  painful  and  learned 
lectures,  deserved  repute  at  home  and  amongst 
foreign  protestants :  he  was  made  bishop  of 

ii.  Dr.  Thomas  Winniffe,  dean  of  St.  Paul's ;  a 
grave,  learned,  and  moderate  divine;  made  bishop 
of  Lincoln. 

iii.  Dr.  Ralph  Brownrig,  of  most  quick  and  solid 
parts,  equally  eminent  for  disputing  and  preaching; 
made  bishop  of  Exeter. 

iv.  Dr.  Henry  King,  acceptable  on  the  account  of 
his  own  merit,  and  on  the  score  of  a  pious  and 
popular  father ;  made  bishop  of  Chichester. 

v.  Dr.  John  Westfield,  for  many  years  the  painful 
and  profitable  preacher  of  great  St.  Batholomew's, 
London ;  made  bishop  of  Bristol.  He  died  not  long 

Surely,  si  urbs  defensa,  fuisset  his  dextris^  if  Divine 
Providence  had  appointed  that  episcopacy  (at  this 
time)  should  have  been  kept  up  and  maintained, 
more  probable  persons  for  that  purpose  could  not 

*  He  died  on  the  1 2th  of  April. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  887 

have  been  picked  out  of  England;  so  that  envy  andA.D.  1641. 
detraction  might  even  feed  on  their  own  flesh,  their  l?    M" 
teeth  finding  nothing  in  the  aforesaid  elects  to  fasten 

23.  But  episcopacy  was  so  for  from  faring  the  ah  would 
better  for  them,  that  they  fared  the  worse  for  it, 
insomuch  that  many  who  much  loved  them  in  their 
gowns  did  not  at  all  like  them  in  their  rochets. 

24.  The  bill  was  again  brought  in  against  bishops' Ad!sad- 
votes  in  parliament,  and  that  in  a  disadvantageous  juncture  of 
juncture  of  time,  the  bishops  then  being  under  aDfchops. 
threefold  qualification. 

i.  Imprisoned  in  the  tower.  Of  these  eleven, 
besides  archbishop  Laud,  whose  absence  much  weak- 
ened the  party. 

ii.  Lately  consecrated,  and  later  inducted  into  the 
house  of  lords,  as  the  bishops  of  Worcester,  Lincoln, 
Exeter,  Chichester,  Bristol,  such  their  modesty  and 
manners,  they  conceived  it  fitting  to  practise  their 
hearing  before  speaking  in  the  house.  So  that  in 
some  sort  they  may  be  said  to  have  lost  their  voices 
before  they  found  them  in  the  parliament. 

iii.  The  remainder  of  ancient  bishops,  London, 
Salisbury,  Bangor,  &c,  who  seldom  were  seen  (de- 
tained with  other  occasions)  and  more  seldom  heard 
in  the  parliament. 

So  that  the  adversaries  of  episcopacy  could  not 
have  obtained  a  fitter  opportunity  (the  spirits  of  time 
at  large  being  distilled  thereinto)  than  in  this  very 
instant  to  accomplish  their  desires. 

25.  Only  Dr.  John  Warner,  bishop  of  Rochester,  Bishop 
was   he   in  whom  dying  episcopacy  gave  the  last  best  cham- 
groan  in  the  house  of  lords,  one  of  good  speech  and  u&ajZ 

a  cheerful  spirit ;  and,  which  made  both,  a  good  purse ; 

288  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1641.  and,  which  made  all  three,  a  good  cause,  as  he  con- 
— ceived  in  his  conscience,  which  made  him  very  per- 
tinently and  valiantly  defend  the  antiquity  and  justice 
of  bishops'  votes  in  parliament.    This  is  he  of  whose 
bounty  many  distressed   souls    since    have   tasted, 
whose  reward  no  doubt  is  laid  up  for  him  in  another 
Theprind-     26,  The  main  argument  which  was  most  insisted 
gftinttbi?"  on  against  their  temporal  baronies  were  the  words 
jjjjjfjj1**  of  the  Apostle,  No  man  which  warreth  entangleth 
himself  with  the  affairs  of  this  life*.     Their  friends 
pleaded,  1.  That  the  words  equally  concerned  all 
militant  Christians,  bishops  not  being  particularized 
therein.     2.  That  it  was  uncharitable  to  conclude 
their  fingers  more   clasping  of  the   world,  or  the 
world  more  glutinous  to  stick  to  their  fingers,  that 
they  alone  of  all  persons  could  not  touch  the  world 
but  must  be  entangled  therewith.     But  it  was  an- 
swered, that  then,  a  fortiore,  clergymen  were  con- 
cerned in  the  text  aforesaid  not   to  meddle  with 
worldly  matters,  whose  governing  of  a  whole  diocese 
was  so  great  an  employment,  that  their  attendance 
in  parliament  must  needs  be  detrimental  to  so  care- 
ful a  vocation. 
Earl  of  27#  The  earl  of  Bristol  engaged  himself  a  valiant 

Bristol's  e   © 

plea  for  bi-  champion  in  the  bishops9  behalf ;  he  affirmed,  that  it 
op8"  was  according  to  the  orders  of  the  house,  that  no 
bill  being  once  cast  out  should  be  brought  in  again 
at  the  same  sessions.  Seeing  therefore  the  bill 
against  bishops'  votes  had  formerly  been  clearly 
carried  by  many  decisive  votes  for  the  bishops,  it 
was  not  only  pr&ter,  but  con/ra-parliamentary,  it 
should  be  brought  again  this  session. 

*  2  Tim.  ii.  4. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  239 

28.  But  seeing  this  parliament  was  extraordinary  A-^-l64»- 
in  the  manner  and  continuance  thereof,  (one  session 

Refuted  to 

being  likely  to  last  for  many  years,)  it  was  not  con-othen. 
ceived  fit  they  should  be  tied  to  the  observance  of 
such  punctual  niceties ;  and  the  resumption  of  the 
bill  was  not  only  overruled  by  votes,  but  also  it  was 
clearly  carried  in  the  negative,  "  That  bishops  never 
"  more  should  vote  as  peers  in  parliament." 

29.  Nothing  now  wanted,  save  the  royal  assent,  The  king 
to  pass  the  said  votes  into  a  law.  The  king  appear- to^nsent. 
ed  very  unwilling  therein,  partly  because  he  con- 
ceived it  an  injury  to  give  away  the  bishops'  un- 
doubted right,  partly  because  he  suspected  that  the 
haters  of  the  function  and  lovers  of  the  lands  of 
bishops  would  grow  on  his  grants  and  improve 
themselves  on  his  concessions,  so  that  such  yielding 

unto  them  would  not  satisfy  their  hunger,  but  quicken 
their  appetites  to  demand  the  more  hereafter. 

80.  The  importunity  of  others  pressed  upon  him,  But  is  im- 
that  to  prune  off  their  baronies  was  the  way  to  pre-  thereunto. 
serve  their  bishoprics ;  that  his  majesty,  lately  ob- 
noxious to  the  parliament  for  demanding  the  five 
members,  would  now  make  plenary  satisfaction,  and 
give  such  assurance  of  his  affections  for  the  future, 
that  all  things  would  answer  his  desired  expectation. 
This  was  set  home  unto  him  by  some  (not  the  far- 
thest) relations,  insomuch  that  at  last  he  signed  the 
bill,  as  he  was  in  St.  Augustine's  in  Canterbury, 
passing  with  the  queen  towards  Dover,  "then  under- 
taking her  voyage  into  the  Low  Countries5. 

D  [Hacket  has  not  failed  to  king  should  have  consented  to 

notice  these  unjust  and  cow-  pass  the  bill.     "Why  he  did 

ardly  proceedings  against  the  "  it,"    he  says,     "  is   a  thing 

church.     He  wonders  that  the  "  not  well  known,  and  wants 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1641.  81.  Many  expected  and  more  desired  that  the 
- — ■ — 1  king's  condescension  herein  should  put  a  period  unto 
55^?  yall  differences ;  but  their  expectations  were  frustrate, 
and  not  long  after  the  king  apprehending  himself  in 
danger  by  tumults,  deserted  Whitehall,  went  into 
the  north,  erected  his  standard  at  Nottingham; 
Edge-hill  field  was  fought,  and  much  English  blood 
on  both  sides  shed  in  several  battles :  but  I  season- 
ably remember  that  the  church  is  my  castle,  viz. 
that  the  writing  thereof  is  my  house  and  home, 
wherein  I  may  stand  on  my  own  defence  against  all 
who  assault  me.  It  was  good  counsel  king  Joash 
gave  to  king  Amaziah,  Tarry  at  home* ;  the  prac- 

"  more  manifestation  ;  'neces- 
"  sity  was  in  it/  say  they  that 
"  would  look  no  further ; — the 
"  most  said,  that  nothing  was 
"  more  plausible  than  this  to 
"  get  the  people's  favor."  He 
then  states  what  he  undoubt- 
edly considered  to  be  the  real 
cause,  although  his  respect  and 
reverence  to  the  king  forbade 
him  to  speak  out  as  clearly  and 
positively  as  he  might  have  done. 
"  Fear,"  he  says,  "  had  not  so 
"  much  stroke  in  this,  as  the 
"  persuasions  of  one  whom  his 
"  majesty  loved  above  all  the 
"  world.  The  king  foresaw 
"  he  was  not  like  to  get  any 
"  thing  from  this  parliament 
"  but  a  civil  war,  he  would  not 
"  begin  it,  but  on  their  part  he 
"  heard  their  hammers  already 
at  the  forge. — He  being  most 
tender  to  provide  for  the 
"  safety  of  his  queen,  went 
with  her  to  Dover  to  convey 
her  into  France. — Being  at 
"  Dover,  the  queen  would  not 
part  with  the  king  to  ship. 














board  till  he  signed  this  bill, 
being  brought  to  believe  by 
all  protestation  from  sir 
John  Culpepper,  who  at- 
tended there  for  that  dis- 
patch, that  the  lords  and 
commons  would  press  his  ma- 
jesty to  no  more  bills  of  that 
unpleasing  nature.  So  the 
king  snatched  greedily  at  a 
flower  of  a  fair  offer ;  and 
though  he  trusted  few  of  the 
men  at  Westminster,  yet  in 
outward  show  he  would  seem 
to  trust  them  all,  the  more 
because  the  queen  had  such 
confidence  in  them.  How 
Culpepper  instilled  this  into 
the  queen  and  how  she  pre- 
vailed, York  is  my  author, 
and  could  not  deceive  me, 
for  he  told  me  in  the  Tower, 
'  That  the  king  had  sacrificed 
the  clergy  to  this  parliament 
by  the  artifices  contrived  at 
Dover,  a  day  before  the  news 
were  brought  to  London.'  "] 
c  2  Kings  xvi.  10. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  241 

tice  whereof  shall  I  hope  secure  nie  from  many a.d.  1641. 
mischiefs.  LI 

32.  About  this  time  the  word  malignant*  was  Malignant 
first  born  (as  to  the  common  use)  in  England,  thefir§tco,ned' 
deduction  thereof  being  disputable,  whether  from 
mains  ignis,  "  bad  fire,"  or  malum  lignum,  "  bad  fuel;" 

but  this  is  sure,  betwixt  both  the  name  made  a  com- 
bustion all  over  England.  It  was  fixed  as  a  note  of 
disgrace  on  those  of  the  king's  party,  and  (because 
one  had  as  good  be  dumb  as  not  speak  with  the 
Tolge)  possibly  in  that  sense  it  may  occur  in  our 
ensuing  history.  However,  the  royalists  plead  for 
themselves,  that  malignity*  (a  scripture  word)  pro- 
perly denoteth  activity  in  doing  evil,  whereas  they, 
being  ever  since  on  the  suffering  side  in  their  per* 
sons,  credits,  and  estates,  conceive  the  name  impro- 
perly applied  unto  them;  which  plea  the  parlia- 
mentary party  smile  at  instead  of  answering,  taking 
notice  of  the  affections  of  the  royalists,  how  malig- 
nant they  would  have  appeared  if  success  bad  be- 
friended them. 

33.  Contemporary  with  malignant  was  the  word And  the 

-.  word  plun- 

plunder,  which  some  make  of  Latin  original,  fromder. 
planum  dare,  "  to  level,"  or  plane  all  to  nothing. 
Others  make  it  of  Dutch  extraction,  as  if  it  were  to 
plume  or  pluck  the  feathers  of  a  bird  to  the  bare 
skin.  Sure  I  am,  we  first  heard  thereof  in  the 
Swedish  wars,  and  if  the  name  and  thing  be  sent 
back  from  whence  it  came,  few  English  eyes  would 
weep  thereat. 

34.  By  this  time  ten  of  the  twelve  bishops,  for- 

d  [It  is  used  by  the  parlia-     this  time  to  the  king.] 
ment    in    their    remonstrance         e  Rom.  i.  29. 
which   they   addressed    about 



The  Church  History 


a.d.  i64*.merly  subscribing  their  protestation  to  the  parlia- 
^—m — '■  ment,  were  (after  some  months  durance,  upon  good 
shops  In  bail  given)  released;  two  of  them  finding  great 
tdJiri?*  favour  in  their  fees  from  the  lieutenant  of  the  tower, 
in  respect  of  their  great  charge  and  small  estate. 
These  now  at  liberty  severally  disposed  themselves ; 
some  went  home  to  their  own  diocese,  as  the  bishops 
of  Norwich,  Oxford,  &c. :  some  continued  in  Lon- 
don, as  the  bishop  of  Durham,  not  so  rich  in  age, 
as  in  all  commendable  episcopal  qualities:  some 
withdrew  themselves  into  the  king's  quarters,  as 
archbishop  Williams,  &c.  Only  bishop  Wren  was 
still  detained  in  the  tower,  where  his  long  imprison- 
ment (being  never  brought  in  to  a  public  answer) 
hath  converted  many  of  his  adversaries  into  a  more 
charitable  opinion  of  him f. 

f  [On  this  passage  Dr.  Hey- 
lyn  observes,  "  He  telleth  us 
"  that  when  all  others  were  re- 
••  leased,  bishop  Wren  was  still 
44  detained  in  the  Tower,  which 
"  is  nothing  so.  That  bishop 
"  was  released  upon  bail  when 
"  the  others  were,  returned  un- 
"  to  his  diocese  as  the  others 
"  did,  and  there  continued  for 
"  a  time ;  when  of  a  sudden  he 
"  was  snatched  from  his  house 
"  at  Downham,  in  the  Isle  of 
"  Ely,  carried  to  the  Tower, 
"  and  there  imprisoned,  never 
"  being  brought  unto  a  hear- 
"  ing,  nor  any  cause  shewn  for 
"  his  imprisonment  to  this  very 
"  day."  Fuller  rejoins.  "Would 
"  it  were  '  nothing  so.'  Si  mea 
"  cum  vesiris  valuissent  vota. 
"  If  the  animadverter's  and  au- 
"  thor's  joint  desires  might 
"  have  taken  effect,  there  had 

"  been  no  difference  about  this 
"  passage  in  my  book. 

"  Tuque  domo  propria,  not  te  Prmtul 

"  Thou  hadst  enjoyed  thy  house,  and 

"  Prelate,  had  enjoyed  thee. 

"  But  alas,  it  is  so ;  he  is  still, 
"  and  still  when  all  other  bi- 
"  shops  are  released,  detained 
"  in  the  Tower,  where  I  be- 
••  lieve  he  maketh  God's  ser- 
"  vice  his  perfect  freedom.  My 
"  words,  as  relating  to  the  time 
"  when  I  wrote  them,  contain 
"  too  much  sorrowful  truth/* 
The  Appeal,  &c.  part  iii.  p.  5 1 . 
The  Church  History  was  writ 
ten  in  1655.  The  Appeal  in 
1659.  Bishop  Wren  was  first 
sent  to  the  Tower  in  1641. 

To  this  bishop,  if  I  mistake 
not,  bishop  Sprat  refers  in  his 
discourse  to  his  clergy  in  1695. 


of  Britain, 


35.  The  bishops'  votes  in  parliament  being  dead 
and  departed,  (neither  to  be  helped  with  flattery  nor 




Entreating  them  to  study  the 
scriptures,  he  sets  before  them 
the  following  instance :  "  The 
"  more  to  encourage  your  stu- 
"  dies  in  this  method,  if  you 
"  shall  he  necessitated  to  it, 
"  give  me  leave  to  present  you 
"  with  one  example  of  a  great 
"  divine  and  bishop,  in  the 
"time  of  king  Charles  the 
"  First,  who  was  one  of  the 
"  most  eminent  confessors  then, 
"  and  survived  those  calamities 
"  to  die  in  peace  and  tranquil- 
"  lity  several  years  after  the 
"  return  of  king  Charles  the 

"  In  the  common  persecu- 
tion, which  then  happened 
to  the  whole  episcopal  order, 
"  this  reverend  person  was  ex- 
"  posed  to  a  more  than  ordi- 
"  nary  degree  of  popular  ma- 
"  lice  and  rage ;  so  that,  with- 
"  out  ever  being  once  brought 
"  to  his  trial,  he  was  closely 
imprisoned  in  the  Tower  for 
almost  twenty  years,  and  was 
not  only  despoiled  of  his  an- 
nual revenue  and  personal 
estate  in  the  first  fury  of  the 
"  civil  wars,  but  was  also  plun- 
"  dered  of  most  of  the  collec- 
"  tions  of  his  former  labours, 
and  a  very  considerable  li- 

"  Wherefore,  being  thus  laid 
up  in  prison,  without  any 
prospect  of  liberty,  having 
"also  a  numerous  family  to 
44  maintain,  so  that  he  was  not 
Mable,  in  any  sort,  to  repair 
"  the  loss  of  his  books  and  pa. 
"pen,  he   betook  himself  to 




















this  course  of  study :  well 
knowing  that  he  could  have 
no  faithfuller  companion  for 
his  solitude,  nor  surer  conso- 
lation in  his  afflictions,  than 
the  holy  scriptures,  he  ap- 

Slied  himself  to  them  imme* 
iately,  with  little  other  help 
but  what  he  had  within  him- 
self, and  the  best  prints  of 
the  originals  in  the  learned 
tongues,  and  their  translation 
in  the  learned  and  modern, 
in  both  which  he  was  a  great 

"  Thus,  however,  he  firmly 
and  vigorously  proceeded  so 
far  in  the  single  study  of  the 
scriptures,  that  long  before 
his  enlargement  he  had  com- 
posed a  great  mass  of  anno- 
tations  on  divers  parts  of  the 
Bible.  What  is  become  of 
them  I  know  not.  If  they 
are  either  embezzled  or  sup. 
pressed,  no  doubt  it  is  to 
the  great  damage  of  the 
church ;  since  the  native 
thoughts  of  a  great  man  are 
generally,  at  least,  as  good  as 
the  most  artificial. 
"  Perhaps  you  will  say,  he 
might  be  able  to  do  all  this 
by  the  strength  of  his  me- 
mory, and  the  variety  of 
learning  he  had  laid  up  in  it 
beforehand :  and  I  make  no 
doubt  but  those  were  an  ex- 
ceeding great  assistance  to 

••  But  what  was  very  re- 
markable, and  for  which  I 
am  bold  to  produce  him  as 
an  instance  worthy  your  imi- 

R  2 

A.  D.1642. 
18  Chas.  I. 

A  query 
worth  in- 



The  Church  History 


a.  D.  1643.  hurt  with   malice,)  one  word  of  inquiry  in   what 

fl  ft  f^ltBfl     T 

"  notion  they  formerly  voted  in  parliament. 

Whether j  as  a  distinct  third 
estate  of  the  clergy,  or, 

This  was  formerly  receiv- 
ed for  a  truth,  countenanced 
with  some  passages  in  the 
old  statutes,  reckoning  the 
lords  spiritual,  and  lords  tem- 
poral, and  the  commons,  to 
be  the  three  estates,  the 
king  (as  paramount  of  all) 
not  comprehended  therein. 

Whether ,  as  so  many  single 

barons  in  their  temporal 


This  is  maintained  by 
those  who  account  the  king, 
the  lords,  and  commons,  the 
three  estates,  amongst  which 
lords  the  bishops  (though  spi- 
ritual persons)  appeared  as 
so  many  temporal  barons; 
whose  absence  is  no  whit 
prejudicial  to  the  acts  passed 
in  parliament. 

Some  of  the  aged  bishops  had  their  tongues  so 
used  to  the  language  of  a  third  estate,  that  more 
than  once  they  ran  on  that  (reputed)  rock  in  their 
speeches,  for  which  they  were  publicly  shent,  and 
enjoined  an  acknowledgment  of  their  mistake, 
routed  *6#  The  convocation  now  not  sitting,  and  many 
within  par- matters  of  religion  being  brought  under  thecognizance 





tation  in  this  particular,  I 
know  he  was  often  heard  to 
profess  solemnly,  that  in  all 
his  former  studies,  and  vari- 
ous reading  and  observations, 
he  had  never  met  with  a  more 
useful  guide  or  a  surer  in- 
terpreter to  direct  his  paths 
in  the  dark  places  of  the  lively 
oracles,  to  give  information 
to  his  understanding  in  the 
obscure   passages,    or    satis- 

"  faction  to  his  conscience  in 
"  the  experimental  truths  of 
"  them,  than  when  he  was  thus 
"  driven  by  necessity  to  the 
"  assiduous  contemplation  of 
"  the  scripture  alone,  and  to 
"  weigh  it  by  itself,  as  it  were 
"  in  the  balance  of  the  sanc- 
•'  tuary." — The  Clergyman's 
Instructor,  p.  263,  ed.  Oxford, 
1 827.  See  also  the  preface  to 
Wren's  Jncrepatio  Bar  JesuJ] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  245 

of  the  parliament,  their  wisdoms  adjudged   it  not^^J^Y* 

only  convenient  but  necessary,  that  some  prime  cler- 

gymen  might  be  consulted  with.  In  order  where- 
unto  they  resolved  to  select  some  out  of  all  counties, 
whom  they  conceived  best  qualified  for  their  design 
herein,  and  the  first  of  July  was  the  day  appointed 
for  their  meeting. 


SECT.    IX. 






A  threefold  cable  is  not  easily  broken,  and  a  triplicate  of 
friends  may  be  presumed  effectual  to  protect  my  endeavours, 
of  whom  two  are  of  Dutch)  the  third  in  the  midst  of  English 
extraction,  not  falling  there  by  casual  confusion,  but  placed 
by  designed  conjunction.    Methinhs  it  is  a  good  sight,  to 

a  [Arms.  Or,  three  dolphins 
haurient  azure.  Collins,  in  his 
Baronetage,  gives  a  very  just 
account  of  this  family.  "  This 
"  family,"  he  says,  "  has  been 
"  of  great  eminence  in  the 
"  Netherlands,  and  the  present 
"  sir  Peter  Vandeput,  bart." 
(this  was  written  in  1 741 ,  since 
which  time  the  title  has  become 
extinct)  "  is  the  sixth  in  a  li- 
*'  neal  descent  from  Henry  Van - 
"  deput,  of  Antwerp,  who  fled 
"  from  thence  with  several 
"  wealthy  families,  anno  1568, 
"the  nth  of  Elizabeth,"  (on 
the  persecution  of  the  duke 
D'Alva  to  extirpate  the  Pro- 
testant religion  in  the  Nether- 
lands,) "  and  brought  over  hi- 
"  ther  a  good  estate ;  though 

several  branches  of  his  family 


"  are  still  remaining  in  the  Low 
"  Countries.  Giles  Vandeput, 
"  esq."  (mentioned  by  Fuller) 
"  son  of  the  above  Henry,  mar- 
"  ried  Sarah,  daughter  and 
"  heir  of  John  Joupin,  esq.,  by 
"  whom  a  considerable  estate 
"  came  into  this  family :  he 
"  died  March  24, 1656,  leaving 
"  Peter  his  son  and  heir,  who 
"  married  Jane,  daughter  of 
"  Theodoric  Hoste,  of  London, 
"  merchant.  Peter  Vandeput, 
"  lineal  descendant  from  Giles 
"  Vandeput,  was  created  a 
"  bart.  in  1723 ."  —  Collins's 
Baronetage,  iv.  204. 

An  act  for  his  naturalization, 
in  1624,  is  printed  in  Rush, 
worth,  i.  153.  The  inscription 
on  his  tombstone,  as  given  by 
Collins,  fixes  his  death  in  1 646; 

cekt.  xvii.         The  Church  History  of  Britain.  847 

behold  the  Dutch  embracing  the  English,  and  this  dedication 
may  pass  for  the  emblem  of  the  late  agreement,  tohieh  God 
long  continue,  if  for  the  mutual  good  of  both  nations. 

jHEN  on  this  day  the  assembly  of  di-*-"^*?- 
nnes,  to  consult  about  matters  of  re-   r  » 

J  he  nnt 

ligion,  met  at  Westminster,  in  the  mowing  of 
chapel  of  king  Henry  the  Seventh  jbly. 
then  the  constitution  of  this  assembly, 
as  first  elected  and  designed,  was  to  consist  of  about 
one  hundred  and  twenty  persons  chosen  by  the  par- 
liament (without  respect  of  dioceses)  in  relation  to 
shires,  two  or  more  of  a  county.  They  thought  it 
not  safe  to  intrust  the  clergy  with  their  own  choice, 
of  whose  general  corruption  they  constantly  com- 
plained, and  therefore  adjudged  it  unfit  that  the 
distempered  patients  should  be  or  choose  their  own 

2.  These  elects  were  of  four  several  natures,  as  The  four 
the  quarters  of  the  same  body,  easily  distinguishable tl"£4™ of 
by  these  conditions  or  opinions.  hi*.™""1" 

First,  Men  of  episcopal  persuasion ;  as  the  right 
reverend  James  Usher,  archbishop  of  Annagh  ;  Dr. 
Brownrigg,  bishop  of  Exeter ;  Dr.  Westfield,  bishop 
of  Bristol ;  Dr.  Daniel  Featley ;  Dr.  Richard  Holds- 
worth,  &c. 

Secondly,  Such  who  in  their  judgments  favoured 

but  this  must  be  a  mistake  for  ward  Clcgatt,  draper,  Kent,  and 

1656,  for  Fuller  could  scarcely  his  coat  empaled  with  Gadden. 

be  unacquainted  with  it,  and  bo  I  lind  him  mentioned  as  being 

rk  of  him,  us  being  alive  at  of  Leyborn  Castle,  in  the  same 

time,  1655.]  county,  yet  no  notice  of  him  or 

b  [Arms.  Ermine,  on  a  fess  his  family  is  found  in  Hasted.} 
table  three  pheons  or.    See  the         e  [Of  this  person  I  can  dis. 

Harleian    MS8.    1086,    p.  18,  cover  no  traces.] 
where  he  ia  styled  colonel  Ed- 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  164a.  the  presbyterian  discipline,  or   in  process  of  time 

1 Iwere  brought  over  to  embrace  it,  amongst  whom 

(to  mention  those  who  seemed  to  be  pillars,  as  on 
whose  abilities  the  weight  of  the  work  most  lay) 
we  take  special  notice  of 

Dr.  [Joshua]  Hoyle,  divinity  professor  in  Ireland, 


Dr.  Th.  Gouge  of  Black  friars. 
Dr.  Smith  of  Bark  way, 
Mr.  Oliver  Bowles. 
Mr.  Thomas  Gataker. 
Mr.  Henry  Scudder. 
Mr.  Anthony  Tuckeners. 
Mr.  Stephen  Marshall. 
Mr.  John  Arrowsmith. 
Mr.  Herbert  Palmer. 
Mr.  Thomas  Throughgood. 
Mr.  Thomas  Hill. 
Mr.  Nathaniel  Hodges. 
Mr.  Gibbons. 
Mr.  Timothy  Young. 
Mr.  Richard  Vines. 
Mr.  Thomas  Coleman. 
Mr.  Mathew  Newcomen. 
Mr.  Jeremiah  W  hi  taker. 


Dr.  William  Twiss. 
Dr.  Cornelius  Burgess. 
Dr.  [Edmond]  Stanton. 
Dr.  White  of  Dorchester, 
Mr.  Harris  of  Han  well. 
Mr.  Edward  Reynolds. 
Mr.  Charles  Herle. 
Mr.  Corbet  of  Merton  Col' 

Mr.  Conant. 
Mr.  Francis  Cheynell. 
Mr.  Obadiah  Sedgwick, 
Mr.  Cartar,  senior. 
Mr.  Cartar,  junior. 
Mr.  Joseph  Caryll, 
Mr.  Strickland. 


I  hope  an  et  ccetera  (so  distasteful  elsewhere)  may 
be  permitted  in  the  close  of  our  catalogue,  and  am 
confident  that  the  rest  here  omitted  as  unknown 
unto  me  will  take  no  exception.     The  like  assurance 

d  [Their  names  will  be  found 
at  length  in  the  ordinance  for 
calling  the  assembly  of  divines, 
printed    in    Dugdale's    Short 

View,  &c.  p.  90 2.  See  also  Wal- 
ker's Sufferings  of  the  Clergy, 
Intr.  p.  29.] 

asm.  xti  i .  of  Britain .  249 

I  have,  that  none  will  cavil  if  not  reckoned  up  in  a.  d.  1643. 

their  just  seniority,  both  because  they  know  I  was - 

none  of  the  register  that  entered  their  admissions  in 
the  universities,  and  because  it  may  savour  some- 
thing of  a  prelatical  spirit  to  be  offended  about 

Thirdly,  Some  zealous  ministers,  who  formerly  dis- 
liking conformity,  to  avoid  the  censures  of  episcopal 
consistories,  removed  themselves  beyond  the  seas, 
chiefly  to  Holland,  where  some  had  plentiful,  all 
comfortable  subsistence,  whence  they  returned  home 
at  the  beginning  of  this  parliament.  These  after- 
wards proved  dissenting  brethren  to  some  transac- 
tions in  the  assembly,  as  Thomas  Goodwin,  Sidrach 
Symson,  Philip  Nye,  &c. 

Fourthly,  Some  members  of  the  house  of  lords 
and  commons  were  mingled  amongst  them,  and 
voted  jointly  in  their  consultations,  as  the  earl  of 
Pembroke,  the  lord  Say.  The  most  learned  anti- 
quary, Mr.  John  Selden,  Mr.  Francis  Rouse,  Mr. 
Bulstrode  Whitelock,  &c. 

Thus  was  this  assembly  (as  first  chosen  and  in- 
tended) a  quintessence  of  four  parties.  Some  con- 
ceived so  motley  a  meeting  promised  no  good  results, 
whilst  others  grounded  their  hopes  on  what  was  the 
motive  of  the  former  to  despair — the  miscellaneous 
nature  of  the  assembly.  For  what  speedier  way  to 
make  peace  in  a  distracted  church  than  to  take  in 
all  interests  to  consult  together.  It  had  been  little 
better  than  a  spiritual  monopoly  only  to  employ 
those  of  one  party,  whilst  if  all  men's  arguments, 
objections,  complaints,  desires,  be  indifferently  ad- 
mitted, an  expedient  may  be  the  sooner  found  out 
for  their  just  and  general  satisfaction. 


250  The  Church  History  book  xi . 

A.D.  1643.      8.  So  much  for  the  English  party  of  this  assembly : 

-for  know,  that  commissioners  from  Scotland  were 

oommis-  joined  with  them  ;  some  of  the  nobility,  as  the  earl 
jd^Tinthe°f  Lothian,  the  lord  Lauderdale,  the  lord  Warriston. 
M8emb,3r-  Others  of  the  clergy,  as  Mr.  Alexander  Henderson, 
Mr.  Gillespie,  &c.  So  that  as  Livy  calleth  the  ge- 
neral meeting  of  iEtolia  Pan-iEtolium,  this  assembly 
endeavoured  to  put  on  the  face  of  Pan-Britannicum, 
that  the  walls  of  the  palace  wherein  they  met  might 
in  some  sort  be  like  the  waves  of  the  sea,  within 
the  compass  whereof  they  lived,  as  surrounding  one 
island  and  two  nations. 
Dr.  Twi«  4.  Dr.  Twiss  preached  the  first  sermon  at  the 
cutor  hit  meeting  of  the  assembly,  though  the  schools,  not  the 
pulpit,  was  his  proper  element,  (witness  his  contro- 
versial writings ;)  and  in  his  sermon  he  exhorted 
them  faithfully  to  discharge  their  high  calling  to  the 
glory  of  God  and  the  honour  of  his  church c.  He 
much  bemoaned  that  one  thing  was  wanting,  namely, 
the  royal  assent  to  give  comfort  and  encouragement 
to  them.  Yet  he  hoped  that  by  the  efficacy  of  their 
fervent  prayers  it  might  in  due  time  be  obtained, 
and  that  a  happy  union  might  be  procured  betwixt 
him  and  the  parliament.  Sermon  ended,  the  ordi- 
nance was  read,  by  which  was  declared  the  cause, 
ground  and  intent  of  their  convention,  namely,  to 
consult  with  the  parliament  for  the  settling  of  reli- 
gion and  church  government.  Then  the  list  of  their 
names  was  called  over  who  were  appointed  to  be 
present  there,  and  a  mark  (but  no  penalty)  set  on 
such  who  appeared  not  at  the  time  prefixed. 

*  [See  a  somewhat  tempe-     "  this   latter  age,"  p.  13,   ed. 
rate  account  of  him  in  Clark's     1683.  Wood's  Athen.  ii.  80.] 
"  Lives  of  Eminent  Persons  of 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  851 

5.  The  appearance  of  the  persons  elected  answer-  a. d.  1643. 

ed  not  expectation,  seeing  of  an  hundred  and  twenty^ 1 

but  sixty-nine  were  present,  and  those  in  coats  and  u^^EmB 
cloaks,  of  several  forms  and  fashions,  so  that  Dr. oftheirnon" 


Westfield  and  some  few  others  seemed  the  only 
nonconformists  amongst  them,  for  their  conformity 
whose  gowns  and  canonical  habits  differed  from  all 
the  rest.  For  of  the  first  sort  of  royalists,  episcopal 
in  their  judgments,  very  few  appeared,  and  scarce 
any  continued  any  time  in  the  house,  (save  Dr. 
Daniel  Featley,  of  whom  hereafter,)  alleging  pri- 
vately several  reasons  for  their  absence  or  departure. 

i.  First,  they  had  no  call  from  the  king ;  (having 
read  how  anciently  the  breath  of  Christian  emperors 
gave  the  first  being  to  counsels;)  yea,  some  on  my 
knowledge  had  from  his  majesty  a  flat  command  to 
the  contrary f. 

ii.  They  were  not  chosen  by  the  clergy,  and  so 
could  not  appear  as  representatives,  but  in  their  per- 
sonal capacities. 

iii.  This  meeting  seemed  set  up  to  pluck  down 
the  convocation,  (now  neither  sitting  nor  legally 
dissolved,)  which  solemnly  was  summoned  for  eccle- 
siastical affairs. 

iv.  If  appearing  there  they  should  be  beheld  by 
the  rest  (what  Joseph  charged  on  his  brethren)  as 
spies  come  thither  to  see  the  nakedness  of  the 

v.  Being  few,  they  should  easily  be  out-voted  by 
the  opposite  party,  and  so  only  worn  as  countenances 
to  credit  their  proceedings. 

f  [The  king  published  a  ge-  Church,  Oxford.  See  it  in 
neral  protestation  against  this  Rush  worth,  iii.  p.  346.  Col- 
assembly,    dated    from   Christ     lier's  £.  H.  ii.  826.] 


The  Church  History 


t'chliM?      However,    I   have  heard   many  of  both   parties 

desire  that  those   defenders  of  the  hierarchy  had 

afforded  their  presence,  as  hoping  that  their  learning 
and  abilities,  their  temper  and  moderation,  might 
have  conduced  much  to  mitigate  some  violence  and 
extremity  in  their  proceedings.  But  God  in  his  ail- 
ordering  providence  saw  it  unfitting,  and  whether 
or  no  any  good  had  been  effected  by  them,  if  present, 
(seeing  as  yet  no  law  to  alter  men's  conjectures,)  is 
left  to  the  liberty  of  every  man's  opinion  &. 

g  [Of  the  formation  of  this 
assembly,  the  author  of  Perse- 
cute Undecima  speaks  thus,  in 
language  more  true  and  just 
than  ceremonious  :  "  That  this 
"  faction  in  parliament  may 
"  blind  the  eyes  of  the  world, 
"  (indeed  to  strengthen  and 
"  support  themselves  till  they 
"  should  become  absolute  mas- 
"  ters  of  England,)  when  they 
"  had  been  long  tampering 
"  with  religion,  at  last  they 
"  found  (policy  necessitating 
"  them)  some  need  of  using 
"  clergymen ;  yet  in  such  a 
"  monstrous  way,  as  the  Chris- 
"  tian  world  never  heard  the 
"  like ;  by  a  new  thing  called 
"  an  assembly  of  divines,  not 
"  summoned  by  the  king's  writ 
*'  and  authority,  (expressly  a- 
"  gainst  the  statute  of  Henry 
"  I.) ;  not  chosen  by  the  cler- 
"  gy ;  hut  plucked  out  of  each 
"  member's  pocket; — juggled 
"  into  a  conventicle  synod  on 
"  purpose, — to  help  out  with 
"  some  new  religion,  as  their 
masters  (which  hired  them 
with  4*.  per  diem)  shall  ap- 
point. Yet  lest  these  di- 
vines, (such  as  they  be,)  New 





"  Englanders,  Amsterdamians, 
"  pedants,  and  trencher-chap- 
"  lain 8,  (to  whom  were  some  ten 
"  learned    clergymen's    names 
"  joined   as   seals,  who  never 
"  came  there  in  person,)  should 
"  take  any  authority  to  them- 
"  selves,  the  faction  in  parlia- 
"  ment  have  jostled  in  30  of 
"  their  lay-members   (another 
"  vote  can  make  them  30  more) 
"  as  members  of  this  linsey- 
"  wolsey  synod,  to  make  up  a 
"  side.      But  to  make  all  sure, 
"  their  parliament  masters  have 
"  ordered   that   this   assembly 
"  (yoked  like   an  ox  and  an 
"  ass  to  till  the  Holy  Land) 
"  must  meddle  only  with  what 
"  shall  be  propounded  to  them 
from   the  houses  of  parlia- 
ment ;  and  when  all  is  done, 
"  their   conclusions    shall   not 
"  bind  till  the  parliament  give 
"  leave  and  consent ;  and,  saith 
"  the    ordinance     (not     law) 
"  whereby  this  learned  synod 
"  is  created  and  bridled,  these 
"  divines  must  tell  them  what 
is   most    agreable   to   God's 
"  word,  and  when  the  parlia- 
"  ment  is  thus  certified  what 
"  God's  law  is,  the  house  of 




cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  258 

6.  Soon  after,  the  assembly  was  completely  con- a. d.  1643. 

stituted  with  all  the  essentials  thereunto,  Dr.  Twiss,  — — 

prolocutor,  Mr.  Roborough   and  Adoniram  Byfieldhiyooniti." 
their  scribes  and  notaries ;  and  now  their  good  sue- tllted' 
cess  (next  to  the  parliament's)  was  publicly  prayed 

for  by  the  preachers  in  the  city,  and  books  dedicated 
unto  them  under  the  title  of  the  most  Sacred  As- 
sembly11, which,  because  they  did  not  disavow,  by 
others  they  were  interpreted  to  approve ;  four  shil- 
lings a  day  salary  was  allowed  them,  much  too  little 
as  some  thought  for  men  of  their  merit,  others 
grumbling  at  it  as  too  much  for  what  by  them  was 
performed.  And  now  what  place  more  proper  for 
the  building  of  Sion  (as  they  propounded  it)  than 
the  chamber  of  Jerusalem,  (the  fairest  in  the  dean's 
lodgings,  where  king  Henry  the  Fourth  died,  and) 
where  these  divines  did  daily  meet  together. 

7.  Be  it  here  remembered,  that  some   (besides  t^  »»Per- 

added  di- 

those  episcopally  affected)  chosen  to  be  at  this  vine., 
assembly  notwithstanding  absented  themselves,  pre- 
tending age,  indisposition,  &c,  as  it  is  easy  for  able 
unwillingness  to  find  out  excuses  and  make  them 
probable.  Fit  it  was  therefore  so  many  evacuities 
should  be  filled  up,  to  mount  the  meeting  to  a  com- 
petent number;  and  assemblies,  as  well  as  armies, 
when  grown  thin  must  be  recruited.  Hence  it  was 
that  at  several  times  the  lords  and  commons  added 
more  members  unto  them,  by  the  name  of  the  super- 
added divines.  Some  of  these,  though  equal  to  the 
former  in  power,  were  conceived  to  fall  short  in 

"  commons  will  vote  whether  "  tion  usurped."  p.  40.] 

"  it   shall   be   obeyed   or    no.  b  Mr.  Saltmarsh's  book   a- 

"  Such   an  omnipotence  over  gainst  Tho.  Fuller's  [Sermon 

"  God's  law,  over  the  church  on  the  Reformation.] 

M  and  the  king,  hath  this  fac- 

854  The  Church  History  boo*  xr. 

a.  d.  1643.  parts,  as  chosen  rather  by  the  affections  of  others 

I? LI  than  for  their  own  abilities,  the  original  members 

of  the  assembly  not  overpleased  thereat,  such  addi- 
tion making  the  former  rather  more,  than  more 
bJ^fiST'  8.  One  of  the  first  public  acts  which  I  find  by 
petition  for  them  performed,  was  the  humble  presenting  of  a 
petition  to  both  houses  for  the  appointing  of  a 
solemn  fast  to  be  generally  observed.  And  no  won- 
der if  their  request  met  with  fair  acceptance  and 
full  performance,  seeing  the  assembly's  petition  was 
the  parliament's  intention,  and  this  solemn  suit  of 
the  divines  did  not  create  new,  but  quicken  the  old 
resolutions  in  both  houses;  presently  a  fast  is  ap- 
pointed, and  accordingly  kept  on  the  following  Fri- 
day, Mr.  Bowles  and  Mr.  Newcomen  (whose  sermons 
are  since  printed)  preaching  on  the  same,  and  all 
the  rest  of  the  particulars  promised  to  be  taken  into 
speedy  consideration. 

n^ft  enter-     $'  '*  was  now  projected  to  fad  out  some  band 
eth  Eng-    0r  tie  for  the   straiter   union   of  the  English  and 

Scottish  amongst  themselves,  and  both  to  the  par- 
liament ;  in  order  whereunto  the  covenant  was  now 
presented.  This  covenant  was  of  Scottish  extrac- 
tion, born  beyond  Tweed,  but  now  brought  to  be 
bred  on  the  south  side  thereof. 
Jan*  fim  *®.  The  house  of  commons  in  parliament  and  the 
taken-       assembly  of  divines  solemnly  took  the  covenant  at 

St.  Margaret's  in  Westminster. 
^^nd"      11.  It  was  ordered  by  the  commons  in  parlia- 
printed.      ment  that  this  covenant  be  forthwith  printed  and 

TaiU«wn       12.  Divers   lords,   knights,   gentlemen,   colonels, 
officers,  soldiers  and  others,  then  residing  in  the  city 

cent.  xvii.  (f  Britain.  265 

of  London,  met  at  St.  Margaret's  in  Westpiinster,  a. p.  1643. 

and  there  took  the  said   covenant :    Mr.  Coleman  — - 

preaching  a  sermon  before  them  concerning  the  piety 
and  legality  thereof. 

13.  It  was  commanded  by  the  authority  of  both  Enjmnedaii 
houses,  that  the  said  covenant,  on  the  sabbath  day 
ensuing,  should  be  taken  in  all  churches  and  chapels 
of  London  within  the  lines  of  communication,  and 
throughout  the  kingdom,  in  convenient  time  ap- 
pointed thereunto,  according  to  the  tenor  following. 

A  solemn  league  and  covenant,  for  reformation  and 
defence  of  religion,  the  honour  and  happiness  of  the 
king,  and  the  peace  and  safety  of  the  three  king- 
doms, of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland. 

"  We  noblemen,  barons,  knights,  gentlemen,  citizens, 
burgesses,  ministers  of  the  gospel,  and  commons  of  all  sorts, 
in  the  kingdom  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  by  the 
providence  of  God  living  under  one  king,  and  being  of  one 
reformed  religion ;  having  before  our  eyes  the  glory  of  God, 
and  the  advancement  of  the  kingdom  of  our  Lord  and 
Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  the  honour  and  happiness  of  the 
king's  majesty  and  his  posterity,  and  the  true  public  liberty, 
safety  and  peace  of  the  kingdom,  wherein  every  one's  private 
condition  is  included ;  and  calling  to  mind  the  treacherous 
and  bloody  plots,  conspiracies,  attempts  and  practices  of  the 
enemies  of  God  against  the  true  religion,  and  the  professors 
thereof  in  all  places,  especially  in  these  three  kingdoms,  ever 
since  the  reformation  of  religion,  and  how  much  their  rage, 
power,  and  presumption  are  of  late,  and  at  this  time  in- 
creased and  exercised,  whereof  the  deplorable  estate  of  the 
church  and  kingdom  of  Ireland,  the  distressed  estate  of  the 
church  and  kingdom  of  England,  the  dangerous  estate  of 
the  church  and  kingdom  of  Scotland,  are  present  and  public 
testimonies:  We  have  now  at  last,  (after  other  means  of 
supplications,  remonstrances,  protestations,  and  sufferings), 

256  The  Church  History  book  xk 

A.  D.  1643.  for  the  preservation  of  ourselves  and  our  religion  from  utter 
19  ruin  and  destruction  according  to  the  commendable  prac- 

tice of  these  kingdoms  in  former  times,  and  the  example 
of  God's  people  in  other  nations,  after  mature  deliberation, 
resolved  and  determined  to  enter  into  a  mutual  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant,  wherein  we  all  subscribe,  and  each  one 
of  us  for  himself,  with  our  hands  lifted  up  to  the  most  high 
God  do  swear, 

*'  That  we  shall  sincerely,  really,  and  constantly,  through 
the  grace  of  God,  endeavour  in  our  several  places  and 
callings  the  preservation  of  the  reformed  religion  in 
the  church  of  Scotland  in  doctrine,  worship,  discipline, 
and  government,  against  our  common  enemies;  the 
reformation  of  religion  in  the  kingdoms  of  England 
and  Ireland,  in  doctrine,  worship,  discipline  and  go- 
vernment, according  to  the  word  of  God,  and  the 
example  of  the  best  reformed  churches;  and  shall 
endeavour  to  bring  the  churches  of  God  in  the  three 
kingdoms  to  the  nearest  conjunction  and  uniformity 
in  religion,  confession  of  faith,  form  of  church-go- 
vernment, directory  for  worship  and  catechizing; 
that  we  and  our  posterity  after  us  may  as  brethren 
live  in  faith  and  love,  and  the  Lord  may  delight  to 
dwell  in  the  midst  of  us. 
"  That  we  shall  in  like  manner,  without  respect  of  per- 
sons, endeavour  the  extirpation  of  popery,  prelacy, 
(that  is,  church-government  by  archbishops,  bishops, 
their  chancellors  and  commissaries,  deans,  deans  and 
chapters,  archdeacons,  and  all  other  ecclesiastical  offi- 
cers depending  on  that  hierarchy,)  superstition,  he- 
resy, schism,  profaneness,  and  whatsoever  shall  be 
found  to  be  contrary  to  sound  doctrine  and  the  power 
of  godliness ;  lest  we  partake  in  other  men's  sins,  and 
thereby  be  in  danger  to  receive  of  their  plagues,  and 
that  the  Lord  may  be  one,  and  his  name  one  in  the 
three  kingdoms. 
"  We  shall,  with  the  same  sincerity,  reality,  and  con- 
stancy in  our  several  vocations,  endeavour  with  our 

dENT.  xvn.  ofBrtiabi.  S57 

estates  and  lives  mutually  to  preserve  the  rights  and  A.  D.  1643. 
privileges  of  the  parliaments,  and  the  due  liberties  of  f9  cha,<1* 
the  kingdoms,  and  to  preserve  and  defend  the  king's 
majesty9  his  person  and  authority,  in  the  preservation 
and  defence  of  the  true  religion  and  liberties  of  the 
kingdoms,  that  the  world  may  bear  witness  with  our 
consciences  of  our  loyalty,  and  that  we  have  no 
thoughts  or  intentions  to  diminish  his  majesty's  just 
power  and  greatness. 

"  We  shall  also  with  all  faithfulness  endeavour  the  dis- 
covery of  all  such  as  have  been  or  shall  be  incen- 
diaries, malignants,  or  evil  instruments,  by  hindering 
the  reformation  of  religion,  dividing  the  king  from  his 
people,  or  one  of  the  kingdoms  from  another,  or 
making  any  faction  or  parties  amongst  the  people 
contrary  to  this  league  and  covenant,  that  they  may 
be  brought  to  public  trial  and  receive  condign  pu- 
nishment, as  the  degree  of  their  offences  shall  require 
or  deserve,  or  the  supreme  judicatories  of  both  king- 
doms respectively,  or  others  having  power  from  them 
for  that  effect,  shall  judge  convenient. 

u  And  whereas  the  happiness  of  a  blessed  peace  between 
these  kingdoms,  denied  in  former  times  to  our  pro- 
genitors, is  by  the  good  providence  of  God  granted 
unto  us,  and  hath  been  lately  concluded  and  settled 
by  both  parliaments,  we  shall  each  one  of  us,  accord- 
ing to  our  plnce  and  interest,  endeavour  that  they 
remain  conjoined  in  a  firm  peace  and  union  to  all 
posterity,  and  that  justice  may  be  done  upon  the 
wilful  opposers  thereof  in  manner  expressed  in  the 
precedent  article. 

"  We  shall  also,  according  to  our  places  and  callings, 
in  this  common  cause  of  religion,  liberty,  and  peace 
of  the  kingdoms,  assist  and  defend  all  those  that 
enter  into  this  league  and  covenant,  in  the  maintain- 
ing and  pursuing  thereof,  and  shall  not  suffer  ourselves 
directly  or  indirectly,  by  whatsoever  combination, 
persuasion,  or  terror,  to  be  divided  and  withdrawn 


258  The  Church  Hisiwy  book  xi 

A.D.  1645.  ^rom  ^^  blessed  conjunction  and  union,  whether  to 

i9Chas.l.  make  defection  to  the  contrary  part,  or  to  give  our- 

selves to  a  detestable  indiflerency  or  neutrality  in 
this  cause,  which  so  much  concerneth  the  glory  of 
God,  the  good  of  the  kingdoms,  and  honour  of  the 
king,  but  shall  all  the  days  of  our  lives  zealously  and 
constantly  endeavour  to  continue  therein  against  all 
opposition,  and  promote  the  same  according  to  our 
power  against  all  lets  and  impediments  whatsoever; 
and  what  we  are  not  able  of  ourselves  to  suppress  or 
overcome,  we  shall  reveal  and  make  known,  that  it 
may  be  timely  prevented  or  removed.  All  which  we 
shall  do  as  in  the  sight  of  God. 
"  And  because  these  kingdoms  are  guilty  of  many  sins 
and  provocations  against  God  and  his  Son  Jesus 
Christ,  as  is  too  manifest  by  our  present  distresses 
and  dangers,  the  fruits  thereof;  we  profess  and 
declare  before  God  and  the  world,  our  unfeigned 
desire  to  be  humbled  for  our  own  sins,  and  for  the 
sins  of  these  kingdoms,  especially  that  we  have  not  as 
we  ought  valued  the  inestimable  benefit  of  the  gospel, 
that  we  have  not  laboured  for  the  purity  and  power 
thereof,  and  that  we  have  not  endeavoured  to  receive 
Christ  in  our  hearts,  nor  to  walk  worthy  of  him  in  our 
lives,  which  are  the  causes  of  other  sins  and  trans- 
gressions so  much  abounding  amongst  us,  and  our  true 
•and  unfeigned  purpose,  desire  and  endeavour  for  our- 
selves, and  all  others  under  our  charge,  both  in  public 
and  in  private,  in  all  duties  we  owe  to  God  and  man, 
to  amend  our  lives,  and  each  one  to  go  before  an- 
other in  the  example  of  a  real  reformation,  that  the 
Lord  may  turn  away  his  wrath  and  heavy  indignation, 
and  establish  these  churches  and  kingdoms  in  truth 
and  peace.  And  this  covenant  we  make  in  the  pre- 
sence of  Almighty  God,  the  searcher  of  all  hearts, 
with  a  true  intention  to  perform  the  same,  as  we  shall 
answer  at  the  great  day,  when  the  secrets  of  all  hearts 
shall  be  disclosed,  most  humbly  beseeching  the  Lord 


qf  Britain. 


to  strengthen  us  by  his  Holy  Spirit  to  this  end,  and  AD-  l6-M. 

1.1               j    •             i              j-           •  l        i-                 i9ChM.I. 
to  bless  our  desires  and  proceedings  with  such  success,     

as  may  be  deliverance  and  safety  to  his  people,  and 
encouragement  to  other  Christian  churches  groan- 
ing under,  or  in  danger  of  the  yoke  of  antichristian 
tyranny,  to  join  in  the  same  or  like  association  and 
covenant,  to  the  glory  of  God,  the  enlargement  of 
the  kingdom  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  the  peace  and 
tranquillity  of  Christian  kingdoms  and  common- 

We  listen  not  to  their  fancy,  who  have  reckoned  the 
words  in  the  covenant  six  hundred  sixty-si<v\  preface 
and  conclusion,  as  only  circumstantial  appendants, 
not  accounted,  and  esteem  him  who  trieth  it  as  well 
at  leisure  (alias  as  idle)  as  he  that  first  made  the 
observation.  Much  less  applaud  we  their  parallel, 
who  (the  number  in  branches  agreeing)  compare  it  to 
the  superstitious  and  cruel  Six  Articles  enacted  by 
king  Henry  the  Eighth.  But  let  us  consider  the 
solid  and  serious  exceptions  alleged  against  it,  not 
so  light  and  slight  as  to  be  puffed  away  with  the 
breath  of  the  present  age,  but  whose  weight  is  likely 
to  sink  them  down  to  the  consideration  of  posterity. 

g  [To  this  bishop  Hacket  al- 
ludes in  the  following  passage: 
"  To  make  us  swear  ourselves 
"  for  ever  unto  prophanencss, 
"  sin,  and  baseness,  the  solemn 
"  league  and  covenant  passed 
"  by  the  votes  of  both  houses, 
"  and  by  the  great  approve- 
"  ment  of  their  journeymen 
"  the  assembly ;  and  this  flag 
n  of  six  colours  was  hung  up 
"  in  all  the  houses  of  God  in 
'•  the  land  :  where  the  two 
"tables  of  the  law  were  put 
"  before,  to  hold  out  our  duty 
"  to  God  and  love  to  our  neigh* 

"  hour,  a  new  piece  of  Chris- 
"  tianity  is  clapt  upon  the  wall, 
"  to  renounce  the  king  and 
•'  ruin  the  church. — Oh,  very 
"  wise  parliament !  Can  you 
"  teach  one  how  to  piece  li- 
"  berty  and  this  covenant  to- 
"  gether  ?  for  all  that  refuse  it 
"  must  be  sequestered,  impri- 
"  soned,  disofficed,  the  clergy 
"  that  will  not  submit  lose 
"  their  benefices,  and  the  law 
"  cannot  keep  them  in  their 
"  freehold."  Life  of  Williams, 

II.  200.] 

h  Rev.  xiii.  19. 


260  The  Church  History  book  si. 

^Jw\3'     14u  First,  seeing  this  covenant  (though  not  as 
-  first  penned )   as    prosecuted  had   heavy  penalties 

general  to  inflicted  on  the   refusers  thereof,  such  pressing  is 
w        inconsistent  with  the  nature  of  any  contract,  wherein 
consent,  not  constraint  is  presumed.     In  a  covenant 
men  should  go  of  their  own  good  will,  or  be  led  by 
persuasions,  not  drawn  by  frights  and  fears,  much 
less  driven  by  forfeits  and  punishments. 
M«de  with-     15.  Secondly,  subjects  are  so  far  from  having  the 
king's  con-  express  or  tacit  consent  of  the  king  for  the  taking 
"ent"         thereof,  that  by  public  proclamation  he  hath  for- 
bidden the  same.     Now,  seeing  parents  had  power 
by  the  law l  of  God  to  rescind  such  vows  which  their 
children  made  without  their  privity,  by  the  equity  of 
the  same  law  this  covenant  is  void,  if  contrary  to 
the  flat  command  of  him  who  is  Parens  patrue. 
Full  of  16.  Many  words  occur  in  this  covenant,  some 


words.  obscure,  others  of  doubtful  meaning,  viz.  common 
enemies,  best  reformed  churches,  malignants,  highest 
judicatories  of  both  kingdoms,  &c.  Until  therefore 
the  obscure  be  cleared,  the  doubtful  stated  and  fixed, 
the  same  cannot  (as  it  ought)  be  taken  in  judgment. 

Exceptions  to  the  preface. 

Therein  it  is  suggested,  that  supplications,  remon- 
strance, protestations  to  the  king,  were  formerly 
used ;  which  proving  ineffectual,  occasioned  the  try- 
ing of  this  covenant,  as  the  last  hopeful  means  to 
preserve  religion  from  ruin,  &c.  Now,  seeing  many 
joined  neither  with  their  hands  nor  hearts  in  pre- 
senting these  writings,  such  persons  scrupled  this 
covenant,  which  they  cannot  take  in  truth,  because 
founded  on  the  failing  of  the  aforesaid  means,  to 

4  Numb.  xxx.  6. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  £61 

the  using  whereof  they  concurred  not  in  the  last AD- 164> 

17.  It  is  pretended  in  the  preface,  that  this  cove-  P«««>ded 

ancient,  yet 

nant  is  "  according  to  the  commendable  practice  of  unprece- 
"  these  kingdoms  in  former  times."  Whereas,  in- 
deed it  is  new  in  itself,  following  no  former  pre- 
cedents; a  grand  divine k  of  the  parliament  party 
publicly  professing,  that  "  we  read  not,  either  in 
"  divine  or  human  histories,  the  like  oath  extant  in 
"  any  age,  as  to  the  matter,  persons,  and  other 
u  circumstances  thereof." 

Exceptions  to  the  first  article. 

18.  They  are  unsatisfied  to  swear  to  maintain  the  Cannot  be 


preservation  of  the  reformed  religion  of  Scotland  in  knowingly, 
doctrine,  worship,  discipline,  and  government,  as 
being  ignorant  (such  their  distance  thence,  and  small 
intelligence  there)  of  the  particulars  thereof.  They 
are  loath  therefore  to  make  a  blind  promise,  for  fear 
of  a  lame  performance. 

19.  As  for  the  reforming  of  religion  (which  neces- Nor  with- 
sarily  implies  a  changing  thereof)  of  England  and  scandal 
Ireland  in  doctrine,  worship,  discipline,  and  govern- 
ment, they  cannot  consent  thereunto  without  mani- 
fest scandal,  both  to  papists  and  separatists.  For 
(besides,  that  they  shall  desert  that  just  cause,  which 
many  pious  martyrs,  bishops,  and  divines  of  our 
church  have  defended  both  with  their  ink  and  blood, 
writings  and  sufferings)  hereby  they  shall  advantage 

the  cavils  of  papists  against  our  religion,  taxing  it  of 
uncertainty,  not  knowing  where  to  fix  our  feet,  as 
always  altering  the  same.  Yea,  they  shall  not  only 
supply  papists  with  pleas  for  their  recusancy,  sec- 

k  Phil.  Nye  Covenant  with  Narrat.  p.  1  2. 

s  3 

£6£  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1643.  taries  for  their  separation,  acknowledging  something 

]1 \  in  our  church  doctrine  and  service  not  well  agreeing 

with  God's  word ;  but  also  shall  implicitly  confess 
papists  unjustly  punished  by  the  penal  statutes,  for 
not  conforming  with  us  to  the  same  public  sendee, 
wherein  some  things  are  by  ourselves,  as  well  as 
them,  misliked  and  disallowed, 
injury  to        go.    Nor   can   they  take  this   covenant   without 


injury  and  perjury  to  themselves.  Injury,  by  en- 
snaring their  consciences,  credits  and  estates,  if 
endeavouring  to  reform  religion  (under  the  notion  of 
faulty  and  vicious)  to  which  formerly  they  had  sub- 
scribed, enjoined  thereto  by  the  law1  of  the  land,  not 
yet  abrogated,  never  as  yet  checked  by  the  regrets  of 
their  own  consciences,  nor  confuted  by  the  reasons 
of  others  for  the  doing  thereof. 
Perjury  to      21.  Perjury,  as  contrary  to  the  protestation  and 

their  soul*.  1  » 

solemn  vow  they  had  lately m  taken,  and  oath  of 
supremacy,  swearing  therein  to  defend  all  the  king's 
rights  and  privileges,  whereof  his  spiritual  juris- 
diction in  reforming  church  matters  is  a  principal. 
Now,  although  a  latter  oath  may  be  corroborative 
of  the  former,  or  constructive  of  a  new  obligation 
consistent  therewith,  yet  can  it  not  be  inductive  of  a 
tie,  contrary  to  an  oath  lawfully  taken  before. 

Exceptions  to  the  second  article. 

in,  but  22.  It  grieveth  them  therein  to  see  prelacy  so 

p*ge  of  pre- unequally  yoked  :  popery  being  put  before  it;  super- 

iacy*         stition,  heresy,  schism,   and    profaneness   following 

after.     Such  the  pleasure  of  those  that  placed  them, 

though  nothing  akin  in  themselves.     But  a  captive, 

1  13  Eliz.  cap.  12.  m  May  the  5th,  1641. 

cent.  xvii.  qf  Britain.  268 

by  the  power  of  others,  may  be  fettered  to  those a.d.  1643 
whom  he  hates  and  abhors.  I9Chl* 

Consent  they  cannot  to  the  extirpation  of  prelacy,  f«»  ««- 

•  1  •  ,»  aonsagains 

neither  in  respect  of  extirpation 

i.  The  thing  itself;  being  persuaded,  that  neither"  v™**7' 
papal  monarchy,  nor  presbyterian  democracy,  nor 
independent  anarchy  are  so  conformable  to  the  scrip- 
tures as  episcopal  aristocracy,  being  (if  not  of  divine 
in  a  strict  sense)  of  apostolical  institution,  confirmed 
with  church  practice  (the  best  comment  on  scrip- 
ture when  obscure  for  1500  years),  and  bottomed  on 
the  same  foundation  with  infants-baptism,  national 
churches,  observing  the  Lord's  day,  and  the  like. 

ii.  Themselves;  of  whom,  l,all  when  taking  degrees 
in  the  university ;  2,  most,  as  many  as  are  entered 
into  holy  orders;  8,  not  a  few,  when  lately  peti- 
tioning the  parliament  for  the  continuing  of  episco- 
pacy; and,  4,  some,  being  members  of  cathedral 
and  collegiate  churches,  have  subscribed  with  their 
hands,  and  with  their  corporal  oaths  avowed  the 
justification  and  defence  of  that  government. 

Hi.  Church  of  England;  fearing  many  mischiefs 
from  this  alteration,  (felt  sooner  than  seen  in  all 
great  and  sudden  changes,)  especially  because  the 
ecclesiastical  government  is  so  interwoven  in  many 
statutes  of  the  land.  And,  if  schisms  so  increase  on 
the  suspension,  what  is  to  be  expected  on  the  extir- 
pation of  episcopacy. 

iv.  His  majesty;  as  contrary  to  their  oath  of 
supremacy,  wherein  they  were  bound  to  maintain  his 
privileges;  amongst  which  a  principal  is,  that  "  he  is 
"  supreme  moderator  over  all  causes  and  persons 
u  spiritual,"  wherein  no  change  is  to  be  attempted 
without  his  consent;  and  also  his  dignity, the  collations 

s  4 

204  The  Church  History  book  si. 

a.ik  1643. 0f  bishoprics  and  deaneries,  with  their  profits  in  their 

vacancies  belonging  unto  him,  and  the  first  fruits 

and  tenths  of  ecclesiastical  dignities,  a  considerable 
part  of  the  royal  revenue. 

Here  we  omit  their  plea,  whose  chief  means  con- 
sisting of  cathedral  preferment,  allege  the  like  not 
done  from  the  beginning  of  the  world,  that  men 
(though  deserving  deprivation  for  their  offences) 
should  be  forced  to  swear  sincerely,  seriously,  and 
from  their  souls,  to  endeavour  the  rooting  out  of 
that  whence  their  best  livelihood  doth  depend. 

Exceptions  against  the  third  article. 

23.  It  grieveth  them  herein  to  be  6worn  to  the 

*  preservation  of  the  privileges  of  parliament,  and 
liberties  of  the  kingdom,9  at  large  and  without  any 
restriction,  being  bound  in  the  following  words  to 
defend  the  '  king's  person  and  authority,'  as  limited 
'in  the  preservation  and  defence  of  true  religion, 
and  the  liberties  of  the  realm ;'  enlarging  the  former, 
that  the  latter  may  be  the  more  confined. 

24.  They  are  jealous  what  should  be  the  cause  of 
the  inversion  of  the  method,  seeing  in  the  '  solemn 
vow  and  protestation,'  the  *  defence  of  the  king's 
person  and  authority'  is  put  first,  which  in  this  cove- 
nant is  postposed  to  the  *  privileges  of  parliament.' 
However,  seeing  the  protestation  was  first  taken,  the 
covenant   as   the   *  younger'   cannot   disinherit    the 

*  elder'  of  the  possession  which  it  hath  quietly  taken 
in  men's  consciences. 

Exceptions  to  the  fourth  article. 

25.  They  are  unsatisfied  whether  the  same  im- 
poseth  not  a  uecessity  for  children  to  prosecute  their 

cent.  xvii.  tf  Britain.  £65 

parents  even  to  death,  under  the  notion  of  'ma- a. D.1643. 

Jignants,'  against  all  rules  of  religion  and  humanity.  — ^LL 

For  even  in  case  of  idolatry,  children  under  the  old 
law  n  were  not  bound  publicly  to  accuse  their  parents, 
so  as  to  bring  them  to  be  stoned  for  the  same; 
though  such  unnatural  cruelty  be  foretold  by  our 
Saviour0,  to  fall  out  under  the  gospel,  of  those  that 
shall  rise  tip  against  their  parents,  and  cause  them  to 
be  put  to  death. 

Exceptions  to  the  fifth  article. 

26.  They  understand  not  what  is  meant  therein  by 
the  'happiness  of  a  blessed  peace  betwixt  these 
kingdoms,'  whereof  Ireland  must  needs  be  one, 
whilst  the  same  is  rent  with  a  woeful  war,  and  the 
other  two  lands  distracted  with  homebred  discords ; 
whereof  no  settlement  can  be  hoped,  until  first  all 
interests  be  equally  stated,  and  the  *  king's  authority,' 
1  privileges  of  parliament,'  and  '  liberties  of  subjects' 
justly  bounded  and  carefully  preserved. 

Exceptions  to  the  sixth  article. 

27.  They  are  unsatisfied  therein  as  wholly  hypo- 
thetical, supposing  what  as  yet  is  not  cleared  by 
solid  arguments,  viz.  that  this  is  '  the  common  cause 
of  religion,  liberty,  and  peace  of  the  realms,'  &c. 
And  if  the  same  be  granted,  it  appeareth  not  to 
their  conscience,  that  the  means  used  to  promote 
this  cause  are  so  lawful  and  free  from  just  objections 
which  may  be  raised  from  the  laws  of  God  and  man. 

Exceptions  to  the  conclusion. 

28.  They  quake  at  the  mention,  that  the  taking  of 

n  Deut.  xiii.  6.  °  Matth.  x.  21. 


The  Church  History 


a.d.i 64V this   covenant   should   'encourage    other   churches 

— -  groaning  under  the  yoke  of  antichristian  tyranny,'  to 

join  in  the  same,  fearing  the  dangerous  consequences 
this  may  produce  to  foreign  protestants,  and  enrage 
popish  princes  (in  whose  dominions  they  live)  to 
cruelty  against  them,  as  disaffected  to  their  govern- 
ment. Besides,  when  Divine  Providence  layeth  such 
burthens  on  his  servants,  even  'the  yoke  of  anti- 
christ' is  then  '  the  yoke  of  Christ,*  not  to  be  thrown 
off  with  force,  but  to  be  borne  with  the  confession  of 
the  truth,  prayers,  patience,  and  Christian  courage. 

29.  So  much  concerning  the  covenant,  which  some 
three  months  after  began  to  be  rigorously  and  generally 
urged  p.     Nor  have  I  ought  else  to  observe  thereof, 

P  [Not  the  least  inducement 
which  urged  the  parliamentary 
party  and  their  puritan  fa- 
vourites to  press  the  covenant 
so  rigorously  was  their  belief 
that  it  would  be  generally  re- 
fused by  the  clergy,  and  thus 
afford  a  handle  for  turning 
them  out  of  their  livings.  One 
of  their  main  engines  for  ad- 
vancing the  work  of  reforma- 
tion, as  it  was  called,  was  to 
plant  lecturers  in  the  city 
churches,  a  work  not  of  mere 
policy,  but  thrift,  and  a  saving 
method  of  providing  for  needy 
puritan  ministers.  The  most 
violent  of  that  party  had  now 
crowded  up  to  London,  those 
who  had  been  silenced  by  arch, 
bishop  Laud  or  had  retired 
into  the  provinces  had  return- 
ed, and  claimed  a  reward  for 
their  sufferings  and  their  ser- 
vices. Stripped  of  all  defence, 
deserted  by  the  nobility,  who 
prostituted  their  honour  to  the 

smiles  of  the  popular  puri- 
tans, the  clergy  were  a  ready 
and  easy  prey.  "  To  which 
"  purpose,"  (to  use  the  words 
of  the  author  quoted  before,) 
"  they  at  first  invented  these 
"  tricks  and  formalities  of  jus. 
"  tice  against  the  clergy,  till 
"  having  got  the  power,  their 
"  sword  should  make  good 
"  the  sequestering  and  removal 
"  of  those  (especially  in  Lon- 
"  don)  who  were  not  like  to 
"  apostatize  from  religion  and 
"  loyalty. — This  made  the  fac- 
"  tion  in  the  house  of  com- 
"  mons  never  transmit  any  bills 
"  against  any  particular  accused 
"  clergymen  to  the  house  of 
"  peers  (where  indeed  lay  ju- 
"  diciary  power)  to  a  legal 
"  hearing ;  but  knowing  well 
"  such  foggy  charges  would 
"  soon  vanish  at  the  face  of 
"  justice,  these  evil  spirits  kept 
"  on  their  course  of  casting 
"  mists    before    the    people's 

cekt.  xvii.  qf  Britain.  267 

«ave  to  add  in  mine  own  defence,  that  I  never  sawAD-1^. 

i9Cha».  I. 

the  same,  except  at  distance  as  hung  up  in  churches, 

nor  ever  had  any  occasion  to  read,  or  hear  it  read, 
till  this  day  *  in  writing  my  history,  whatever  hath 
been  reported  and  printed  to  the  contrary  of  my 
taking  thereof  in  London,  who  went  away  from  the 
Savoy  to  the  king's  quarters  long  before  any  mention 
thereof  in  England. 

30.  True  it  is,  there  was  an  oath  which  never  The  au- 
exceeded  the  *  line  of  communication,'  meeting  with  in°hu  own 
so  much  opposition,  that  it  expired  in  the  infancy!^®" 
thereof,  about  the  time  when  the  plot  was  dis- 
covered for  which  Mr.  Tomkins  and  Mr.  Chaloner 
suffered.  This  was  tendered  to  me,  and  taken  by  me 
in  the  vestry  of  the  Savoy  church,  but  first  protest- 
ing some  limitations  thereof  to  myself.  This  not 
satisfying  was  complained  of,  by  some  persons  pre- 
sent, to  the  parliament,  where  it  was  ordered  that 
the  next  Lord's  day  I  should  take  the  same  oath  in 
terminis  terminantibus  in  the  face  of  the  church, 
which  not  agreeing  with  my  conscience,  I  withdrew 
myself  into  the  king's  parts,  which  (I  hope)  I  may 
no  less  safely  than  I  do  freely  confess,  because 
punished  for  the  same  with  the  loss  of  my  live- 
lihood, and  since  (I  suppose)  pardoned  in  the  act 
of  oblivion. 

81.  Now  began  the  great  and  general  purgation  The  par- 
of  the   clergy  in    the  parliament's  quarters,   many  purge  to 
being  outed  for  their  misdemeanours  by  the  com-    e    rgy* 
mittee  appointed  for  that  purpose.     Some  of  their 


eyes,  to  make   them  think  "  quite  put  them  out."     Pers. 

that  the  lights  of  the  church  Undec.  p  43.] 
"  burned  so  dim,  that  it  was         Q  July  1,  1654. 
"  necessary  to  snuff  them  or 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1643-  offences  were  so  foul,  it  is  a  shame  to  report  them, 

—  crying  to  justice  for  punishment.     Indeed,  Constan- 

tine  the  Christian  emperor  was  wont  to  say,  "  If 
"  I  see  a  clergyman  offending  I  will  cover  him  with 
"  my  cloak,"  but  surely  he  meant  such  offences  as 
are  frailties  and  infirmities,  no  scandalous  enormities. 
Such  unsavoury  salt  is  good  for  nothing,  no,  not  for 
the  dunghill r,  because  as  the  savour  is  lost  which 
makes  it  useful,  so  the  fretting  is  left  which  makes 
it  useless,  whereby  it  is  so  far  from  being  good  com- 
post to  fatten  ground,  that  it  doth  rather  embarren 
it.  Let  Baal  therefore  plead  for  itself,  nothing  can 
be  said  in  their  excuse,  if  (what  was  the  main 
matter)  their  crimes  were  sufficiently  proved. 
The  «pei-  82.  But  as  to  the  point,  hear  what  the  royalists 
plea/1878  at  Oxford  say  for  their  friends,  whilst  they  conceive 
themselves  to  take  just  exceptions  at  the  proceed- 
ings against  these  ministers R. 

r  Luke  xiv.  35. 

8  [Dr.  Heylin  is  rather  indig- 
nant at  this  passage  of  our  au. 
thor,  and  not  better  satisfied  with 
the  salvo  of  the  concluding  ob- 
servations. See  his  epistle  "  To 
"  the  Poor  Remainders  of  the 
"  Old  Regular  and  Conform - 
"  able  Clergy,  &c."  Perhaps 
some  few  of  the  clergy  may  have 
been  guilty  of  the  irregularities 
here  imputed  to  them;  still 
with  every  concession,  the 
proceedings  of  these  commis- 
sioners were  most  dishonest, 
cruel,  and  tyrannical.  What 
further  proof  can  be  required 
of  their  injustice  than  the  fact 
of  their  depriving,  "as  igno- 
"  rant  and  scandalous  minis- 
"  ten,"  such  men  as  Hales, 
Walton,    the    editor    of    the 

Polyglott,  and  Pocock,  the 
orientalist?  The  fate  of  these 
and  many  others  is  a  sufficient 
proof,  to  use  the  words  of 
a  very  candid  writer,  "  that 
"  the  bare  expulsion  of  men 
"  from  ecclesiastical  benefices 
"  by  this  committee  implied 
"  neither  moral  delinquency 
"  nor  a  want  of  ministerial  qua- 
"  lifications."  Jackson's  Life  of 
Goodwin,  p.  83.  Opposition 
to  Calvinism  and  an  attachment 
to  episcopacy  were  in  the  judg- 
ment of  this  committee  as  hei- 
nous as  infidelity  and  immo- 
rality ;  and  though  not  the 
only  motives,  (for  covetousness 
was  the  strongest,)  was  often  a 
prevailing  one  in  the  expulsion 
of  the  clergy.] 


of  Britain. 


i.  Some  of  their  faults  were  so  foul,  that  the  a.  d.  1643. 

foulness1  of  them  is   all  that  can  be  pleaded  for — 

them.  For  being  capital,  the  persons  deserved  to 
be  outed  of  life,  not  of  living,  which  leaves  a 
suspicion  of  imperfect  proof. 

ii.  The  witnesses  against  them  were  seldom  de- 
posed on  oath,  but  their  bare  complaints  believed. 

iii.  Many  of  the  complainers  were  factious  people, 
(those  most  accusing  their  sermons  who  least  heard 
them,)  and  who  since  have  deserted  the  church 
as  hating  the  profession  of  the  ministry. 

iv.  Many  were  charged  with  delivering  false  doc- 
trine, whose  positions  were  sound,  at  the  least,  dis- 
putable. Such,  those  accused  for  preaching  that 
baptism  washeth  away  original  sin,  which  the  most 
learned  and  honest  in  the  Assembly  in  some  sense 
will  not  deny,  namely,  that  in  the  children  of  God  it 
cleanse tb  the  condemning  and  final,  peccable,  com- 
manding, power  of  original  sin,  though  the  stain  and 
blemish  thereof  doth  still  remain. 

v.  Some  were  merely  outed  for  their  affections  to 
the  king's  cause,  and  what  was  malignity  at  London 
was  loyalty  at  Oxford  u. 

t  Cent.  p.  1. 

*  [Various  were  the  means 
•t  this  time  used  by  the  parlia- 
ment to  bring  the  clergy  into 
contempt;  the  strongest  militia, 
as  they  were  truly  called,  of  the 
king  ;  and  therefore  the  great- 
est obstacle  to  the  designs 
both  of  the  parliament  and  the 
Presbyterians.  The  author  of 
"  Persecutio  Undecima,"  an 
eyewitness  and  a  sufferer,  has 
well  stated  the  various  wicked 
endeavours  made  by  the  popu- 

lar faction  to  render  the  clergy 
odious;  the  passage  would  be 
too  long  to  quote  entire,  but 
the  remarks  that  follow  may 
suffice  as  a  key  to  the  rest; 
and  furnish  an  admirable  com- 
ment upon  Fuller's  more  cau- 
tious narrative. 

"  A  fourth  way,"  he  says, 
"  to  make  the  clergy  odious  to 
"  the  people  was  their  abetting 
"  all  outrages  and  affronts  done 
"  to  the  persons  and  functions 
"  of  the  clergy,  insomuch  that 


The  Church  Hhtory 


a.d.  1643.     Yea,  many  moderate  men  of  the  opposite  party 
i? — ^-1  much  bemoaned  such  severity,  that  some  clergymen, 





upon  their  sending  for  Burton, 
and  Prynne,  and  Bast  wick, 
(three  champions  or  Puritan 
boute-feus,)  and  the  auda- 
cious riots  and  tumults  at- 
tending their  return  to  Lon- 
don without  control,  the  fac- 
tion took  such  encourage- 
ment (having  found  their 
strength  in  the  house  of  com- 
mons) in  their  contempt  of 
the  priest,  that  a  divine  in 
his  habit  could  not  walk  the 
streets  of  London  without 
being  reproached  in  every 
corner  by  name  of  Baal's 
priest,  popish  priest,  Caesar's 
friend,  and  the  like  scoffings; 
nor  durst  parishioners  shew 
their  wonted  love  toward 
their  spiritual  father,  nay, 
scarce  durst  they  come  to 
hear  him  preach  without  ha- 
zard of  being  accounted  a 
malignant,  if  he  were  so  con- 
scientious as  not  to  change 
his  religion,  (as  these  secta- 
ries would  have  them).  And 
now  New  England  so  vomited 
up  her  factious  spirits,  that 
merchants  in  England  began 
to  complain  that  all  commo- 
dities in  England  were  fallen 
to  half  their  former  price; 
and  each  dam  and  sink  of 
religion  pumped  into  our 
wholesome  streams  those  who 
(as  witches  do  their  baptism) 
had  renounced  their  former 
sacred  calling  to  the  priest- 
hood, yet  now  returned  the 
only  admired  churchmen,  and 
were,  by  orders  of  the  house 
of  com  mons,  either  forced  into 
other  men's  churches  as  lec- 




turers,  or  thrust  into  seques- 
tered parsonages,  (their  fel- 
low subjects'  freehold,)  which 
before  themselves  had  cried 
down  for  Antichristian. 
"  5.  A  fair  introduction  to 
the  reproachful  usage  of  the 
clergy  at  committees  in  the 
face  of  their  own  parishio- 
ners; for  having  found  the 
forwardness  of  the  people  (by 
their  first  foisted  order  afore- 
said) to  serve  them  in  their 
designs,  the  faction  in  the 
house  of  commons  procured 
a  large  committee  for  reli- 
gion, (as  they  called  it,)  the 
Puritans*  main  engine  against 
the  church,  dividing  it  into 
many  sub-committees ;  as 
Mr.  White's  committee,  Mr. 
Corbet's  committee,  sir  Ro- 
bert Haalow's  committee,  sir 
Edward  Deering's  committee, 
and  divers  others,  upon  pre- 
tence of  hearing  the  mul- 
titudes of  petitions  daily 
brought  in  against  scandalous 
ministers,  (as  the  term  was,) 
which  committees  were  made 
as  several  stages  for  continual 
clergy- baitings.  Mine  ears 
still  tingle  at  the  loud  cla- 
mours and  shoutings  there 
made  (especially  at  the  com- 
mittee which  sat  at  the  court 
of  wards)  in  derision  of  grave 
and  reverend  divines,  by  that 
rabble  of  sectaries  which 
daily  flocked  thither  to  see 
this  new  pastime,  where  the 
committee  members,  out  of 
their  vast  privilege  to  abuse 
any  man  (though  their  bet- 
ters ;  some  members  of  con- 


of  Britain. 


blameless  for  life  and  orthodox  for  doctrine,  were  a.  d.  1643. 

19  Chat.  I. 

only  ejected  on  the  account  of  their  faithfulness  to 

the  king's  cause.  And  as  much  corruption  was  let 
out  by  this  ejection,  (many  scandalous  ministers 
deservedly  punished,)  so  at  the  same  time  the  veins 
of  the  English  church  were  also  emptied  of  much 
good  blood,  (some  inoffensive  pastors,)  which  hath 
made  her  body  hydropical  ever  since ;  ill  humours 
succeeding  in  the  room,  by  reason  of  too  large  and 
sudden  evacuation.  But  others  of  a  more  violent 
temper  excused  all,  the  present  necessity  of  the 
cause  requiring  it.     All  pulpits  in  the  parliament 



*(  vocation,    whose    privileges 
are,  and  by  law  ought  to  be, 
as  large  as  those  of  the  house 
"  of  commons,)  without  con- 
"  trol,  have   been  pleased   to 
*'  call  the  members  of  Christ 
"  brought   before    them,    (by 
"  gaolers  and  pursuivants,  and 
M  placed  like  heinous  malefac- 
"  tors,  without  their  bar,  bare- 
"  headed      forsooth !)      saucy 
"jacks,  base  fellows  f  brazen- 
4t x  faced  fellows ;  and  in  great 
"  scorn  hath  the  cap  of  a  known 
"  orthodox  doctor,  (Dr.  Halsy,) 
"  been  called  to  be  pulled  off 
"  to  see  if  he  were  not  a  shaven 
"  popish  priest ;    and  upon  a 
"  person's  evidence  for  one  of 
"  his  parishioners,  that  he  was 
"  no  Papist,  (which  evidence 
"  in  such  cases  is  and  ought  to 
••  be  authentical,)    it  was  re- 
•*  plied  by  a  committee,  •  Have 
"  you  no  witness  but   a  base 
priest  ?%     And  to  some  emi- 
nent doctors  in  divinity  of 
the  City  of  London,  viz.  Dr. 
"  Baker,    Dr.    Borough,    Dr. 
"  Walton,  giving  testimony  in 



















a  cause  then  before  them,  it 
was  said  by  a  citizen  member 
of  that  committee,  Isaac  Pen. 
nington,  '  What  shall  me  be- 
lieve  these  doctors  for?'  And 
sir  Robert  Horton,  going  to 
his  committee  chair,  (the 
chair  of  the  scorner,)  bragged 
to  his  friend  how  he  would 
bait  the  dean  of  Christ- 
Church  ( Dr.  Fell) .  And  after 
such  like  usage,  with  charge- 
able and  long  attendance,  de 
die  in  diem,  on  these  commit- 
tees, as  many  clergymen  as 
were  brought  to  the  stake  to 
be  bated  (right  or  wrong) 
were  sure  to  be  ousted  of 
their  livings,  else  their  good 
and  godly  people  were  not 
pleased ;  that  the  souls  of 
many  honest  and  faithful 
ministers  of  Christ  were  so 
tilled  with  the  scorn  of  the 
period,  who  thus  had  them 
in  derision,  that  they  died 
for  very  grief,  as  did  Dr. 
Halsy,  and  Dr.  Clarke,  and 
diver 8  others."  p.  22.] 

272  The  Church  History  book  xt. 

a.d.  1643.  quarters  must  be  made  like  the  whole  earth  before 
i9cha».i.  tjje  building  of  Babel,  of  one  language,  and  of  one 

speech,  or  else  all  may  be  destroyed  by  the  mixture 
of  other  doctrines;  and  better  a  mischief  to  few 
than  an  inconvenience  to  all.  Safer  that  some 
(suppose  unjustly)  suffer,  than  that  the  success  of 
the  whole  cause  should  be  endangered. 
The  first        33.  Then  came   forth   a  book  called  the   First 

why  with-  Century*,  containing  the  names  of  an  hundred  di- 

arad."6"  vines,  sequestered  for  their  faults,  with  a  promise  of 
a  second,  which  to  my  knowledge  never  came  forth. 
Whether  because  the  author  of  the  former  was  sen- 
sible that  the  subject  was  generally  odious,  or  be- 
cause the  death  of  Mr.  White?,  licenser  thereof,  pre- 
vented any  addition,  or  whether,  because  dissuaded 
from  the  design,  suspecting  a  retaliation  from  Ox- 
ford. Sure  I  have  been  informed,  that  when  some 
solicited  his  majesty  for  leave  to  set  forth  a  book  of 
the  vicious  lives  of  some  parliament  ministers,  his 

*  [•*  The  First  Century  of  thor  of  this  pamphlet  was  of 

"  Scandalous  Malignant  Priests,  so  infamous  a  character  ;  the 

"  made  and  admitted  into  be*  charges   which   he   shifted  so 

"nefices  by   the    prelates    in  false    and    frequently     male- 

"  whose  hands  the  ordination  volent,  that  it  did  the  clergy 

u  of  ministers  and  government  little  harm.     So    much    were 

"  of  the   Church   hath   been,  their  opponents  chagrined  with 

"  &c."  Lond.  1643.]  the  reception  of  this  Century, 

y  [He  died  the  following  that  they  hazarded  not  the  pro- 
year,  in  a  state  of  distraction,  duction  of  a  second.  See  a 
according  to  the  author  of  further  account  of  this  pam- 
Persecutio  Undecima,  p.  18.  phlet  in  Walker's  "  Sufferings 
"  Crying  out  how  many  cler-  "  of  the  Clergy,"  i.  p.  47  ;  and 
"  gym  en,  their  wives  and  chil-  of  White  himself  in  Wood's 
"  dren,  he  had  undone."  The  Athen.  ii.  p.  70.  The  author 
Puritans,  in  these  proceedings  of  Persecutio  Undecima  has 
against  the  regular  and  con-  sufficiently  exposed  the  false- 
formable  clergy,  acted  upon  the  hood,  calumny,  and  immorality 
maxim, — audacter  calumniare  of  White  and  his  pamphlet. 
hcerebit  aliquid;    but  the  au-  See  p.  26,  sq.] 

csmt.  xvii.  of  Britain.  273 

majesty  blasted  the  design,  partly  because  recrimina-A.D.  1643. 
tion  is  no  purgation ;  partly  lest  the  public  enemy  '-9 — —L 
of  the  protestant  religion  should  make  an  advantage 

34.  To  supply  the  vacant  places,  many  young  Vacant  u. 
students  (whose  orders  got  the  speed  of  their  de-gip^JiedT 
grees)  left  the  universities.  Other  ministers  turned 
duallists  and  pluralists,  it  being  now  charity,  what 
was  formerly  covetousness,  to  hold  two  or  three 
benefices.  These  could  plead  for  themselves  the 
practice  of  Mr.  Sanders,  the  martyr1,  who  held  two 
livings  at  good  distance,  because  he  could  not  resign 
one  but  into  the  hands  of  a  Papist,  as  these  men 
would  not  surrender  them  to  malignants.  Many 
vicarages  of  great  cure  but  small  value  were  without 
ministers,  (whilst  rich  matches  have  many  suitors, 
they  may  die  virgins  that  have  no  portions  to  prefer 
them,)  which  was  often  complained  of,  seldom  re- 
dressed, it  passing  for  a  current  maxim,  it  was  safer 
for  people  to  fast  than  to  feed  on  the  poison  of 
malignant  pastors. 

85.  Let  us  now  look  a  little  into  the  assembly  of  Dissenting 
divines,  where  we  shall  not  find  them  (as  we  might  6m  appear 
justly  expect)  all  of  one  tongue  and  of  one  language,  iembfy?*" 
there   being  some  not  concurring  with  the  major 
part,  and  therefore   styled    dissenting  brethren.     I 
know  the  Scotch  writers  call  them  of  the  separation, 
but  because  mollifying  terms  are  the  best  poultices 
to  be  applied  to  the  first  swellings  of  church  dif- 
ferences, we  decline  these  words  of  distaste.     They 
are  also  commonly  called  Independents,  though  they 
themselves  (if  summoned  by  that  name)  will  return 

1  Fox's  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  1494,  in  an.  1555. 



The  Church  History 

BOOK  Xt. 

a.d.  164.M10  vous  arez  thereunto,  as  to  a  word  odious  and 
19  '***'  offensive  in  the  common  sound  and  notation  thereof. 
For  independency,  taken  for  absolute  subsistence, 
without  relation  to,  1,  God,  is  profane  and  blas- 
phemous; 2,  king  or  state,  is  seditious  and  trea- 
cherous; 8,  other  churches,  is  proud  and  a  \  bitious; 
4,  particular  Christians,  is  churlish  and  uncharitable. 
These  dissenting  brethren,  or  congregationalists, 
were  but  five  in  the  assembly*  though  many  more 
of  their  judgments  dispersed  in  the  land ;  namely, 
1 .  Thomas  Goodwin,  bred  first  in  Christ's  College,  then 
fellow  of  Katherine  Hall,  in  Cambridge ;  2.  Philip 
Nye,  who  had  his  education  in  Oxford  ;  3.  William 
Bridge,  fellow  of  Emanuel  College  in  Cambridge; 
all  three  still  alive  ;  4.  Sidrach  Simpson,  of  Queen's 
College  in  Cambridge ;  5.  Jeremiah  Burroughs,  of 
Emanuel  College  in  Cambridge,  both  deceased6. 
It  is  our  unhappiness,  that  in  writing  their  story  we 
have  little  save  what  we  have  collected  out  of  the 
writings  of  pens  professedly  engaged  against  them, 
and  therefore  the  less  credit  is  to  be  given  there- 
unto. However,  in  this  narration  there  is  nothing 
of  my  own,  so  that  if  any  falsehoods  therein,  they 
must  be  charged  on  their  account  whom  the  reader 
shall  behold  cited  in  the  margin ;  otherwise,  I  con- 
fess my  personal  respects  to  some  of  the  aforenamed 
dissenters  for  favours  received  from  them. 

36.  Some  ten  years  since  the  sinful  corruptions  (to 

a  [Baillie  however  speaks  of 
there  being  '•  ten  or  eleven  in 
"  the  synod,  many  of  them  very 
"  able  men/'  and  then  enume- 
rates besides  those  mentioned 
by  Fuller,  Carter,  Caryl,  Phil- 
lips,  and  Sterey.  Lett.  39.] 

h  [They  were  the  authors  of 
the  pamphlet  hereafter  fre- 
quently quoted  by  Fuller,  en- 
titled, "An  Apologetical  Nar- 
"  ration,  humbly  submitted  to 
"  both  Houses  of  Parliament," 
Lond.  1643.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  275 

use  their  own  language  c)  of  the  worship  and  govern-  a.  d.  i643. 

ment  in  this  church,  taking  hold  on  their  consciences, - 

unable  any  longer  to  comport  therewith,  they  de-0f  their  first 
serted  their  native  country.  This  we  believe  the  tho aiim!df 
true  cause  of  their  departure,  not  what  some  sug- 
gest d,  that  one  for  debt  and  another  for  danger 
(to  answer  some  ill  interpreted  words  concerning 
the  Scots)  were  forced  to  forsake  the  land.  And 
although  I  will  not  say  they  left  not  an  hoof  of 
their  estates  behind  tbem  here,  they  will  confess 
they  conveyed  over  the  most  considerable  part  there- 
of. Many  wealthy  merchants  and  their  families 
went  over  with  them,  so  that  of  all  exiles  (for  so 
they  style  themselves)  these  may  seem  most  like 
voluntary  travellers  for  good  company,  though  of 
all  travellers  most  like  to  exiles. 

37*  Their  reception  beyond  the  seas  in  Holland  Are  kindly 

_  entertained 

was  fair  and  civil,  where  the  States  (who,  though  in  Holland. 
they  tolerate,  own  not  all  religions)  were  interpreted 
to  acknowledge  them  and  their  churches  by  many 
signs  of  their  favour.  First,  by  granting  them  their 
own  churches  to  assemble  in  for  divine  worship, 
where  their  own  countrymen  met  also  the  same  day 
(but  at  different  hours)  for  the  same  purpose:  by 
permitting  the  ringing  of  a  belle,  to  call  people 
to  their  public  meetings,  which  loudly  sounded  the 
States'  consent  unto  them,  as  not  allowed  to  such 
clandestine  sects,  which  shelter  themselves  rather 
under  the  permission  than  protection  thereof:  by 
assigning  a  full  and  liberal  maintenance   annually 

c  Apol.  Nar.  p.  2.  if  tion  of   Mr.  Goodwin,  &c. ; 

*  Mr.  Edwards  in  his  An-  "  wherein  is  handled  many  of 

swer  to  the  Apol.  Nar.  ["An-  "the   controversies    of   these 

tapologia,  or  a  full  Answer  "  times."  Lond.  1644.] 


to  the  Apologetical  Narra-         c  Apol.  Nar.  p.  7. 

T  2 

276  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1643.  for  their  ministers,  as  also  wine  for  their  com- 
ic Chas.  I. 


Nor  can  there  be  a  better  evidence  of  giving  the 
right  hand  of  fellowship  than  to  give  the  full  hand 
of  liberality.  A  moiety  of  this  people  fixed  at  Rot- 
terdam, where  they  landed ;  the  other  travelled  up 
higher  for  better  air  to  Wianen,  and  thence  soon 
after  removed  to  Arnhein,  a  sweet  and  pleasant  city. 
No  part  of  Holland  (largely  taken f)  affording  more 
of  England  therein,  resembled  in  their  letters  to 
their  friends  to  Hertford,  or  Bury  in  Suffolk. 

JjTtHSr  88'  Then  fal1  they  to  consu,t  of  church  discipline, 
wt£*  professing  themselves  a  mere  abrasa  tabula,  with 
""  virgin  judgments,  longing  only  to  be  married  to  the 

truth.  Yea,  they  looked  "  upon  the  word  of  Christn 
(reader,  it  is  their  own  expression *,)  "as  impartially 
"  and  unprejudicially  as  men  made  of  flesh  and  blood 
"  are  like  to  do  in  any  juncture  of  time  that  may 
"  fell  out ;  'the  place  they  went  to,  the  condition 
"  they  were  in,  the  company  they  went  forth  with, 
"  affording  no  temptation  to  bias  them  any  way." 
Th«r  two  39.  And  first,  they  lay  down  two  grand  ground- 
ground-  works  on  which  their  following  fabric  was  to  be 

i.  Only  to  take  what  was  held  forth  in  God's 
word,  leaving  nothing  to  church  practice  or  human 
prudence,  as  but  the  iron  legs  and  clay  toes  of  that 
statue  whose  head  and  whole  body  ought  to  be  of 
pure  Scripture  gold. 

ii.  Not  to  make  their  present  judgment  binding 
unto  them  for  the  future. 

Their  adversaries  cavil  hereat,  as  a  reserve  able 

f  Otherwise  Arnhein  is  in  Gelderland.  ff  Apol.  Nar.  p.  3. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  277 

to   rout  all   the  armies   of  arguments   whteh   are  a.  d.  1643. 

brought  against  them,  that  because  one  day  teacheth " 

another,  they  will  not  be  tied  on  Tuesday  morning 
to  maintain  their  tenets  on  Monday  night,  if  a  new 
discovery  intervene. 

40.  In  pursuance  of  these  principles  they  pitched  c«*«n»- 
on  a  middle  way  (as  generally  the  posture  of  truth)  churches 
betwixt  presbytery,  as  too  rigorous,  imperious,  and 
conclusive,  and  Brownism,  as  too  vague,  loose,  and 
uncertain11.  Their  main  platform  was,  that  churches 
should  not  be  subordinate,  parochial  to  provincial, 
provincial  to  national,  (as  daughter  to  mother,  mo- 
ther to  grandmother,)  but  coordinate,  without  supe- 
riority, except  seniority  of  sisters,  containing  no 
powerful  influence  therein.  Thus  the  church,  for- 
merly like  a  chain  with  links  of  dependency  on  one 
another,  should  hereafter  become  like  an  heap  of 
rings,  each  entire  in  itself,  but  (as  they  thought)  far 
purer  than  was  ever  seen  before. 

41.  The  manner  of  their  church  service,  according  The  man. 
to  their  own  relation1,  was  performed  m  the  form  cimrah  Mr- 
following  :    public  and  solemn  prayers  for  kings  and vlce* 

all  in  authority;  reading  the  scriptures  of  the  Old 
and  New  Testament,  with  exposition  thereof  on 
occasion ;  administration  of  the  two  sacraments, 
baptism  to  infants,  and  the  Lord's  supper ;  singing 
of  psalms,  and  collection  for  the  poor  every  Lord's 
day;  for  public  officers  they  had  pastors,  teachers, 
and  ruling  elders,  (not  lay  but  ecclesiastic  persons,) 
and  deacons.  As  for  church  censures,  they  resolved 
only  on  admonition  and  excommunication,  the  latter 
whereof  was  never  handselled  in  their  church k,  as 

fe  Apol.  Nar.  p.  24.  *  Ibid.  p.  8.  k  Ibid.  p.  9. 

T  8 

278  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1643.  no  reason  that  the  rod,  though  made,   should  be 

— —  used  where  the  children  are  all  quiet  and  dutiful. 

Synods  they  account  useful,  and  in  some  cases  neces- 
sary, yet  so  that  their  power  is  but  official,  not 
authoritative,  whereby  they  may  declare  the  truth, 
not  enjoin  obedience  thereunto.  Or  take  it  in  the 
language  of  one  of  their  grandees :  actus  regiminu 
a  synodis  debent  porrigi  non  peragi1,  the  latter  be- 
longing to  the  liberty  of  several  congregations.  Their 
adversaries'  object,  that  none  can  give  in  an  exact 
account  of  all  their  opinions,  daily  capable  of  alter- 
ation and  increase;  while  such  countries,  whose 
unmovable  mountains  and  stable  valleys  keep  a 
fixed  position,  may  be  easily  surveyed,  no  geogra- 
pher can  accurately  describe  some  part  of  Arabia, 
where  the  flitting  sands  driven  with  the  winds  have 
their  frequent  removals,  so  that  the  traveller  findeth 
a  hole  at  his  return  where  he  left  a  hill  at  his 
departure.  Such  the  uncertainty  of  these  congre- 
gationalists  in  their  judgments,  only  they  plead  for 
themselves,  it  is  not  the  wind  of  every  doctrine1", 
are  always  but  the  sun  of  the  truth  which  with  its  new  lights 
lights.       makes  them  renounce  their  old  and  embrace  new 

^^||in  42.  Soon  after  a  heavy  schism  happened  in  the 
church,  church  of  Rotterdam  betwixt  Mr.  Bridge  and  Mr. 
Simpson,  the  two  pastors  thereof;  insomuch  that  the 
latter,  rent  himself,  (saith  one",)  from  Mr.  Bridge  his 
church,  to  the  great  offence  thereof;  though  more 
probable,  as  another  reporteth0,  Mr.  Simpson  was  dis- 

1  Responsio  [ad  Guil.  Apol-  his   preface   to    Mr.  Norton's 

lonii  Syllogen  ad  componendas  book. 

controversies  in  Anglia.  Lond.         n  Mr.Edwardsutpriu8tp.35. 
1648.]  Jo.  Norton,  p.  114.  °  Mr.  John  Goodwin  in  an- 

m  Eph.  iv.  15.     Mr.  Cotton  swer  to  Mr.  Edwards,  p.  238. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  279 

missed  with  the  consent  of  the  church.     However,  a. d.  1643. 

many  bitter  letters  passed  betwixt  them,  and  more 

sent  over  to  their  friends  in  England  full  of  invec- 
tives, blackness  of  the  tongue  always  accompanying 
the  paroxysms  of  such  distempers.  Their  presbyte- 
rian  adversaries  make  great  use  hereof  to  their  dis- 
grace 1.  If  such  infant  churches,  whilst  their  hands 
could  scarce  hold  any  thing,  fell  a  scratching,  and 
their  feet  spuming  and  kicking  one  another  before 
they  could  well  go  alone,  how  stubborn  and  vex- 
atious would  they  be  when  arrived  at  riper  years  ! 

43.  This  schism  was  seconded  with  another  in  theAwcond 
same  church,  wherein  they  deposed  one  of  their  the  same 
ministers.  (Mr.  Ward  I  conceive  his  name,)  which0  u 
was  beheld  as  a  bold  and  daring  deed,  especially 
because  herein  they  consulted  not  their  sister  church 
at  Arnhein,  which  publicly  was  professed  mutually 
to  be  done  in  cases  of  concernment.  Here  the  pres- 
byterians  triumph  in  their  conceived  discovery  of  the 
nakedness  and  weakness  of  the  congregational  way, 
which  for  want  of  ecclesiastical  subordination  is  too 
short  to  reach  out  a  redress  to  such  grievances.  For 
seeing  par  in  parent  non  habet  potestatem,  "  equals 
"  have  no  power  over  their  equals,"  the  aggrieved 
party  could  not  right  himself  by  any  appeal  unto  a 
superior.  But  such  consider  not  the  end  as  well  as 
the  beginning  of  this  difference,  wherein  the  church 
of  Arnhein r  interposing,  (not  as  a  judge  to  punish 
offenders,  but  as  a  brother  to  check  the  failings  of  a 
brother,)  matters  were  so  ordered,  that  Mr.  Ward 
was  restored  to  his  place,  when  both  he  and  the 
church  had  mutually  confessed  their  sinful  carriage 

<l  Mr.  John  Goodwin  in  answer  to  Mr.  Edwards,  p.  245. 
r  Apol.  Nar.  p.  21. 

T  4 

280  The  Church  History  book  xi.  the  matter;  but  enough,  (if  not  too  much  hereof,) 

19  Chas.  I.  °  m 

seeing  every  thing  put  in  a  pamphlet  is  not  fit  to  be 

recorded  in  a  chronicle. 
Theprac-       44.   More  concord  crowned  the  congregation  at 

tice  of  00 

Amhein  Arnhein,  where  Mr.  Goodwin  and  Mr.  Nye  were 
pastors,  wherein  besides  those  church  ordinances 
formerly  mentioned,  actually  admitted  and  exercised, 
some  others  stood  candidates  and  fair  probationers 
on  their  good  behaviour,  namely,  if  under  trial  they 
were  found  convenient ;  such  were 

i.  The  holy  kiss8. 

ii.  Prophesyings1  when  private  Christians  at  fit 
times  made  public  use  of  their  parts  and  gifts  in  the 

iii  Hymns  ',  and,  which  if  no  better  divinity  than 
music,  might  much  be  scrupled  at, 

iv.  Widows*,  as  essential  she-ministers  in  the 
church,  which  if  it  be  so,  our  late  civil  wars  in 
England  have  afforded  us  plenty  for  the  place. 

v.  Anointing  of  dying  people,  as  a  standing  apo- 
stolical y  ordinance. 
Th«five  45.  Other  things  were  in  agitation,  when  now  the 
tum  home,  news  arriveth,  that  the  parliament  sitting  at  West- 
minster had  broken  the  yoke  of  ceremonies,  and 
proclaimed  a  year  of  jubilee  to  all  tender  consciences. 
Home  then  they  hasted  with  all  convenient  speed ; 
for  only  England  is  England  indeed,  though  some 
parts  of  Holland  may  be  like  unto  it.  Over  they 
came  in  a  very  good  plight  and  equipage,  which  the 
presbyterians  (and  those  I  assure  you  are  quick- 
sighted  when  pleased  to  pry)  took  notice  of.     Not  a 

8   1  Cor.  xvi.  20.  *   1  Tim.  v.  9. 

t  1  Cor.  xiv.  y  James  v.  14. 

u  Eph.  v.  19,  and  Col.  iii.  16. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  881 

hair  of  their  head  singed,  nor  any  smell  of  the  fire  of  a.d.  1643. 

persecution  upon  their  clothes.     However  they  were  : — - 

not  to  be  blamed,  if '  setting  their  best  foot  forward* 
in  their  return,  and  appearing  in  the  handsomest  and 
cheerftillest  fashion  for  the  credit  of  their  cause,  and 
to  shew  that  they  were  not  dejected  with  their  suf- 

46.  Presently  they  fall  upon  gathering  of  congre-  father 
gations,  but  chiefly  in  or  about  the  city  of  London.  England. 
Trent  may  be  good,  and  Severn  better,  but  oh  the 
Thames  is  the  best  for  the  plentiful  taking  of  fish 
therein.  They  did  pick  (I  will  not  say  steal)  hence 
a  master,  thence  a  mistress  of  a  family,  a  son  out  of 
a  third,  a  servant  out  of  a  fourth  parish,  all  which 
met  together  in  their  congregation.  Some  prevented 
calling,  by  their  coming,  of  old  parishioners  to  become 
new  church  members,  and  so  forward  were  they  of 
themselves,  that  they  needed  no  force  to  compel  nor 
art  to  persuade  them.  Thus  a  new  inn  never  wanteth 
guests  at  the  first  setting  up,  especially  if  hanging 
out  a  fair  sign,  and  promising  more  cleanness  and 
neatness  than  is  in  any  of  their  neighbours. 

47-   The   presbyterians  found   themselves  muchTkepw*- 


aggrieved  hereat.  They  accounted  this  practice  of  offended, 
the  dissenting  brethren  but  ecclesiastical  felony,  or 
at  the  best  that  they  were  but  spiritual  interlopers 
for  the  same.  They  justly  feared  (if  this  fashion 
continued)  the  falling  of  the  roof,  or  foundering  of 
the  foundations  of  their  own  parishes,  whence  so 
many  corner  stones,  pillars,  rafters,  and  beams,  were 
taken  by  the  other  to  build  their  congregations. 
They  complained  that  these  new  pastors,  though 
slighting  tithes  and  set  maintenance,  yet  so  ordered 
the  matter  by  gathering  their  churches,  that  these 



£88  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1643.  gleanings  of  Ephraim  became  better  than  the  vintage 

— of  Abi-ezer. 

Dwenting       48.  Not  long  after,  when  the  Assembly  of  divines 

crave  a  to-  was  called,  these  five  congregationalists  were  chosen 
<m'  members  thereof,  but  came  not  up  with  a  full  con- 
sent to  all  things  acted  therein.  As  accounting  that 
the  pressing  of  an  exact  occurrence  to  the  presby- 
terian  government  was  but  a  kind  of  a  conscience- 
prison,  whilst  accurate  conformity  to  the  Scotch 
church  was  the  very  dungeon  thereof;  ••  a  regimine 
"  ecclesiastico,"  say  they1,  "  uti  nunc  in  Scotia  viget 
longius  distamus,  quippe  quod  (ut  nobis  videtur) 
non  tantum  a  scripturis,  sed  ab  ecclesiarum  refor- 
matarum  suorumque  theologorum  sententiis  (qui 
sub  episcoporum  tyrannide  diu  duriterque  passi 
sunt)  plurimum  distat."  No  wonder  therefore  if 
they  desired  a  toleration  to  be  indulged  them,  aud 
they  excused  for  being  concluded  by  the  votes  of 
the  Assembly. 

Oppoaedby  49.  But  the  presbyterians  highly  opposed  their 
toleration,  and  such  who  desired  most  ease  and 
liberty  for  their  sides  when  bound  with  episcopacy, 
now  girt  their  own  government  the  closest  about  the 
consciences  of  others.  They  tax  the  dissenting 
brethren  for  singularity,  as  if  these  men  (like  the 
five  senses  of  the  church)  should  discover  more  in 
matter  of  discipline  than  all  the  Assembly  besides, 
some  moving  their  ejection  out  of  the  same,  except 
in  some  convenient  time  they  would  comply  there- 

*    In   their   epistle   to   the  other  spawn  of  the  same  kind, 

reader  prefixed  to  Mr.  Norton's  this  work  had  its  origin  in  the 

book.  interminable  debates  and  bick- 

a  Apol.  Nar.  p.  2.       [Like  erings  of  the  Assembly  of  di- 


of'  Britain. 


50.  Hopeless  to  speed  here,  the  dissenters  season- AJkl6*}- 

j  i  19O1M.  1. 

ably  presented  an  apologetical  narrative  to  the  parlia 

But  fift" 

ment,  styled  by  them  **  the  most  sacred  refuge  and  soured  by 

"  asylum  for  mistaken  and   misjudged  innocence."  \t^T  **" 

Herein  they  petitioned  pathetically  for  some  favour, 

whose  conscience  could  not  join  with  the  Assembly  in 

all  particulars,  concluding  with   that  pitiful   close, 

(enough  to  force  tears  from  any  tender  heart,)  that 

"  theyb  pursued  no  other  interest  or  design  but  a 

**  subsistence   (be  it   the  poorest  and   meanest)  in 

"  their  own  land,  as  not  knowing  where  else  with 

"  safety,  health,  and  livelihood  to  set  their  feet  on 

"  earth,"  and  subscribed  their  names : — 

"  Thomas  Goodwin.      Sidrach  Simson.      William  Bridge. 
"  Philip  Nye.  Jeremiah  Burroughs." 

If  since  their  condition  be   altered  and   bettered, 

vines.  Dr.  Baillie,  who  was  a 
rigid  presbyterian,  earnest  for 
the  parliamentary  establish- 
ment of  the  Scottish  observ- 
ances, complains  bitterly  of 
the  waste  of  time  and  of  the 
heart-burnings  caused  by  the 
dissenting  brethren,  that  is,  the 
Independents.  They  resorted 
to  various  manoeuvres  to  pro- 
long the  time,  as  finding  that 
their  party  gained  strength  by 
the  delay.  After  several  ses- 
sions and  debates  to  no  pur- 
pose, at  which  the  Independents 
held  off  with  long  weapons, 
and  debated  all  things  with  the 
utmost  prolixity,  which  "  came 
within  twenty  miles^of  their 
quarters,  foreseeing  that  they 
"  behoved^ere  long  to  come  to 
the  point,  they  put  out  in 
print  on  a  sudden  an  Apolo- 
getical  Narration    of    their 







way,  which  long  had  lien 
ready  beside  them,  wherein 
they  petition  the  parliament 
in  a  most  sly  and  cunning 
way  for  a  toleration,  and 
withal  had  too  bold  wipes  to 
all  the  reformed  churches, 
as  imperfect  yet  in  their  re- 
formation, while  (until)  their 
new  model  be  embraced, 
which  they  set  out  so  well 
as  they  are  able.  This  piece 
abruptly  they  presented  to 
the  Assembly, giving  to  every 
member  a  copy;  also  they 
gave  books  to  some  of  either 
lionse. — The  thing  in  itself 
coming  out  at  this  time,  was 
very  apt  to  have  kindled  a 
fire,  and  it  seems  both  the 
Devil  and  some  men  intend- 
ed it."  Lett.  43.] 
b  Ibid.  p.  31. 

284  The  Church  History  book  xr. 

a.d.  1645.  that  they  (then  wanting  where  to  set  their  feet) 

1? 1  since  lie  down  at  their  length  in  the  fat  of  the  land; 

surely  they  have  returned  proportionable  gratitude 
to  God  for  the  same.  Sure  it  is  that  at  the  present 
these  petitioners  found  such  favour  with  some  potent 
persons  in  parliament,  that  they  were  secured  from 
further  trouble,  and  from  lyinjr  at  a  posture  of 
defence,  are  now  grown  able,  not  only  to  encounter, 
but  invade  all  opposers,  yea,  to  open  and  shut  the 
door  of  preferment  to  others;  so  unsearchable  are 
the  dispensations  of  divine  Providence  in  making 
sudden  and  unexpected  changes,  (as  in  whole  na- 
tions,) so  in  private  men's  estates,  according  to  the 
counsel  of  his  will. 
New  51.   Such   as   desire   further  instruction    in   the 

churches  tenets  of  these  congregationalists  may  have  their 
taSJufe  recourse  to  those  many  pamphlets  written  pro  and 
con  thereof.  The  worst  is,  some  of  them  speak  so 
loud  we  can  scarce  understand  what  they  say,  so 
hard  is  it  to  collect  their  judgments,  such  the  vio- 
lence of  their  passions.  Only  I  will  add,  that  for  the 
main  the  churches  of  New  England  are  the  same  in. 
discipline  with  these  dissenting  brethren. 
Tk*  «f         52.  Only  I  will  add,  that  of  ail  the  authors  I  have 

referred  to  * 

Mr.  Nor-  perused  concerning  the  opinions  of  these  dissenting 
"  brethren,  none  to  me  was  more  informative  than 
Mr.  John  Norton,  (one  of  no  less  learning  than 
modesty,)  minister  in  New  England,  in  his  answer 
to  Apollonius  Pastor  in  the  church  of  Middle- 
borough  . 

Mr.  Herie       53.  Look  we  now  again  into  the  Assembly  of 

sueceedeth  c  J 

prolocutor  divines,  where  we  find  Dr.  Cornelius  Burgess  and 

Twi»       Mr.  Herbert  Palmer  the  assessors  therein,  and  1  am 

informed  by  some  (more  skilful  in  such  niceties  than 


of  Britain. 


myself)  that  two  at  the  least  of  that  office  are  of  the  a.d.  1644. 

quorum  essential  to  every  lawful  assembly.     But  I 

miss  Dr.  William  Twiss,  their  prolocutor,  lately  de- 
ceased ;  he  was  bred  in  New  College  in  Oxford, 
good  with  the  trowel,  but  better  with  the  sword, 
more  happy  in  polemical  divinity  than  edifying  doc- 
trine. Therefore  he  was  chosen d  by  the  state  of 
Holland  to  be  professor  of  divinity  there,  which  he 
thankfully  refused.  Mr.  Charles  Herle,  fellow  of 
Exeter  college  of  Oxford,  succeeded  him  in  his  place, 
one  so  much  Christian,  scholar,  and  gentleman,  that 
he  can  unite  in  affection  with  those  who  are  dis- 
joined in  judgment  from  him*. 

54.  The  Assembly  met  with  many  difficulties,  some  Mr.  8d- 
com plaining  of  Mr.  Selden,  that  advantaged  by  hisziingq^ 
skill  in  antiquity,  common  law,  and    the   oriental ne§" 
tongues,  he   employed  them   rather  to  pose  than 

d  See  his  dedication  to  them 
in  his  book  called  Vindiciae 
Gratis.  (Dr.  Baillie,  to  whose 
Journal  such  frequent  refer- 
ence has  been  made,  seems  to 
have  entertained  no  very  ex- 
alted opinion  of  Dr.  Twiss. 
"  The  prolocutor  at  the  be- 
"  ginning  and  end  has  a  short 
"  prayer*  The  man,  as  the 
M  world  goes*  is  very  learned  in 
"  the  questions  he  has  studied, 
"  and  very  good  and  beloved  of 
"  all,  and  highly  esteemed;  but 
"  merely  bookish,  and  not  much 
"  as  it  seems  acquaint  with 
"  conceived  prayer ;  among  the 
"  unfittest  of  all  the  company 
for  any  action  ;  so  after  the 
prayer  he  site  mute.  It  was 
the  canny  conveyance  of  these, 
"  who  guide  most  matters  for 
"  their  own  interest,  to  plant 






"  such  a  man  of  purpose  in 
"  the  chair.  The  one  assessor, 
"  our  good  friend  Dr.  Burgess, 
"  a  very  active  and  sharp  man, 
"  supplies,  so  far  as  is  decent, 
*'  the  prolocutor's  place ;  the 
"  other,  our  good  friend  Mr. 
Whyte,  has  kept  in  of  the 
gout  since  our  coming."] 
e  [He  became  an  Independent. 
But  how  Fuller  could  pass  this 
eulogium  upon  him  is  strange; 
since  Herle  was  one  of  the 
committee  for  examining  the 
loyal  clergy,  whom  the  puri- 
tans called  the  scandalous  and 
malignant  ministers,  in  which 
office  he  behaved  with  extreme 
severity  and  injustice.  See  his 
Life  in  Wood's  Ath.  ii.  p.  237. 
But  this  is  not  the  only  occa- 
sion .in  which  Fuller  truckled 
too  much  to  the  times.] 

286  The  Church  History  book  xr. 

A.  d.  1644.  profit,  perplex  than  inform  the  members  thereof,  in 

'  the  fourteen  queries  he  propounded.     Whose  intent 

therein  was  to  humble  the  jure-divinoship  of  pres- 
bytery, which  though  hinted  and  held  forth,  is  not 
so  made  out  in  Scripture,  but  being  too  scant  on 
many  occasions  it  must  be  pieced  with  prudential 
additions.  This  great  scholar,  not  overloving  of  any 
(and  least  of  all  these)  clergymen,  delighted  himself  in 
raising  of  scruples  for  the  vexing  of  others,  and  some 
stick  not  to  say,  that  those  who  will  not  feed  on  the 
flesh  of  God's  word,  cast  most  bones  to  others  to 
break  their  teeth  therewith, 
wh^w^di-  55#  More  trouble  was  caused  to  the  Assembly  by 
ed»and      the  opinions  of  the  Erastians,  and  it  is  worth  our 

what  they 

held.  inquiry  into  the  first  author  thereof.  They  were  so 
called  from  Thomas  Erastus,  a  doctor  of  physic, 
born  at  Baden  in  Switzerland,  lived  professor  in 
Heidelberg,  and  died  at  Basil  about  the  year  one 
thousand  five  hundred  eighty  three.  He  was  of 
the  privy  council  to  Frederic,  the  first  protestant 
prince  Palatine  of  that  name,  and  this  Erastus  (like 
our  Mr.  Perkins)  being  lamef  of  his  right,  wrote  all 
with  his  left  hand,  and  amongst  the  rest,  one  against 
Theodore  Beza,  de  excommunicatione,  to  this  effect, 
that  the  power  and  excommunication  in  a  Christian 
state  principally  resides  in  secular  power  as  the  most 
competent  judge,  when  and  how  the  same  shall  be 

The  Era-        ]yjr-  John  Coleman,  a  modest  and  learned  man, 

•nans  in  the 

A«emUy.  beneficed  in  Lincolnshire,  and  Mr.  John  Lightfoot, 
well  skilled  in  rabbinical  learning,  were  the  chief 
members  of  the  Assembly,  who  (for  the  main)  main- 

f  Thuanus  in  Obit.  Vir.  Illustr.  anno  1583.     [See  also  his 
Theses,  p.  350.  Pescl.  1589.] 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  287 

tained  the  tenets  of  Erastus.     These  often  produced  a.  d.  i644. 

the  Hebrew  original  for  the   power  of  princes  in 1 

ecclesiastical  matters.  For  though  the  New  Testa- 
ment be  silent  of  the  temporal  magistrate  (princes 
then  being  pagans)  his  intermeddling  in  church- 
matters,  the  Old  is  very  vocal  therein,  where  the 
authority  of  the  kings  of  Judah,  as  nursing  fathers 
to  the  church,  is  very  considerable. 

57.  No  wonder  if  the  prince  palatine  (constantly  Favourably 
present  at  their  debates)  heard  the  Erastians  with  w 
much  delight,  as  welcoming  their  opinions  for  country 

sake,  (his  natives  as  first  born  in  Heidelberg,)  though 
otherwise  in  his  own  judgment  no  favourer  thereof. 
But  other  parliament-men  listened  very  favourably 
to  their  arguments,  (interest  is  a  good  quickener  of 
attention,)  hearing  their  own  power  enlarged  thereby, 
and  making  use  of  these  Erastians  for  a  check  to 
such  who  pressed  conformity  to  the  Scotch  kirk  in 
all  particulars. 

58.  Indeed,  once  the  Assembly  stretched  them-  TheAwem- 
selves  beyond  their  own  line,  ill  meddling  with  wbatiy^edked. 
was  not  committed  by  the  parliament  to  their  cogni- 
zance and  consultation,  for  which  thev  were  after- 

ward  staked  down,  and  tied  up  with  a  shorter  tedder. 
For  though  the  wise  parliament  made  use  of  the 
presbyterian  zeal  and  activity  for  the  extirpation  of 
bishops,  yet  they  discreetly  resolved  to  hold  a  strict 
hand  over  them  ;  as  not  coming  by  their  own  power 
to  advise,  but  called  to  advise  with  the  parliament. 
Nor  were  they  to  cut  out  their  own  work,  but  to 
make  up  what  was  cut  to  their  own  hands,  and 
seeing  a  prtemunire  is  a  rod  as  well  for  a  presbyter 
as  a  prelate,  (if  either  trespass  on  the  state  by  their 
over  activity,)  though  they  felt  not  this  rod,  it  was 

£88  The  Church  History  book  xt. 

a-D-  l644-  shewed  to  them,  and  shaked  over  them,  and  they 

SO  CllHS.  I. 

■  shrewdly  and  justly  shent  for  their  overmeddling, 
which  made  them  the  wiser  and  warier  for  the  time 
to  come. 
SdrfT*^  59.  Indeed,  the  major  part  of  the  Assembly  endea- 
rmin  utrived  voured  the  settling  of  the  Scotch  government  in  all 
particulars,  that  though  Tweed  parted  their  countries, 
nothing  might  divide  their  church  discipline,  and 
this  was  laboured  by  the  Scotch  commissioners  with 
all  industry  and  probable  means  to  obtain  the  same ; 
but  it  could  not  be  effected,  nor  was  it  ever  settled 
by  act  of  parliament.  For  as  in  heraldry  the  same 
seeming  lions  in  colour  and  posture  (rampant  and 
langued  alike)  are  not  the  self-same,  if  the  one  be 
armed  with  nails  and  teeth,  the  other  deprived  of 
both,  so  cannot  the  English  be  termed  the  same 
with  the  Scotch  presbytery,  the  former  being  in  a 
manner  absolute  in  itself,  the  latter  depended  on 
the  state  in  the  execution  of  the  power  thereof. 
Coerei  bn  ®®#  Insomuch>  that  the  parliament  kept  the  co- 
tothepwr-  ercive  power  in  their  own  hands,  not  trusting  them 
to  carry  the  keys  at  their  girdle,  so  that  the  power 
of  excommunication  was  not  intrusted  with  them, 
but  ultimately  resolved  into  a  committee  of  eminent 
persons  of  parliament,  whereof  Thomas,  earl  of 
Arundel,  (presumed  present  because  absent  with 
leave  beyond  the  seas,)  is  the  first  person  nomi- 
Uxbndge        6l.  A  treaty  was  kept  at  Uxbridge  betwixt  the 

fruitless  J  V  © 

treaty.  commissioners  of  the  king  and  parliament,  many 
well-meaning  people  promising  themselves  good  suc- 
cess thereby,  whilst  others  thought  this  treaty  was 
born  with  a  dying  countenance,  saying  there  wanted 
a  third  to  interpose  to  make  their  distances  up  by 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  889 

powerful  persuasion,  no  hope  of  good  in  either  with- AD- 1644* 

out  condescension  in  both  parties.     One  may  smile 

at  their  inference,  who  presumed  that  the  king's 
commissioners,  coming  to  Uxbridge  two  parts  of 
three  to  meet  those  of  the  parliament,  would  propor- 
tionally comply  in  their  yieldings.  A  weak  topical 
conjecture,  confuted  by  the  formerly  going  of  the 
parliament's  commissioners  clean  through  to  Oxford, 
and  yet  little  condescension  to  their  propositions*. 

62.  Here  Mr.  Christopher  Love  (waiting  on  the  Mr.  Lore's 
parliament  commissioners  in  a  general  relation)  gave  tion. 
great  offence  to  the  royalists  in  his  sermon  h,  shewing 
the  impossibility  of  an  agreement,  such  the  dan- 
gerous errors  and  malicious  practices  of  the  opposite 
party ;  many  condemned  his  want  of  charity,  more 
of  discretion  in  this  juncture  of  time,  when  there 
should  be  a  cessation  from  invectives  for  the  time 
being.  But  men's  censures  must  fall  the  more 
lightly  upon  his  memory,  because  since  he  hath 
suffered,  and  so  satisfied  here  for  his  faults  in  this  or 
any  other  kind1. 

c  [All  the  material  papers  cause  his  destruction)  of  bring* 

and  proceedings  of  this  treaty  ing  in  Charles  II,  the   Pres- 

will    be   found    in    Dugdale's  byterians  having  row  become 

Short  View  of  the  late  Trou-  so  thoroughly  incensed  against 

Met,    &c   p.  737.     The   ori-  their  rivals,  as  to  be  willing  to 

gmals  are  in  Thurloe's   Col-  make  any  sacrifice  to  obtain 

lection  now  preserved  in  the  their  revenge.   The  little  com- 

Bodleian.     It  began   at   Ux-  miseration  that  this  vain  and 

bridge  Jan.  30th,  1644.     See  weak  man  met  withal,  was  a 

also   the   particulars  of  it  in  just  retribution  for  his  conduct 

Clarendon's  History  of  the  Re-  towards  his  sovereign;  and  a 

bellion,  v.  36.]  striking    illustration     of    the 

*  [See  Dugdale's  Short  warning  given  in  the  Psalms, 
View,  p.  764.]  that  the  bloodthirsty  man  shall 

•  [He  suffered  in  165 1 ;  not  live  out  half  his  days.  See 
having  been  accused  by  the  In-  his  Life  in  Wood's  Athen.  ii. 
dependents  (falsely,  in  order  to     p.  136.] 

ruLLXft,  vol,  VI.  D 

290  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1644.      68.  With  the  commissioners  on  both  sides  certain 

20  Chan.  I. 

—clergymen  were  sent  in  their  presence  to  debate  the 

enceofdi-  point  of  church  government. 


For  the  king.  For  the  parliament. 

Dr.  [Richard]  Stewart.  Mr.  Stephen  Marshall. 

Dr.  [Gilbert]  Sheldon.  j       Mr.  Richard  Vines. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Laney.  | 
Dr.  Henry  Hammond. 
Dr.  Henry  Feme. 

These,  when  the  commissioners  were  at  leisure  from 
civil  affairs,  were  called  to  a  conference  before  them. 
Dr.  Laney      64.  Dr.  Laney  proffered  to  prove  the  great  bene- 
be  heart,    fits  which  had  accrued  to  God's  church  in  all  ages 
by  the  government  by  bishops ;  but  the  Scotch  com- 
missioners would  in  no  wise  hear  him,  whereupon 
the  doctor  was  contentedly  silent.     Some  discourses 
rather  than   disputes   passed    betwixt   Dr.  Stewart 
and  Mr.  Marshall,  leaving  no  great  impressions  in 
the  memories  of  those  that  were  present  thereat. 
Anaiga-        gg    Only  Mr.  Vines  was  much  applauded  by  his 

ment  ad  ho-  J  m  x  *■  J 

mwntifnotown  party,  for  proving  the  sufficiency  of  ordination 
by  presbyters,  because  ministers  made  by  Presby- 
terian government  in  France  and  the  Low  Countries 
were  owned  and  acknowledged  by  our  bishops  for 
lawfully  ordained  for  all  intents  and  purposes,  both 
to  preach  and  sacramentize,  and  no  reordi nation 
required  of  them.  Thus  the  goodness  of  bishops  in 
their  charity  to  others  was  made  use  of  against  them- 
selves, and  the  necessity  of  the  episcopal  function. 

Books  made     65.  To  return  to  the  Assembly ;  the  monuments 

by  the  As-  J 

sembiy.  which  they  have  left  to  posterity  of  their  meeting 
are  chiefly  these :  Articles  of  Religion  drawn  up  by 
them,  and  a  double  Catechism;  one  the  lesser,  the 
other  the  greater;  whereof  at  first  very  few  were 


of  Britain. 


printed  for  parliament  men,  meaner  folk  not  attain-  a.  *^k- 
ing  so   great  a  treasure,   besides  their  Directory, 
whereof  hereafter, 

67*  As  for  the  conclusion  of  this  Assembly,  it  The Awem- 
dwindled   away  by  degrees,   though   never  legally sinketh 
dissolved  J ;    many   of  them,   after    the   taking    of  e^  ** 

J  [The  truth  is,  they  never 
could  come  to  any  agreement ; 
the  Independents  daily  grow- 
ing too  strong  to  be  put  down, 
contrary  to  the  hopes  of  the 
Presbyterians.  They  had  been 
admitted  into  the  assembly  at  the 
first  without  suspicion,  indeed 
with  the  expectation  that  they 
might  be  reasoned  into  some 
conformity  with  the  rest,  or  if 
not,  the  Presbyterians  reckon- 
ed upon  possessing  sufficient 
influence  to  force  their  compli- 
ance. "  We  trust  to  carry  (all) 
"  at  last,  (says  Baillie) ;  with 
*'  the  contentment  of  sundry 
"  once  opposite,  and  silence 
"  of  all  their  divine  and  scrip. 
"  tural  institution.  This  is  a 
•*  point  of  high  consequence, 
•c  and  upon  no  other  we  expect 
"  so  great  difficulty,  except 
**  alone  on  Independency  ; — 
••  wherewith  we  purpose  not  to 
"  meddle  in  haste?  till  it  please 
"  God  to  advance  our  army, 
u  which  we  expect  will  much  as- 
"  sist  our  arguments.  However, 
we  are  not  desperate  of  some 
accommodation;  for  Good- 
win, Burroughs,  and  Bridges 
"  are  men  full,  as  it  seems 
"  yet,  of  grace  and  modesty ; 
"  if  they  shall  prove  otherwise, 
"  the  body  of  the  Assembly  and 
"  parliament,  city  and  county, 
"  will  disclaim  them."  Lett.  39. 
A  few  days  after  we  find  him 
thus  writing :  "  In  the  time  of 









*'  this  anarchy  the  divisions  of 
people  do  much  increase  ; 
the  Independent  party  grows, 
"  but  the  Anabaptist 8  more, 
"  and  the  Antinomians  most. 
The  Independents  being  most 
able  men  and  of  great  credit, 
fearing  no  less  than  banish- 
"  ment  from  their  native  coun- 
"  try  of  Presbyteries  here  e- 
'*  rected,  are  watchful  that  no 
"  conclusion  be  taken  to  their 
"  prejudice.  It  was  my  ad- 
u  vice,  which  Mr.  Henderson 
presently  applauded,  and 
gave  me  thanks  for  it,  to 
eschew  a  public  rupture  with 
"  the  Independents  till  we  were 
more  able  for  them  ;  as  yet 
a  presbytery  to  this  people 
"  is  conceived  to  be  a  strange 
"  monster."  Lett.  40.  He  soon 
found  reason,  however,  to 
change  his  tone,  and  his  sub- 
sequent letters  are  full  of  in- 
vectives against  the  sectaries, 
as  he  calls  them.  They  out- 
manoeuvred the  Presbyterians 
turning  their  designs  upon 
their  own  heads.  It  was  in 
reality  a  trial  of  strength,  not 
of  reason  or  justice;  and  as 
the  influence  of  the  Scotch 
and  the  credit  of  their  armies 
declined,  their  power  in  the 
assembly  declined  also.  The 
Independents  also  in  their  turn 
learned  what  advantage  their 
cause  derived  by  the  success 
of  those  in  the  army  who  pro- 








The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1644.  Oxford,  returning  to  their  own  cures,  and  others 
ao        /living  in  London  absented  themselves,  as  disliking 

fessed  their  principles ;  and  they 
pushed  their  advantage  to  the 
uttermost.  Having  induced 
Cromwell  to  join  them,  or  ra- 
ther being  led  by  him  whose 
interests  and  judgments  were 
the  same,  they  took  every  op- 
portunity of  increasing  his 
fame  and  popularity ;  whatever 
honour  was  gained  by  other 
men's  valour  and  good  conduct, 
was  cast  upon  him.  As  Wal- 
ker tells  us,  "the  news-books 
"  were  taught  to  speak  no  lan- 
"  gUAge  but  Cromwell  and  his 
"  party ;  and  were  mute  in 
"  such  actions  as  he  and  they 
"  could  claim  no  share  in ; — 
"  when  any  great  exploit  was 
"  half  achieved,  and  the  diffi- 
*'  culties  overcome,  Cromwell 
"  was  sent  to  finish  it  and  take 
"  the  glory  to  himself;  all  other 
"  men  must  be  eclipsed,  that 
"  Cromwell  (the  knight  of  the 
"  sun,  and  Don  Quixote  of  the 
"  Independents)  and  his  party 
"  may  shine  the  brighter." — 
History  of  Independ.  i.  p.  30. 
The  result  might  be  easily  fore- 
seen ;  as  the  Independents 
and  their  party  increased,  they 
cared  but  little  for  the  Assem- 
bly or  its  sanction ;  and  ended 
with  despising  it  and  its  mem- 
bers altogether.  From  this  pe- 
riod, Baillie's  letters  are  full  of 
the  humiliation  and  disappoint- 
ment experienced  by  himself 
and  his  fellow  commissioners 
from  Scotland.  At  one  time 
he  says ;  "  Our  hearts  here 
"  are  oft  much  weighted  and 
"  wounded  by  many  hands. 
**  Our  wrestlings  with  devils 
"  and  men  are  great:  however 

"  the  body  of  this  people  be  as 
"  great  as  any  people,  yet  they 
"  that  rule  all  are  mucu  oppo- 
"  site  to  our  desires.  Some 
"  very  few  guide  all  now  at 
••  their  pleasure,  only  through 
"  the  default  of  our  army.  For 
"  this  long  time  they  have  not 
"  trusted  us."  Lett.  119.  Else* 
where :  "  All  here  is  in  the  ba- 
"  lance.  In  the  assembly  we 
"  are  going  on  languidly  with 
"  the  Confession  of  Faith  and 
44  Catechism.  The  minds  of 
"  the   divines    are    much    en- 

••  feebled. Mr.  Prynne  and 

"  the  Erastian  lawyers"  (which 
are  a  large  portion  of  the 
house)  "  are  now  our  femora. 
"  The  Independents  and  sects 
"  are  quiet,  enjoying  peaceably 
"  all  their  desires  and  increas- 
"  ing  daily  their  party.  They 
"  speak  no  more  of  bringing 
"  their  model  to  the  Assembly. 
"  We  are  afraid  of  this  shame- 
"  ful  and  monstrous  delay  of 
"  building  the  Lord's  house, 
"  and  their  ingratitude  and  un- 
'*  kindness  to  us  in  our  deep 
sufferings  for  them  will  pro* 
voke  God  against  them  ; 
which  we  oft  earnestly  de- 
precate." Lett.  117.  This 
concluding  remark,  with  which 
also  I  must  terminate  this  note, 
looks  like  dissimulation,  but  it 
is  the  unintentional  dissimula- 
tion of  one  who  had  deceived 
himself.  Unperceived  perhaps 
by  themselves,  their  own  profit 
and  aggrandizement  had  be- 
come the  leading  motive  of  his 
and  his  coadjutors'  actions : 
could  they  wonder  that  from 
such  sowing  they  reaped  only 





cent,  xvik  of  Britain.  298 

the  managing  of  matters.    Such  as  remained  (having  a.  d.i644. 

survived  their  great  respect)  and  being  too  few  to  ™ ' 

maintain  the  dignity  of  an  Assembly,  contented 
themselves  with  the  notion  of  a  committee,  chiefly 
employed  to  examine  their  abilities  and  good  affec- 
tions, who  were  presented  to  livings ;  till  at  last,  as 
in  philosophy,  accidentia  non  corrumpuntur  sed  desi- 
nunt,  they  vanish  with  the  parliament,  and  now  the 
execution  of  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  comes 
next  under  our  pen,  whose  trial  being  most  of  civil 
concernment  is  so  largely  done  in  a  book  of  that 
subject,  that  by  us  it  may  be  justly  omitted k. 

68.  Next  followed  the  execution   of  the  arch- The  arch- 
bishop  of  Canterbury,  sheriff  Chambers  of  London p!mj£*° 
bringing  over  night  the  warrant  for  the  same  anddeath* 
acquainting  him   therewith.     In   preparation  to  so 

sad  a  work,  he  betook  himself  to  his  own,  and 
desired  also  the  prayers  of  others,  and  particularly 
of  Dr.  Holds  worth,  fellow  prisoner  in  that  place  for 
a  year  and  half;  though  all  that  time  there  had  not 
been  the  least  converse  betwixt  them.  On  the 
morrow  he  was  brought  out  of  the  tower  to  the 
scaffold,  which  he  ascended  with  a  cheerful  counte- 
nance, (as  rather  to  gain  a  crown  than  lose  a  head,) 
imputed  by  his  friends  to  the  clearedness,  by  his 
foes  to  the  searedness,  of  his  conscience.  The  be- 
holders that  day  were  so  divided  betwixt  bemoaners 
and  in8ulter8,  it  was  hard  to  decide  which  of  them 
made  up  the  major  part  of  the  company. 

69.  He  made  a  sermon  speech,  taking  for  his  text And  _   . 
the  two  first  verses  of  the  twelfth  chapter  of  the  w»  own  fa- 
epistle  to  the  Hebrews:   Let  us  run  with  patience mon. 

ingratitude  ?    "  Hac  seges  in-     "  annis."] 

"  gratos  tvlit,  et  feret  omnibus         k  By  Prynne  in  his  Breviate* 

U  3 

£94  The  Church  History  book  xu 

A-  SjJ"*4!*  the  race  which  is  set  before  us ;  looking  unto  Jesus 

the  author  and  finisher  of  our  faith,  who  for  the 

Joy  that  was  set  before  him  endured  the  cross,  de- 
spising the  shame,  and  is  set  down  at  the  right  hand 
of  the  throne  of  God.  Craving  leave  to  make  use 
of  his  notes,  (for  the  infirmity  of  his  aged  memory,) 
he  dilated  thereon  about  half  an  hour,  which  dis- 
course, because  common,  (as  publicly  printed,)  we 
here  forbear  to  insert1.  For  the  main,  he  protested 
his  own  innocence  and  integrity,  as  never  intending 
any  subversion  of  laws  and  liberty ;  no  enemy  to 
parliaments,  (though  a  misliker  of  some  miscarriages,) 
and  a  protestant  in  doctrine  and  discipline  according 
to  the  established  laws  of  the  land ;  speech  ended, 
he  betook  himself  a  while  to  his  prayers,  and  after- 
wards prepared  himself  for  the  fatal  stroke. 
Questioned  70.  Sir  John  Clotworthy  (a  member  of  the  house 
assurance  of  commons)  being  present,  interrogated  him  con- 
J^'^^cerning  bis  assurance  of  salvation,  and  whereon  the 
**"•  same  was  grounded111.  Some  censured  this  inter- 
ruption for  uncivil  and  unseasonable,  as  intended  to 
ruffle  his  soul  with  passion,  just  as  he  was  fairly 
folding  it  up  to  deliver  it  into  the  hands  of  his 
Redeemer.  But  the  archbishop  calmly  returned, 
that  his  assurance  was  evidenced  unto  him  by  that 
inward  comfort  which  he  found  in  his  own  soul. 
Then  lying  down  on  the  block,  and  praying,  Lord, 
receive  my  soul,  the  executioner  dexterously  did  his 
office,  and  at  one  blow  severed  his  head  from  his 
body.     Instantly  his  face  (ruddy  in  the  last  moment) 

1  [It  is  printed  in  Heylin's  part   towards   the   archbishop 

Life  of  Laud,  p.  53 1 .]  that  Cheynell  did  towards  Chil- 

m    [This    indecent    fanatic  ling  worth.    See  Heylin,  ibid, 

seems  to  have  acted  the  same  p.  536.] 

cent,  xvii,  of  Britain.  995 

turned   white  as  ashes,  confuting  their   falsehoods A?^4/' 

who  gave  it  out  that  he  had  purposely  painted  it, 

to  fortify  his  cheeks  against  discovery  of  fear  in  the 
paleness  of  his  complexion.  His  corpse  was  pri- 
vately interred  in  the  church  of  Allhallows  Barking, 
without  any  solemnity,  save  that  some  will  say,  he 
had  (in  those  days)  a  fair  funeral  who  had  the 
Common  Prayer  read  thereat". 

71.  He  was  born  anno  1573,  of  honest  parents,  His  With  in 
at  Reading  in  Berkshire,  a  place,  for  the  position  brwding'in 
thereof,  almost  equally  distanced  from  Oxford,  the°xford* 
scene  of  his  breeding,  and  London,  the  principal 
stage  of  his  preferment.  His  mother  was  sister  to 
sir  William  Webb,  (born  also  at  Reading,)  Salter, 
and  anno  1591  lord  mayor  of  London0.  Here  the 
archbishop  afterwards  built  an  almshouse,  and  en- 
dowed it  with  two  hundred  pounds  per  annum,  as 
appeareth  by  his  own  diary,  which,  if  evidence 
against  him  for  his  faults,  may  be  used  as  a  witness 
of  his  good  works.  Hence  was  he  sent  to  St.  John's 
College  in  Oxford,  where  he  attained  to  such  emi- 
nency  of  learning,  that  oneP  since  hath  ranked  him 
amongst  the  greatest  scholars  of  our  nation.  He 
afterwards  married  Charles  Blount,  earl  of  Devon- 
shire, to  the  lady  Rich,  which  proved  (if  intended 
an  advantage  under  his  feet,  to  make  him  higher 
in  the  notice  of  the  world)  a  covering  to  his  face, 
and  was  often  cast  a  rub  in  his  way,  when  running 

n  [He  was  executed  Jan.  io,  St.  John's  College  in  Oxford.] 
1645,  on  Tower-hill;   at  first         °  [See     Heylin's     Life    of 

he  was  sentenced  to  be  hanged,  Laud,  p.  46.] 
drawn,  and  quartered ;  after-         P  [See  "  The  Appeal,  &c." 

wards  to  be  simply  beheaded,  part  iii.   p.  60.]      Dr.   Heylin 

The  body  was  finally  removed  in  his  last  edition  of  the  Ali- 

and  interred  in  the  chapel  of  crocosm. 

u  4 

896  T/ie  Church  Hutory  soot  xi. 

A.  d.  1645.  in  bis  full  speed  to  preferment,  till  after  some  diffi- 

'  culty  his  greatness  at  the  last  made  a  shift  to  stride 

over  it. 
He  oharg-       72.  In  some  sort  he  may  be  said  to  have  served 
tSTa    in  aU  offices  in  the  church,  from  a  common  soldier 
ferment**" to  a  ^n^  °f  general  therein.     There  was  neither 
order,  office,  degree,  nor  dignity  in  college,  church, 
or  university,  but  he  passed  thorough  it.     1.  Order, 
deacon,  priest,  bishop,  archbishop.     2.  Office,  scho- 
lar, fellow,  president  of  St.  John's  College,  proctor, 
and  chancellor  of  Oxford.     S.  Degree,  bachelor  and 
master   of  arts,   bachelor  and   doctor  of  divinity. 
4,  Dignity,  vicar  of  Stanford,  parson  of  Ibstock,  pre- 
bendary of  Westminster,  archdeacon  of  Huntingdon, 
dean  of  Gloucester,  bishop  of  St.  David's  in  Wales, 
Bath  and  Wells,  and  London,  in  England,  and  finally 
archbishop  of  Canterbury.    It  was  said  of  Dr.  George 
Abbot,  his  predecessor,  that  he  suddenly  started  to 
be  a  bishop  without  ever  having  pastoral  charge, 
whereas  this  man  was  a  great  traveller  in  all  cli- 
mates of  church  preferment,  sufficient  to  acquaint 
him  with  an  experimental  knowledge  of  the  con- 
ditions of  all  such  persons  who  at  last  were  subjected 
to  his  authority. 
Charged         73.  He  is  generally  charged  with  popish  indi- 
te a  papist,  nations,  and  the  story  is  commonly  told  and  believed, 
of  a  lady  (still  alive)  p  who,  turning  papist,  and  being 
demanded  of  the  archbishop  the  cause  of  her  chang- 
ing her  religion,  tartly  returned,  "  My  lord,  it  was 
"  because  I  ever  hated  a  crowd  ;n  and  being  desired 
to  explain  her  meaning  herein,  "  I  perceived,"  said 
she,  "  that  your  lordship  and  many  others  are  making 
•'  for  Rome  as  fast  as  ye  can,  and  therefore,  to  pre- 

P  [The  Dowager  duchess  of  Buckingham  ?] 


of  Britain. 


"  vent  a  press,  I  went  before  you."     Be  the  tale  true  a.d.  i64c. 

or  false,  take  papist  for  a  Trent-papist,  embracing  all — 

the  divisions  of  that  council,  and  surely  this  arch- 
bishop would  have  been  made  fuel  for  the  fire  be- 
fore ever  of  that  persuasion.  Witness  his  book 
against  Fisher,  wherein  he  giveth  no  less  account  of 
his  sincerity  than  ability  to  defend  the  most  domi- 
native  points  wherein  we  and  the  papists  dissent q. 

q  [The  following  anecdote 

related  by  Dr.  Heylin  in  The 

Appeal*   &c.    part  iii.   p.  6a, 

serves  as  an  additional  proof, 

if  proof  indeed  were  needed, 

of  the  groundlessness  of  this 

charge     which    some    of    his 

opponents    have   endeavoured 

to   fix    upon  him.     *'  It    was 

"  in  November,  anno   1639," 

•ays  Heylin,  "  that  I  received 

"  a  message  from  the  lord  arch- 

"  bishop   to   attend    him   the 

"  next  day  at  two  of  the  clock 
in  the  afternoon.  The  key 
being  turned  which  opened 
the  way   into   his   study,    I 

"  fonnd  him  sitting  in  a  chair 

**  holding    a    paper    in    both 

"  hands,  and  his  eyes  so  fixed 

"  upon  that  paper,  that  he  ob- 

"  served  me  not  at  my  coming 

"  in.    Finding  him  in  that  pos- 

"  ture,    I   thought  it    (it  and 

"  manners  to  retire  again ;  but 

"  the  noise  I  made  by  my  re- 

"  treat  bringing  him  back  unto 

"  himself,  he  recalled  me  again, 

"  and  told  me,  after  some  short 
pause,  that  he  well  remem- 
bered having  sent  for  me,  but 

"  could  not  tell   for   his   life 

'*  what  it  was  about.      After 

"  which  he  was  pleased  to  say, 

"  not  without  tears  standing  in 

"  his  eyes,  that  he  had  newly 

"  received  a  letter  acquainting 








"  him  with  a  revolt  of  a  person 

"  of   some   quality   in   North 

"  Wales  to  the  church  of  Rome; 

"  that  he  knew  that  the  increase 

"  of  popery  by  such  frequent 

"  revolts  would    be    imputed 

"  unto  him  and  his  brethren 

"  the   bishops,   who    were   all 

"  least  guilty   of  the    same  ; 

"  that  for  his  part  he  had  done 

"  his  utmost,  so  far  forth  as  it 

might  consist  with  the  rules 

of  prudence  and  the  preser- 

"  vation  of  the  church,  to  sup- 

"  press  that  party,  and  to  bring 

"  the  chief  sticklers  in  it  to 

"  condign  punishment.  To  the 

"  truth  whereof,  lifting  up  his 

"  wet  eyes  to  heaven,  he  took 

"  God  to   witness ;   conjuring 

"  me,  as  I  would  answer  it  to 

"  God  at  the  day  of  judgment, 

••  that  if  ever  I  came  to  any  of 

"  those  places  which   he   and 

"  his  brethren,    by   reason  of 

"  their  great  age,  were  not  like 

"  to  hold  long,  I  would  employ 

*'  all  such  abilities  as  God  had 

"  given  me  in  suppressing  that 

"  party,  who  by  their  open  un- 

"  dertakings  and  secret  prac- 

"  tices  were  like  to  be  the  ruin 

"  of  this    flourishing    church. 

"  After  some  words   of  mine 

"  upon  that  occasion,  I  found 

"  some  argument  to  divert  him 

"  from  those  sad  remembrances, 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1645.     74.  However  most  apparent  it  is  by  several  pas- 
sages  in  his  life,  that  he  endeavoured  to  take  up 

vounnga"  many  controversies  betwixt  us  and  the  church  of 


JSJnl^xt  Rome,  so  to  compromise  the  difference  and  to  bring  us 
eJJJE^  t°  a  vicinity,  if  not  contiguity  therewith,  an  impos- 
sible design  (if  granted  lawfully),  as  some  every  way 
his  equals  did  adjudge.  For  composition  is  impos- 
sible with  such  who  will  not  agree  except  all  they 
sue  for,  and  all  the  charges  of  their  suit,  be  to  the 
utmost  farthing  awarded  unto  them.  Our  reconci- 
liation with  Rome  is  clogged  with  the  same  impossi- 
bilities ;  she  may  be  gone  to,  but  will  never  be  met 
with,  such  her  pride  or  as  peevishness,  not  to  stir 
a  step  to  obviate  any  of  a  different  religion.  Rome 
will  never  so  far  unpope  itself  as  to  part  with  her 
pretended  supremacy  and  infallibility,  which  cuts  off 
all  possibility  of  protestants'  treaty  with  her,  if  pos- 
sibly without  prejudice  to  God's  glory  and  the  truth, 
other  controversies  might  be  composed ;  which  done, 
England  would  have  been  an  island,  as  well  in  reli- 
gion as  situation,  cut  off  from  the  continent  of  foreign 
protestant  churches,  in  a  singular  posture  by  itself, 
hard  to  be  imagined,  but  harder  to  be  effected. 
75.  Amongst  his  human  frailties,  choler  and  pas- 


"  and  having  brought  him  to 
"  some  reasonable  composed- 
"  ness,  I  took  leave  for  the 
"  present ;  and  some  two  or 
€*  three  days  after  waiting  on 
"  him  again,  he  then  told  me 
"  the  reason  of  his  sending  for 
"  me  the  time  before.  And 
**  this  I  deliver  for  a  truth  on 
"  the  faith  of  a  Christian, 
"  which  I  hope  will  overbalance 
"  any  evidence  which  hath 
41  been  brought  to  prove  such 

"  '  popish  inclinations '  as  he 
"  stands  generally  charged  with 
"  in  our  author  s  history." — 
To  this  Fuller  answers,  "  I 
"  verily  believe  all  and  every 
**  one  of  these  passages  to  be 
'•  true,  and  therefore  may  pro- 
ceed." His  recovery  of  Hales 
and  Chilli  ngworth  is  familiar 
to  all  readers  of  ecclesiastical 
history,  and  needs  not  to  be 
here  detailed.] 


of  Britain. 


sion  most  discovered  itself.     In  the  Star  Chamber  a.  d.  1645. 

21  Chat.  1. 

(where,  if  the  crime  not  extraordinary,  it  was  fine 
enough  for  one  to  be  sued  in  so  chargeable  a  court) 
he  was  observed  always  to  concur  with  the  severest 
side r,  and  to  infuse  more  vinegar  than  oil  into  all 
his  censures,  and  also  was   much  blamed  for  his 

r  [This  is  certainly  not  true ; 
the  proceedings  in  the  Star- 
chamber,  whenever  they  as- 
sumed a  character  of  severity, 
were  attributed  to  the  arch- 
bishop, although  he  was  but 
one  ecclesiastic  among  several 
laymen,  and  by  no  means  the 
most  forward  in  passing  a  harsh 
and  hasty  sentence  upon  those 
who  were  brought  before  him. 
There  is  a  pamphlet  entitled 
"An  exact  copy  of  a  Letter 
41  sent  to  William  Laud,  late 
"  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
"  now  Prisoner  in  the  Tower, 
"  Nov.  5,  164 1  ;  at  which  his 
"  lordship  taking  exceptions, 
41  the  author  visited  him  in  his 
"  own  person,  and  having  ad- 
"  mittance  to  him  had  some 
"  private  discourse  with  him 
"  concerning  the  cruelty  in 
"  which  he  formerly  reigned 
M  in  his  power  ;  the  substance 
"  whereof  is  truly  composed 
"  by  the  author  himself,  &c." 
410.1641.  In  this  pamphlet, 
the  writer,  who  was  no  friend 
to  the  archbishop,  thus  ad- 
dresses him :  '•  My  lord,"  quoth 
he,  '*  I  have  been  both  an  eye 
"  and   an  ear- witness    at   the 

high  commission  court,  when 
"  men  truly  fearing  God"  have 
"  been  called  to  the  bar,  and 
"  your     lordship    hath    com. 

"  manded  to  give  them  the 
"  bath,  which  when  they  have 
"  refused  you  have  committed 
•«  them  to"  prison."  ••  No," 
quoth  my  lord ;  "  it  is  well 
"  known  I  have  shewn  great 
•'  favour  and  clemency  to  those 
"  obstinate  men,  in  that  I  have 
"  sometime  forborne  them  a 
"  twelvemonth  together,  and 
"  have  in  the  meantime  refer- 
"  red  them  to  godly  and  learn- 
"  ed  doctors  and  ministers  for 
"  satisfaction  in  that  point  ; 
"  and  when  they  out  of  wil- 
"  fulness  and  obstinacy  would 
*'  not  be  satisfied,  I  could 
"  do  no  less  by  the  order 
"  of  the  court  than  commit 
"  them  to  prison."  The  jus- 
tice and  correctness  of  this 
statement,  the  writer  of  the 
pamphlet,  and  the  archbishop's 
accuser,  does  not  deny.  And 
again,  the  author  of  the  pam- 
phlet called  "  The  True  Cha- 
racter of  an  Untrue  Bi- 
shop," says,  "He  observ- 
eth  the  scripture  in  the  spirit 
of  it,  useth  his  greatest  ad- 
versaries with  most  meek, 
ness  ;  I  mean  of  the  separa- 
"  tion  of  the  nonconformists  ; 
'•  concluding  that  diversity  of 
••  opinion  will  beget  their  ruin 
"  and  establish  him  in  his  sta- 
"  tion."  p.  5.] 







*  That  is,  the  Puritans,  the  name  they  arrogated  to  themselves. 

300  The  Church  History  book  xl 

a.d.  1645.  severity  to  his  predecessor,  easing  him,  against  his 

1  will  and  before  his  time,  of  his  jurisdiction  •. 

Orermed-      76.  But  he  is  most  accused  for  over  meddlinir 


ttMte  mat.  in  state  matters ;  more  than  was  fitting,  say  many ; 

than  needful,  say  most,  for  one  of  his  profession. 
But  he  never  more  overshot  himself  than  when  he 
did  impose  the  Scotch  Liturgy,  and  was  aWorpto- 
apxicTTio-KOTros  over  a  free  and  foreign  church  and 
nation.  At  home  many  grumbled  at  him  for  oft 
making  the  shallowest  pretence  of  the  crown  deep 
enough  (by  his  powerfiil  digging  therein)  to  drown 
the  undoubted  right  of  any  private  patron  to  a 
church  living.  But  courtiers  most  complained  that 
be  persecuted  them,  not  in  their  proper  places,  but 
what  in  an  ordinary  way  he  should  have  taken  from 
the  hands  of  inferior  officers,  that  he  with  a  long 
and  strong  arm  reached  to  himself  over  all  their 
heads.  Yet  others  plead  for  him  that  he  abridged 
their  bribes,  not  fees,  and  it  vexed  them  that  he 
struck  their  fingers  with  the  dead  palsy,  so  that  they 
could  not,  as  formerly,  have  a  feeling  for  church 
Sp*****-  77.  He  was  conscientious  according  to  the  prin- 
keepinga  ciples  of  his  devotion  ;  witness  his  care  in  keeping  a 
a<7,  constant  diary  of  the  passages  in  his  life.  Now  he 
can  hardly  be  an  ill  husband  who  casteth  up  his 
receipts  and  expenses  every  night ;  and  such  a  soul 
is,  or  would  be  good,  which  enters  into  a  daily  scru- 
tiny of  its  own  actions.  But  such  who  commend 
him  in  making,  condemn  him  in  keeping  such  a 
diary  about  him  in  so  dangerous  days:  especially 
he  ought  to  untongue  it  from  talking  to  his  preju- 

8  [Both  these  statements  may  be  disproved  by  the  clearest 


ckht.  xvii.  of  Britain.  801 

dice,  and  should  have  garbled  some  light,  trivial,  a.  d.  1645. 

and  joculary  passages  out  of  the  same;   whereas, ' 

sure  the  omission  hereof  argued  not  his  carelessness 
but  confidence,  that  such  his  privacies  should  meet 
with  that  favour  of  course  which  in  equity  is  due  to 
writings  of  that  nature. 

78.  He  was  temperate  in  his  diet,  and  (which  may  Temperate 
be  presumed  the  effect  thereof)  chaste  in  his  conver- 
sation;   indeed,  in  his  diary,  he  confessed  himself 
lapsed  into  some  special  sin  with  £.  B.  for  which 

he  kept  an  anniversary  humiliation.  Indeed,  his 
adversary*  makes  this  note  thereon,  "  perchance  he 
u  was  unclean  with  E.  B.,"  which  is  but  an  uncharit- 
able suspicion12.  Now  an  exact  diary  is  a  window 
in  his  heart  who  maketh  it,  and  therefore  pity  it 
is  any  should  look  therein,  but  either  the  friends 
of  the  party,  or  such  ingenuous  foes  as  will  not  (espe- 
cially in  things  doubtful)  make  conjectural  com- 
ments to  his  disgrace.  But  be  £.  B.  male  or  female, 
and  the  sin  committed,  of  what  kind  soever,  his  fault 
whispers  not  so  much  to  his  shame  as  his  solemn  re- 
pentance sounds  to  his  commendation. 

79.  He  was  very  plain  in  apparel,  and  sharply  An  enemy 

to  giilutfitry 

checked  such  clergymen  whom  he  saw  go  in  rich  or  in  clergy. 
gaudy  clothes,  commonly  calling  them  of  the  church  clothe*. 
triumphant.     Thus,  as  cardinal  Wolsey  is  reported 
the  first  prelate  who  made  silks  and  satins  fashionable 
amongst  clergymen,  so  this  archbishop  first  retrench- 
ed the  usual  wearing  thereof.     Once  at  a  visitation 

*  Mr.  Prynne  in  the  breviate  the  diary.     See  Laud's  Diary, 

of  the  archbishop's  life,  p.  30.  p.  12,  May  28,  and  elsewhere. 

u  [Not  only  a  most  uncha-  Our  author  had   shewn   him- 

ritabie  but  execrable  falsehood,  self  much  wiser  had  he  omitted 

as  Prynne  might  have  known  the  record  of  such   diabolical 

by  reference  to  other  parts  of  malevolence.] 


Tlie  Church  History 


A.  u.  1645.  in  Essex,  one  in  orders  (of  good  estate  and  extrac- 

-tion)   appeared   before  him  very  gallant  in   habit, 

whom  Dr.  Laud  (then  bishop  of  London)  publicly 
reproved,  shewing  to  him  the  plainness  of  his  own 
apparel :  "  My  lord,"  said  the  minister,  "  you  have 
"  better  clothes  at  home,  and  I  have  worse ; "  whereat 
the  bishop  rested  very  well  contented  x. 
Not  partial  80.  He  was  not  partial  in  preferring  his  kindred, 
dud"  m  except  some  merit  met  in  them  with  his  alliance. 
I  knew  a  near  kinsman  of  his  in  the  university, 
scholar  enough,  but  somewhat  wild  and  lazy,  on 
whom  it  was  late  before  he  reflected  with  favour, 
and  that  not  before  his  amendment.  And  generally 
persons  promoted  by  him  were  men  of  learning  and 
abilities,  though  many  of  them  Arminians  in  their 
judgments,  and  I  believe  they  will  not  be  offended 
with  my  reporting  it>  seeing  most  of  them  will 
endeavour  to  justify  and  avouch  their  opinions 
?rta?itad"  ***'  Covetousness  he  perfectly  hated;  being  a 
vetousneu.  single  man,  and  having  no  project  to  raise  a  name 
or  family,  he  was  the  better  enabled  for  public  per- 
formances, having  both  a  price  in  his  hand,  and  an 
heart  also  to  dispose  thereof  for  the  general  good. 
St.  John's  in  Oxford,  wherein  he  was  bred,  was  so 
beautified,   enlarged,   and   enriched    by  him,    that 

x  [Laud's  plainness  of  appa- 
rel exposed  him  to  the  railing 
of  the  Puritans:  thus  one  of 
that  class  says  of  him :  "  He 
"  is  half  a  precisian  in  the  out- 
"  ward  man:  he  loveth  little 
"  bands, short  hair, grave  looks; 
but  had  rather  be  slain  at 
Tyburn  than  preach  in  a 
"  cloak,  (the  badge  of  the  Puri- 



"  tans,  see  §.  3,  above,)  though 
"  Paul  sent  for  his  on  some 
"  such  occasion  from  Troas." 
"  True  Character  of  an  Untrue 
"  Bishop."  Lond.  1641,  p.  6. 
Though  often  on  other  occa- 
sions they  brought  the  very 
opposite  charge  against  the  bi- 
shops :  but  wisdom  is  justified 
of  her  children.^ 

cent.  xvn.  of  Britain.  808 

strangers   at   the   first   sight  knew  it   not,  yea,  itA*5j^45* 

scarce  knoweth  itself,  so  altered  to  the  better  from 

its  former  condition;  insomuch  that  almost  it  de- 
serveth  the  name  of  Canterbury  College,  as  well 
as  that  which  Simon  Islip  founded,  and  since  hath 
lost  its  name,  united  to  Christ  Church.  More  build 
ings  he  intended,  (had  not  the  stroke  of  one  axe 
hindered  the  working  of  many  hammers,)  chiefly 
on  churches,  whereof  the  following  passage  may  not 
impertinently  be  inserted. 

82.  It  happened  that  a  visitation  was  kept  at  The  gnn& 

causer  of 

St.  Peter's  in  Cornhill,  for  the  clergy  of  London,  the  repair- 
The  preacher  discoursing  of  the  painfulness  of  the  lurches, 
ministerial  function,  proved  it  from  the  Greek  de- 
duction of  Siclkovos,  or  deacon,  so  called  from  kovis, 
dust,  because  he  must  laborare  in  arena  in  pulvere, 
"  work  in  the  dust,"  do  hard  service  in  hot  wea- 
ther. Sermon  ended,  bishop  Laud  proceeded  to 
his  charge  to  the  clergy,  and  observing  the  church 
ill  repaired  without,  and  slovenly  kept  within,  "I 
"  am  sorry,"  said  he,  "  to  meet  here  with  so  true  an 
etymology  of  diaconm,  for  here  is  both  dust  and 
dirt  too  for  a  deacon  (or  priest  either)  to  work  in ; 
yea,  it  is  dust  of  the  worst  kind,  caused  from  the 
"  ruins  of  this  ancient  house  of  God,  so  that  it 
"  pitieth  His  servants  to  see  her  in  the  dusty." 
Hence  he  took  occasion  to  press  the  repairing  of 
that  and  other  decayed  places  of  divine  worship, 
so  that  from  this  day  we  may  date  the  general 
mending,  beautifying,  and  adorning  of  all  English 
churches ;  some  to  decency,  some  to  magnificence, 
and  some  (if  all  complaints  were  true)  to  super- 

y  Psalm  cii.  1 4. 

304  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1645.     83.  But  the  church  of  St.  Paul's  (the  only  cathe- 

91  Chat.  I. 

— — — Idral  in  Christendom  dedicated  to  that  apostle)  was 
of  attars,  the  masterpiece  of  his  performances.  We  know 
what  one*  satirically  said  of  him,  "  that  he  plucked 
"  down  Puritans  and  property  to  build  up  Paul's 
"  and  prerogative."  But  let  unpartial  judges  be- 
hold how  he  left  and  remember  how  he  found  that 
ruinous  fabric,  and  they  must  conclude  that  (though 
intending  more)  he  effected  much  in  that  great 
design.  He  communicated  his  project  to  some  pri- 
vate persons,  of  taking  down  the  great  tower  in  the 
middle  to  the  spurs,  and  rebuild  it  in  the  same 
fashion  (but  some  yards  higher)  as  before.  He 
meant  to  hang  as  great  and  tuneable  a  ring  of  bells 
as  any  in  the  world,  whose  sound,  advantaged  with 
their  height  and  vicinity  of  the  Thames,  must  needs 
be  loud  and  melodious.  But  now  he  is  turned  to 
his  dust*  and  all  his  thoughts  have  perished ;  yea, 
that  church,  formerly  approached  with  due  reve- 
rence, is  now  entered  with  just  fear  of  falling  on 
those  under  it,  and  is  so  far  from  having  its  old 
decays  repaired,  that  it  is  daily  decayed  in  its  new 
Hii  penon-     g4.  He  was  low  of  stature,  little  in  bulk,  cheerful 

al  charac- 
ter, in  countenance,  (wherein  gravity  and  quickness  were 

well  compounded,)  of  a  sharp  and  piercing  eye,  clear 

judgment,  and  (abating  the  influence  of  age)  firm 

memory.     He  wore  his  hair  very  close,  and  though 

in  the  beginning  of  his  greatness  many  measured 

the  length  of  men's  strictness  by  the  shortness  of 

their  hair,  yet  some  will  say,  that   since,   out  of 

antipathy  to  conform  to  his  example,  his  opposites 

have  therein  indulged  more  liberty  to  themselves. 

*  Lord  F.  [Ficnnes?] 


of  Britain. 


And  thus  we  take  our  leave  of  him,  whose  estate A  P:,6\5' 

2 1  Chas.  I. 

(neither  so  great  as  to  be  envied  at,  nor  so  small 

as  to  be  complained  of,)  he  left  to  his  heir  and 
aster's  son,  Mr.  John  Robinson,  merchant,  of  Lon- 
don, though  fain  first  to  compound  with  the  par- 
liament before  he  could  peaceably  enjoy  the  same*. 
85.  The   same   year   with    this   archbishop   died  The  birth 

*  *  and  breed- 

auother  divine,  (though  of  a  different  judgment,)  no  \ng  of  Mr. 
less  esteemed  amongst  men  of  his  own  persuasion, 
viz.  Mr.  John  Dod,  who  (in  the  midst  of  troublous 
times)  quietly  withdrew  himself  to  heaven.     He  was 
born   at   Shotledge   in   Cheshire,    the   youngest  of 

*  [See  the  last  will  and 
testament  of  the  archbishop,  in 
Wharton's  History  &c.  p.  457. 
To  this  person  Heylin  dedi- 
cated his  Life  of  Archbishop 
Land;  but  there  he  is  styled 
ah*  John  Robinson,  knt.  and 
bait.,  lieutenant  of  the  Tower 
of  London.  Laud's  relation- 
ship, which  was  only  by  half 
blood,  with  the  Robinsons,  will 
be  more  clearly  seen  in  Heylin's 
Life  of  Laud,  p.  46. 

The  archbishop's  personal 
appearance  is  thus  described  by 
Dr.  Heylin,  who  knew  him  well. 
"  Of  stature  he  was  low,  but 
"  of  strong  composition :  so 
"  short  a  trunk  never  contained 
"  so  much  excellent  treasure  ; 
"  which  therefore  was  to  be 
K  the  stronger  by  reason  of  the 
"  wealth  which  was  hid  within 
"  it.  His  countenance,  cheer- 
"  nil  and  well  bloodied,  more 
"  fleshy,  as  I  have  often  heard 
"  him  say,  than  any  other  part 
"  of  his  body  ;  which  cheer- 
"  fulness  and  vivacity  he  car- 
"  ried  with  him  to  the  very 


"  block,  notwithstanding  the 
"  afflictions  of  four  years'  im- 
"  prisonment  and  the  infelicity 
"  of  the  times.  For  at  his  first 
"  commitment  he  besought  God 
"  (as  is  observed  in  the  Bre- 
"  viate)  to  give  him  full  pa- 
"  tience,  proportionable  com- 
"  fort,  and  contentment  with 
•'  whatsoever  he  should  send  ; 
"  and  he  was  heard  in  what  he 
€€  prayed  for:  for  notwithstand- 
"  ing  that  he  had  fed  long  on 
••  the  bread  of  carefulness,  and 
"  drank  the  water  of  afflic- 
"  tion,  yet,  as  the  scripture 
"  telleth  us  of  the  four  Hebrew 
"  children,  his  countenance  ap- 
"  peared  fairer  and  fatter  in 
"  flesh  than  any  of  those  who 
"  eat  their  portion  of  the  king's 
"  meat  and  drank  of  his  wine. 
"  A  gallant  spirit  being  for  the 
"  most  part  like  the  sun,  which 
"  shews  the  greater  at  his  set- 
"  ting."  p.  542.  The  arch- 
bishop's face,  it  was  remarked 
at  his  execution,  was  so  ruddy 
as  to  give  rise  to  a  suspicion  of 
his  having  painted  it.] 

806  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a. p.  1645. seventeen  children;  bred  in  Jesus  College  in  Cam- 
— '  **  bridge.  At  a  disputation  at  one  commencement 
he  was  so  facetiously  solid,  (wild,  yet  sweet  fruits, 
which  the  stock  brought  forth  before  grafted  with 
grace,)  that  Oxford  men,  there  present,  courted 
him  home  with  them,  and  would  have  planted  him 
in  their  university,  save  that  he  declined  it. 
One  peace.  86.  He  was  a  passive  Nonconformist,  not  loving 
Und.  °ur  any  one  the  worse  for  difference  in  judgment  about 
ceremonies,  but  all  the  better  for  their  unity  of 
affections  in  grace  and  goodness.  He  used  to  re- 
trench some  hot  spirits  when  inveighing  against 
bishops,  telling  them  how  God  under  that  govern- 
ment had  given  a  marvellous  increase  to  the  gospel, 
and  that  godly  men  might  comfortably  comport 
therewith,  under  which  learning  and  religion  had 
so  manifest  an  improvement :  he  was  a  good  deca- 
logist,  and  is  conceived  to  his  dying  day  (how  roughly 
soever  used  by  the  opposite  party)  to  stick  to  his 
own  judgment  of  what  he  had  written  on  the  fifth 
commandment,  of  obedience  to  lawful  authority, 
improveth  87-  Some  riotous  gentlemen  casually  coming  to 
10  pi  y  the  table  of  sir  Antony  Cope  in  Han  well,  were  half 
starved  in  the  midst  of  a  feast,  because  refraining 
from  swearing  (meat  and  drink  to  them)  in  the 
presence  of  Mr.  Dod ;  of  these  one  after  dinner  in- 
geniously professed,  that  he  thought  it  had  been 
impossible  for  himself  to  forbear  oaths  so  long  a 
time ;  hereat  Mr.  Dod  (the  flame  of  whose  zeal 
turned  all  accidents  into  fuel)  fell  into  a  pertinent 
and  seasonable  discourse,  (as  more  better  at  occa- 
sional,) of  what  power  men  have  more  than  they 
know  of  themselves  to  refrain  from  sin,  and  how 
active  God's   restraining  grace  would    be  in   us  to 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  307 

bridle  us  from  wickedness,  were  we  not  wanting  inA-*>-,645- 

88.  Being  stricken  in  years,  he  used  to  compare  Ym*k  will 
himself  to  Samson  when  his  hair  was  cut  off*     •*  I 

"  rise,'*  saith  he,  "  in  a  morning,  as  Samson  did, 
"and  think,  /  will  go  out  as  at  other  timesb9  go, 
"  watch,  walk,  work,  study,  ride,  as  when  a  young 
tt  man ;  but  alas !  he  quickly  found  an  alteration, 
"  and  so  do  I,  who  must  stoop  to  age,  which  hath 

*  dipt  my  hair  and  taken  my  strength  away." 

89.  Being  at  Holdenby,  and  invited   by  an  ho-  God  seen  at 
nourable  person  to  see  that  stately  house  built  by  hand  in  na- 
sir  Christopher  Hatton,  (the  masterpiece  of  English  thrJecond 
architecture  in  that  age,)  he  desired  to  be  excused, ln  Brt' 
and  to  sit  still  looking  on  a  flower  which  he  had 

m  his  hand.     "  In  this  flower,"  saith  he,  "  I  can  see 

*  more  of  God  than  in  all  the  beautiful  buildings  in 
"  the  world."  And  at  this  day,  as  his  flower  is  long 
since  withered,  that  magnificent  pile,  that  fair  flower 
of  art,  is  altogether  blasted  and  destroyed. 

90.  It  is  reported  he  was  but  coarsely  used  ofAninno- 
the  cavaliers,  who  they  say  plundered  him  of  hisceiver. 
linen c  and  household  stuff,  though  as  some  tell  me, 

if  so  disposed,  he  might  have  redeemed  all  for  a 
very  small  matter.  However,  the  good  man  still 
remembered  his  old  maxim,  "  sanctified  afflictions 
"are  good  promotions;"  and  I  have  been  credibly 
informed,  that  when  the  soldiers  brought  down  his 
sheets  out  of  the  chamber  into  the  room  where 
Mr.  Dod  sat  by  the  fire-side,  he  (in  their  absence  to 
search  after  more)  took  one  pair  and  clapt  them  under 
his  cushion  whereon  he  sat,  much  pleasing  himself, 
after  their  departure,  that  he  had,  as  he  said,  "  plun- 

b  Judges  xvi.  ao.  c  In  a  list  written  by  Mr.  Clark. 

x  2 


The  Church  History  of  Britain.        book  xi. 


a.d.  1645."  dered  the  plunderers,  and  by  a  lawful  felony  saved 
1  «•  so  much  of  his  own  to  himself.** 

91.  He  was  an  excellent  scholar,  and  was  as 
causelessly  accused,  as  another  John  of  his  name, 
(Mr.  John  Fox  I  mean,)  for  lacking  of  Latin.  He 
was  also  an  exquisite  Hebrician,  and  with  his  society 
and  directions  in  one  vacation  taught  that  tongue 
unto  Mr.  John  Gregory,  that  rare  linguist,  and  chap- 
lain of  Christ  Church,  who  survived  him  but  one 
yeard,  and  now  they  both  together  praise  God  in 
that  language  which  glorified  saints  and  angels  use 
in  heaven6. 

92.  He  was  buried  at  Fauseley,  in  Northampton- 
shire, with  whom  the  old  Puritan  may  seem  to 
expire,  and  in  his  grave  to  be  interred.  Humble* 
meek,  patient,  hospitable,  charitable  as  in  his  censures 
of,  so  in  his  alms  to  others.  Would  I  could  truly 
say  but  half  so  much  of  the  next  generation ! 


d  Dying  at  Kidlington,  Mar. 
13,  1646,  and  was  buried  in 
Christ  Church,  Oxford.  [See 
Wood' 8  Athen.  ii.  p.  100.] 

c  [See  a  Life  of  him  in 
Clark's  "  Lives  of  Thirty-two 
"  Eminent  Divines,"   p.  168, 

and  in  "  Lloyd's  Memoirs/'  p. 
129.  The  puritan  leaven  of 
the  former  caused  him  to  sup- 
press, on  this  as  on  other  occa- 
sions, passages  which  he  thought 
unfavourable  to  the  Noncon- 



ROGER     PRICE,     Esq. 


Seamen  observe  that  the  water  is  the  more  troubled  the  nearer 
they  draw  on  to  the  land,  became  broken  by  repercussion  from 
the  shore.  I  am  sensible  of  the  same  danger  the  nearer  I 
approach  our  times  and  the  end  of  this  history. 

Yet  fear  not,  Sir,  that  the  least  wrong  may  redound  to  you 
by  my  indiscretion  in  the  writing  hereof,  desiring  you  only  to 
patronise  what  is  acceptable  therein,  and  what  shall  appear 
e  is  left  on  my  account  to  answer  for  the  same. 

SOU  may  know,  that  amongst  the  mostA.D.  164s- 
remarkables  effected  by  the  Assembly  ■' 
of  divines,  the  compiling  of  the  Di-toryd™^" 
rectory  was  one,  which  although  com-^2iU_ 
poped  in  the  former  year,  yet  because 
not  as  yet  meeting  with  universal  obedience,  it  will 
be  seasonable  enough  now  to  enter  on  the  consider- 
ation thereof.     The  parliament,  intending  to  abolish 
the  liturgy,  and  loath  to  leave  the  land  altogether  at  ' 
a  loss,  or  deformity  in  public  service,  employed  the 

•    (Arms.       Three    Comish      ingrnim  shire,  of  the  Littletons 

choughs     sable,      beaked     and     in    1650. — Lyson's  Bucks,    p. 

legged,  gules.     He  purchased     660,  and  was  succeeded  in  it 

the  manor  of  Weatbury,  Buck-     by  his  son  of  the  same  name.] 




The  Church  History 


a.d,  1645.  Assembly  in  drawing  up  a  model  of  divine  worship5. 
..  Herein  no  direct  form  of  prayer  verbis  concepHs  was 

prescribed,  no  outward  or  bodily  worship  enjoined, 
nor  people  required  in  the  responsals  (more  than  in 
Amen)  to  bear  a  part  in  the  service,  but  all  was  left 
to  the  discretion  of  the  minister,  not  enjoined  what, 
but  directed  to  what  purpose  he  ought  to  order  his 
devotions,  in  public  prayer  and  administering  sacra- 
To  which  g.  The  dissenting  brethren  (commonly  called  in- 
ingbre.  dependents)  were  hardly  persuaded  to  consent  to 
Ust  anent.  a  Directory.  Even  libera  custodia,  though  it  be  the 
best  of  restraints,  is  but  a  restraint ;  and  they  sus- 
pected such  a  Directory  would,  if  enforced,  be  an 
infringing  of  the  Christian  liberty;  however,  they 
consented  at  last,  the  rather  because  a  preface  was 
prefixed  before  it,  which  did  much  moderate  the 
matter,  and  mitigate  the  rigorous  imposition  thereof. 

wid^charit-  ^'  ^n  ^8  preface  respectful  terms  are,  no  less 
able  pre-  discreetly  than  charitably,  afforded  to  the  first  com- 
pilers of  the  Liturgy,  allowing  them  wise  and  pious 
in  redressing  many  things  which  were  vain,  erro- 
neous, superstitious,  and  idolatrous ;  affirming  also, 
that  many  godly  and  learned  men  of  that  age  re- 

b  [All  public  use  of  the  Li- 
turgy seems  to  have  been  aban- 
doned some  time  before  the 
Directory  was  drawn  up.  For 
in  a  letter  dated  Feb.  18,  1644, 
Baillie  informs  his  correspond- 
ent, "  that  they  had  so  con- 
"  trived  it  with  my  lord  Whar- 
"  ton,  that  the  lords  that  day 
"  did  petition  the  Assembly 
"  that  they  might  have  one  of 
"  the  divines  to  attend  their 
"  house  for  a  week,  as  it  came 

'  about,  to  pray  to  God  with 
'  them.  Some  days  thereafter 
'  the  lower  house  petitioned  for 
'  the  same.  Both  their  desires 
'  were  gladly  granted  ;  for  by 
'  this  means  the  relics  of  the 
'  service-book,  which  till  then 
'  was  every  day  used  in  both 
f  houses,  are  at  last  banished. 
'  Paul's  and  Westminster  are 
'  purged  of  their  images,  or- 
'  gans,  and  all  which  gave  of- 
•  fence."  Lett.  43.] 

cent,  xvii.  of  Britain.  811 

joiced  much  in  the  Liturgy  at  that  time  set  forth ;  a.  D.1645. 

but  adding  withal,  that  they  would  rejoice  more  had ^J_ 

it  been  their  happiness  to  behold  this  present  refor- 
mation ;  they  themselves  were  persuaded  that  these 
first  reformers,  were  they  now  alive,  would  join  with 
them  in  this  work  of  advancing  the  Directory. 

4.  The  Assembly-work  of  the  Directory  thus  end-  Tha  Wre- 

tory  enfor- 

ed,  the  lords  and  commons  began  therewith  prefixing  ced  by  or- 
an  ordinance  thereunto,  made  much  up  of  forms  or  parliament. 
repeal,  laying  down  the  motives  inclining  them  to 
think  the  abolishing  of  the  Common  Prayer  and 
establishment  of  this  Directory  necessary  for  this 
nation.  First,  the  consideration  of  the  many  incon- 
veniences  risen  by  that  book  in  this  kingdom.  Se- 
condly, their  covenant  resolution  to  reform  religion 
according  to  God's  word  and  the  best  reformed 
churches.  Thirdly,  their  consulting  with  the  learned, 
pious,  and  reverend  divines  for  that  purpose. 

5.  The  benefit  of  printing  the  Directory  was  be- A  g°«* 

0  price  if  well 

stowed  on  Mr.  Rowborough  and  Mr.  Byfield,  scribes  paid. 
to  the  Assembly,  who  are  said  to  have  sold  the  same 
for  some  hundreds  of  pounds.  Surely  the  stationer 
who  bought  it  did  not,  with  the  dishonest  chapman, 
first  decry  the  worth  thereof  and  then  boast  of  his 
pennyworth0.  If  since  he  hath  proved  a  loser  there- 
by, I  am  confident  that  they  who  sold  it  him  carried 
such  a  chancery  in  their  bosoms  as  to  make  him  fair 

6.  Now  because  it  was  hard  to  turn  people  out  of  a  second 
their  old  track,  and  put  them  from  a  beaten  path,  to  back  the 
(such  was,  call  it  constancy  or  obstinacy,  love  orformer' 
doting,  of  the  generality  of  the  nation  on  the  Com- 
mon Prayer,)  the  parliament  found  it  fit,  yea,  neces- 

c  Proverbs  xx.  14. 


318  The  Church  History  book  w. 

a.  d.  16.15.  sary,  to  back  their  former  ordinance  with  a  second, 

1  dated  twenty-third  of  August,  1645,  and  entitled, 

"  An  ordinance  of  the  lords  and  commons  for  the 

"  more  effectual  putting  in  execution  the  Directory, 

"  &c,"  wherein  directions  were  not  only  given  for 

the  dispersing  and  publishing  of  the  "  Directory  in  all 

"  parishes,  chapelries,  and  donatives,  but  also  for  the 

"  calling  in  and  suppressing  of  all  books  of  Common 

"  Prayer,  and  several  forfeitures  and  penalties  to  be 

"  levied  and  imposed  upon  conviction  before  justices 

"  of  assize,  or  of  oyer  and  terminer,  &c." 

The  king's      7.  But  in  opposition  hereunto,  the  king  at  Oxford 

tion  contra,  set  forth  a  proclamation,  bearing  date  the  thirteenth 

JLiia-       of  November,  1645,  enjoining  the  use  of  "Common 

djnanoT"  "  Prayer  according  to  law,  notwithstanding  the  pre* 

"  tended  ordinances  for  the  new  Directory.*       Thus 

as  the  waves,  commanded  one  way  by  the  tide  and 

countermanded  another  with  the  wind,   know   not 

which  to  obey ;  so  people  stood  amused  betwixt  these 

two  forms  of  service,  line  upon  line,  precept  upon  pre- 

ceptd9  being  the  easiest  way  to  edify;  whilst  line  against 

line,  precept  against  precept,  did  much  disturb  and 


Arguments      8.  The  king  and  parliament  being  thus  at  differ- 

pro  and  con  ox  o 

totheDi-  ence,  no  wonder  if  the  pens  of  the  chaplains  fol- 
T9Ctory'  lowed  their  patrons,  and  engaged  violently  pro  and 
con  in  the  controversy.  I  presume  it  will  be  lawful 
and  safe  for  me  to  give  in  a  breviate  of  the  argu- 
ments on  both  sides,  reserving  my  private  opinion 
to  myself,  as  not  worthy  the  reader's  taking  notice 
thereof ;  for  as  it  hath  been  permitted  in  the  height 
and  heat  of  our  civil  war  for  trumpeters  and  mes- 
sengers to  have  fair  and  free  passage  on  both  sides, 

d  Isaiah  xxviii.  10. 


of  Britain. 


pleading  the  privilege  of  the' public  faith,  provided  a.  d.  1645- 

they  do  not  interest  themselves  like  parties,  and  as — 

spies  forfeit  the  protection,  so  subjecting  themselves 
justly  to  the  severest  punishment :  so  historians  in 
like  manner  in  all  ages  have  been  permitted  to 
transmit  to  posterity  an  unpartial  account  of  actions, 
preserving  themselves  neuters  in  their  indifferent 

Against  the  Liturgy. 

1.  Sad  experience  hath 
made  it  manifest  that  the 
Liturgy  used  in  England 
(notwithstanding  the  reli- 
gious intentions  of  the  com- 
pilers thereof)  hath  proved 
an  offence  to  many  godly 

%.  Offence  thereby  hath 
also  been  given  to  the  re- 
formed churches  abroad. 

3.  Mr.  Calvin  himself  dis- 
liked the  Liturgy  in  his  let- 
ter to  the  lord  protector,  cha- 
ritably calling  many  things 
therein  tolerabtles  ineptias. 

4.  The  Liturgy  is  no  bet- 
ter than  confining  of  the  Spi- 
rit, tying  it  to  such  and  such 

For  the  Liturgy. 

i.  Such  offence  (if  any) 
was  taken,  not  given,  and 
they  must  be  irreligious  mis- 
takes which  stand  in  oppo- 
sition to  such  religious  in- 

2.  No  foreign  church  ever 
in  print  expressed  any  such 
offence,  and  if  some  particu- 
lar man  have  disliked  it,  as 
many  and  as  eminent  have 
manifested  their  approbation 

3.  Mr.  Calvin  is  but  one 
man :  besides,  he  spake  a- 
gainst  the  first  draught  of 
the  Liturgy,  anno  1 .  of  king 
Edward  the  Sixth,  which 
afterwards  was  reviewed  in 
that  king's  reign,  and  again 
in  the  first  of  queen  Eliza- 

4.  The  same  charge  lieth 
against  the  Directory,  ap- 
pointing though  not  the  words 


The  Church  History 


A.  D.  1645.  words,   which  is  to  be  left 
ai  ChM.1.  a|one  to  jte  own  liberty ;  use 

praying  and  have  praying; 
the  extemporary  gift  is  im- 
proved by  the  practice  thereof. 

5.  It  being  a  compliant 
with  the  papists,  in  a  great 
part  of  their  service,  doth 
not  a  little  confirm  them  in 
their  superstition  and  idola- 

6.  It  is  found  by  experi- 
ence that  the  Liturgy  hath 
been  a  great  means  to  make 
an  idle  and  an  unedifying 

7.  It  is  tedious  to  the 
people,  with  the  unnecessary 
length  taking  up  an  hour  at 
least  in  the  large  and  distinct 
reading  thereof. 

to  be  prayed  with,  the  mat- 
ter to  be  prayed  for.  Poor 
liberty  to  leave  the  Spirit 
only  to  supply  the  place  of  a 
vocabulary  or  a  copia  verba- 
rum.  And  seeing  sense  is 
more  considerable  than  lan- 
guage, she  prescribing  there- 
of restraineth  the  Spirit  as 
much  as  appointing  the  words 
of  a  prayer. 

5.  It  complieth  with  the 
papists  in  what  they  have  re- 
tained of  antiquity,  and  not 
what  they  have  superadded 
of  idolatry,  and  therefore 
more  probably  may  be  a 
means  of  converting  them  to 
our  religion,  when  they  per- 
ceive us  not  possessed  with  a 
spirit  of  opposition  unto  them 
in  such  things  wherein  they 
close  with  the  primitive  times. 

6.  The  users  of  the  Litur- 
gy have  also  laboured  in 
preaching,  catechising,  and 
study  of  divine  learning. 
Nor  doth  the  Directory  se- 
cure any  from  laziness,  see- 
ing nothing  but  lungs  and 
sides  may  be  used  in  the  de- 
livery of  any  extempore 

7.  Some  observers  of  the 
Directory,  to  procure  to  their 
parts  and  persons  the  repute 
of  ability  and  piety,  have 
spent  as  much  time  in  their 
extemporary  devotions. 


of  Britain. 


8.  Many  ceremonies,  not 
only  unprofitable  but  bur- 
thensouie,  are  therein  im- 
posed on  people's  consciences. 

9.  Divers  able  and  faith- 
ful ministers  have,  by  the 
means  of  the  Liturgy,  been 
debarred  the  exercise  of  their 
ministry,  and  spoiled  of  their 
livelihood,  to  the  undoing  of 
them  and  their  family. 

8.   This  is  disproved  by  A.  D.  1645. 


such  who  have  written  vo- 
lumes in  the  vindication 
thereof.  But  grant  it  true, 
not  a  total  absolution,  but  a 
reformation  thereof  may 
hence  be  inferred. 

9.  The  Directory,  if  en- 
forced to  subject  the  refusers 
to  penalties,  may  spoil  as 
many  and  as  well-deserving 
of  their  ministry  and  liveli- 


Such  as  desire  to  read  deeper  in  this  controversy 
may  have  their  recourse  to  the  manifold  tractates 
written  on  this  subject. 

9.  But  leaving  these  disquiets  the  Common  Prayer  a  query  for 
daily  decreased,  and  Directory  by  the  power  of  par-  sake. 
liament  was  advanced.  Here  some  would  fain  be 
satisfied,  whether  the  abolishing  of  the  main  body 
of  the  Common  Prayer  extendeth  to  the  prohibition 
of  every  expression  therein,  (I  mean  not  such  which 
are  the  numerical  words  of  scripture,  whereof  no 
question,)  but  other  ancient  passages,  which  in  the 
primitive  times  were  laudably  (not  to  say  necessarily) 
put  in  practice. 

10.  I  know  a  minister  who  was  accused  for  using  a  word  in 
the  gloria  Patri,  (conforming  his  practice  to  the 
Directory  in  all  things  else,)  and  threatened  to  be 
brought  before  the  committee.  He  pleaded  the 
words  of  Mr.  Cartwright  in  his  defence6,  confessing 
the  gloria  Patri  founded  on  just  cause,  that  men 


e  His  Reply  against  Whitgift,  p.  107,  sect.  iv. 

316  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1645.  might  make  their  open  profession  in  the  church  of 
the  divinity  of  the  Son  of  God,  against  the  detest- 
able opinion  of  Arms  and  his  disciples.  "  But  now," 
saith  he,  "  that  it  hath  pleased  the  Lord  to  quench 
that  fire,  there  is  no  such  cause  why  those  things 
should  be  used."  "  But  seeing"  (said  the  minister) 
"  it  hath  pleased  God  for  our  sins  to  condemn  us  to 
live  in  so  licentious  an  age,  wherein  the  divinity 
both  of  Christ  and  the  Holy  Ghost  is  called  fre- 
quently and  publicly  into  question,  the  same  now 
(by  Mr.  Cartwright's  judgment)  may  lawfully  be 
used,  not  to  say  can  [not]  well  be  omitted."  I  re- 
member not  that  he  heard  any  more  of  the  matter. 
A  farewell       \\9  it  is  now  high  time  to  take  our  farewell  of 

to  the  sub-  ° 

ject.  this  tedious  subject,  and  leave  the  issue  thereof  to 

the  observation  of  posterity.  The  best  demonstra- 
tion to  prove  whether  Daniel  and  his  fellows  (the 
children  of  the  captivity)  should  thrive  better  by 
plain  pulse,  (to  which  formerly  they  had  been  used,) 
or  the  new  diet  of  diverse  and  dainty  dishes,  was 
even  to  put  it  to  the  trial  of  some  daysf  experiment, 
and  then  a  survey  taken  of  their  complexions  whe- 
ther they  be  impaired  or  not ;  so  when  the  Directory 
hath  been  practised  in  England  ninety  years,  (the 
world  lasting  so  long,)  as  the  Liturgy  hath  been, 
then  posterity  will  be  the  competent  judge,  whether 
the  face  of  religion  had  the  more  lively  healthful 
and  cheerful  looks  under  the  one  or  under  the  other. 
Arehbithop  12.  The  next  news  engrossing  the  talk  of  all 
strangely  tongues  was  about  Dr.  Williams,  archbishop  of  York, 
no  less  suddenly  than  strangely  metamorphosed  from 
a  zealous  royalist  into  an  active  parliamentarian: 
being  to  relate  the  occasion  thereof,  we  will  enter 

f  Dan.  i.  13. 


of  Britain. 


on  the  brief  history  of  his  life,  from  the  cradle  to  ad.  1645. 

the  grave,  repeating  nothing  formerly  written,  but 1 

only  adding  thereunto. 

13.  None  can  question  the  gentility  of  his  extrac- Bom  in 
tion,  finding  him  born  at  Aberconway,  in  Carnarvon- good  pa- 
shire,  in  Wales,  of  a  family  rather  ancient  than  rich. rentage# 
His  grandfather  had  a  good  estate,  but  aliened,  it 
seems,  by  his  heirs,  so  that  this  doctor,  when  lord 
keeper,  was  fain  to  repurchase  it.     Surely  it  was  of 

a  considerable  value,  because  he  complaineth  in  his 
letter*  to  the  duke,  (who  encouraged  him  to  the 
purchase,)  that  he  was  forced  to  borrow  money,  and 
stood  indebted  for  the  same. 

14.  He  was  bred  in  St.  John's  college,  in  Cam- Bred  in 

St    TnHnV. 

bridge,  to  hold  the  scales  even  with  St.  John's  in  and  proctor 
Oxford,  wherein  archbishop  Laud  had  his  education ;  ^idge. " 
Dr.  Gwin  was  his  tutor,  his  chiefest,  if  not  his  only, 
eminency,  and  afterwards  the  occasion  of  his  prefer- 
ment11 ;  for  as  his  tutor  made  his  pupil  fellow,  this 
pupil  made  the  tutor  master  of  the  college.  Next 
was  Mr.  Williams  made  proctor  of  the  university, 
excellently  performing  his  acts  for  the  place  in  so 
stately  a  posture,  as  rather  but  of  duty,  thereby  to 
honour  his  mother  university  than  desire  to  credit 
himself,  as  taking  it  only  in  his  passage  to  an  higher 

15.  He  was  chaplain  (or  counsellor  shall  I  say)  to 

%  Cabala,  p.  267. 

h  [Dr.  Gwin  was  of  the  same 
country  as  Williams ;  his  com- 
petitors for  the  headship  were 
Morton,  afterwards  bishop  of 
Durham,  an  able  writer  against 
the  Romanists ;  Merriton,  and 
Valentine  Carey ;  the  follow- 
ing ridiculous  hexameters  were 

composed  on  this  occasion — 

Twice  two  brave  worthies  of  St* 
John's  stood  to  be  masters ; 

Morton  came  with  a  pen  and  Merriton 
he  with  his  action ; 

Val.  Carey  came  with  a  cringe,  but 
Gwin  hur  came  with  faction. 

Hey lin's  Advertisements  of  the 
Reign  of  K.  James,  p.  23.] 

318  The  Church  History  book  xt. 

a.d.  1645.  Thomas  Egerton,  lord  chancellor,  who  imparted  many 

*1 "  mysteries  of  that  place  unto  him.     Here  an  able 

Egerton  hi*  teacher  of  state  met  with  as  apt  a  scholar,  the  one 
JjJdJj^not  more  free  in  pouring  forth,  than  the  other  cap*- 
Uin-         ble  to  receive,  firm  to  retain,  and  active  to  improte 
what  was  infused  into  him.     So  dear  was  this  doctor 
to  his  patron,  that  this  lord  dying,  on  his  death-bed 
desired  him  to  choose  what  most  acceptable  legacy 
he  should  bequeath  unto  him;  Dr.  Williams,  waving 
and  slighting  all  money,  requested  four  books,  being 
the  collections  of  the  lord  his  industry,  learning,  and 
experience,  concerning   1.  The  Prerogative  Royal. 
2.  Privileges  of  Parliament.      3.  The  Proceedings 
in  Chancery.     4.  The  Power  of  the  Star-chamber. 
These  were  no  sooner  asked  than  granted  ;    and  the 
doctor  afterwards  copied  out  these  four  books  into 
his  own  brains ;  books  which  were  the  four  elements 
of  our   English   state,   and  he  made  an   absolute 
master  of  all  the  materials,  that  is,  of  all  the  pas- 
sages therein,  seeing  nothing  superfluous  was  therein 
Themeana      16.  By  the  duke  of  Buckingham  (whom  he  had 
dyandgreat  married  to  the  daughter  of  the  earl  of  Rutland)  he 
p   crment- ppg^Q^  these  books  to  king  James.     Then  did 
his  majesty  first   take  notice  of  his   extraordinary 
abilities,  soon  after  preferring  him,  by  the  duke's 
mediation,  to  the  deanery  of  Westminster,  bishop  of 
Lincoln,  and  keeper's  place  of  the  great  seal,  till  he 
lost  the  last  in  the  first  of  king  Charles,  as  hath  for- 
merly been  related. 
Theongi-       17.  I  dare  confidently  avouch  what  I  knowingly 
betwixt  the  speak,  that   the   following   passage  was  the  motns 
i^YewT.VT*mo  Primus  of  the  breach  betwixt  him  and  the 
duke.     There  was  one  Dr.  Theodore  Price,  a  Welch- 


of  Britain* 


man,  highly  beloved  hoth  hy  bishop  Williams  andA-1*-1^ 

bishop  Laud,  so  that  therein  the  rule  did  not  hold, — 

those  that  agree  in  one  third  agree  among  them- 
selves ;  these  two  prelates  mutually  mortal  enemies 
meeting  in  the  love  of  this  doctor.  Now  the  arch- 
bishopric of  Armagh  in  Ireland  falling  vacant,  bi- 
shop Williams  moved  the  duke  for  Dr.  Price  his 
countryman ;  to  whom  the  duke  answered,  that  king 
James  had  by  promise  foredisposed  the  place  on  the 
bishop  of  Meath,  Dr.  James  Usher,  one  whose  de- 
serts were  sufficiently  known.  Not  satisfied  here- 
with, bishop  Williams  by  his  own  interest  endea- 
voured to  bring  Dr.  Price  into  the  place.  The  duke 
understanding  that  he,  who  formerly  professed  a 
subordination  to,  at  the  least  a  concurrence  with, 
his  desires,  should  now  offer  to  contest  with  him, 
resolved,  that  seeing  the  lord  keeper  would  not  own 
himself  to  stand  by  his  love,  the  world  should  see 
he  should  fall  by  his  anger ;  and  this  ministered  the 
first  occasion  to  his  ruin.  And  when  once  the 
alarum  was  sounded  of  the  duke's  displeasure,  no 
courtiers  so  deaf  and  drowsy  but  did  take  the  same ; 
and  all  things  concurred  to  his  disadvantage.  This 
is  that  Dr.  Theodore  Price  who  afterwards  died  a  pro- 
fessed catholic,  reconciled  to  the  church  of  Rome2. 

>  [Upon  this  passage  bishop 
Hacket  makes  the  following 
observations.  After  alluding 
to  the  exertions  of  bishop  Wil- 
liams in  getting  some  worthy 
person  promoted  to  the  deanery 
of  York,  and  his  opposition  to 
the  duke  of  Buckingham,  who 
would  have  thrust  in  Dr.  Scot, 
he  observes :  "  certainly  with 
"  others  this  might  work  to  his 
"  esteem   but   nothing   to  his 

"  prejudice.  And  I  dare  con- 
"  ndently  avouch,  what  I  know- 
"  ingly  speak,  (that  I  may  use 
"  the  words  of  my  industrious 
"friend,  Mr.  T.  F.,  in  his 
•«  Church  History,)  that  the 
"  solicitation  for  Dr.  Theo- 
"  dore  Price,  about  two  months 
"  after,  was  not  the  first  mo. 
"  tive  of  a  breach  between 
"  the  keeper  and  the  duke, 
"  (the  daylight  clears  that  with- 


The  Church  History 

tfOOK  XI. 

a.  d.  1645.      18.  Yet  after  his  resigning  the  seal,  fair  prefer- 
'  '-  ment  was  left  unto  him,  could  he  have  confined  his 

Not  con- 
tented with 
his  own 



"  out  dusky  conjectures,)  no, 
"  nor  any  process  to  more  un- 
"  kindness  than  was  before, 
"  which  was  indeed  grown  too 
"  high.  The  case  is  quickly 
••  unfolded.  Dr.  Price  was 
countryman,  kinsman,  and 
great  acquaintance  of  the 
"  lord  keeper's ;  by  whose  pro- 
"  curement  he  was  sent  a  com- 
"  missioner  into  Ireland,  two 
u  years  before,  with  Mr.  jus- 
"  tice  Jones,  sir  T.  Crew,  sir 
"  James  Perrot,  and  others,  to 
"  rectify  grievances  in  church 
"  and  civil  state  that  were  com- 
"  plained  of.  In  executing 
"  which  commission  he  came 
"  off  with  praise  and  with  en- 
"  couragement  from  his  ma- 
"  jesty,  that  he  should  not  fail 
"  of  recompense  for  his  well- 
"  doing.  Much  about  the  time 
"  that  the  prince  returned  out 
•'  of  Spain  the  bishopric  of 
"  Asaph  fell  void ;  the  county 
'•  of  Merioneth,  where  Dr. 
"  Price  was  born,  being  in  the 
"  diocese,  the  lord  keeper  at- 
"  tempted  to  get  that  bishopric 
•'  for  Dr.  Price;  but  the  prince, 
since  the  time  that  by  his  pa- 
tent he  was  styled  prince  of 
"  Wales,  had  claimed  the  bi- 
shoprics of  that  principality 
for  his  own  chaplains;  so 
M  Dr.  Melbourne  and  Dr.  Carle- 
"  ton  were  preferred  to  St. 
"  David's  and  Landaff,  and 
Asaph  was  now  conferred 
upon  Dr.  Hanmer,  his  high- 
'•  ness'  chaplain,  that  well  de- 
"  served  it.  A  little  before 
••  K.  James'  death,  Dr.  Hamp- 
"  ton,  primate  of  Armagh,  as 







"  stout  a  prelate  and  as  good  a 
"  governor  as  the  see  had  ever 
"  enjoyed,  died  in  a  good  old 
"  age ;  whereupon  the  keeper 
"  interposed  for  Dr.  Price  to 
"  succeed  him.  But  the  emi. 
"  nent  learning  of  Dr.  Usher 
"  (for  who  could  match  him,  all 
"  in  all,  in  Europe  ?)  carried  it 
94  from  his  rival.  Dr.  Price  was 
"  very  rational,  and  a  divine 
"  among  those  of  the  first  rate, 
"  according  to  the  small  skill 
"  of  my  perceivance  ;  and  his 
"  hearers  did  testify  as  much 
"  that  were  present  at  his  Latin 
"  sermon  and  his  lectures  pro 
"  gradu  in  Oxford.  But  be- 
"  cause  he  had  never  preached 
"  so  much  as  one  sermon  be- 
"  fore  the  king,  and  had  left  to 
"  do  his  calling  in  the  pulpit 
u  for  many  years,  it  would  not 
"  be  admitted  that  he  should 
"  ascend  to  the  primacy  of 
"  Armagh ;  no,  nor  so  much 
•r  as  succeed  Dr.  Usher  in  the 
"  bishopric  of  Meath.  To 
"  which  objection  his  kinsman 
"  that  stickled  for  his  prefer- 
ment could  give  no  good  an- 
swer ;  and  drew  off  with  so 
much  ease  upon  it,  that  the 
"  reverend  Dr.  Usher  had  no 
"  cause  to  regret  at  the  lord 
"  keeper  for  an  adversary ; 
"  neither  did  Dr.  Price  ever 
"  shew  him  love  after  that  day; 
"  and  the  church  of  England 
"  then  or  sooner  lost  the  doc- 
"  tor's  heart."— Life  of  Wil- 
liams, p.  207. 

As  for  Dr.  Price's  change  to 
popery,  this  seems  to  be  denied 
both   by    Heylin   and   Wood. 





of  Britain. 


large  heart  thereunto.  I  meet  with  a  passage  in  a.  d.  1645. 
a  letter k  from  this  lord  keeper  to  the  duke,  wherein 2 '  chM*  l\ 
he  professeth,  calling  God  to  witness,  that  the  lord 
keeper  (troubled  with  many  miseries  wherewith  sud- 
den greatness  is  accompanied)  envied  the  fortunes 
of  one  Dr.  Williams,  late  dean  of  Westminster :  be 
this  a  truth  or  a  compliment,  what  he  formerly 
envied  now  he  enjoyed,  returned  to  a  plentiful  pri- 
vacy, not  only  of  the  deanery  of  Westminster,  but 
bishopric  of  Lincoln,  which  he  held  with  the  same. 
But  alas,  when  our  desires  are  forced  on  us  by  our 
foes,  they  do  not  delight  but  afflict.  The  same  step 
is  not  the  same  step  when  we  take  it  ascendendo 
in  hopes  to  higher  preferment,  and  when  we  light 
upon  it  descendendo,  or  are  remitted  unto  it  as  fall- 
ing from  higher  advancement.  The  bishop  is  im- 
patient for  being  less  than  he  had  been,  and  there 
wanted  not  those  secret  enemies  to  improve  his 
discontents  to  his  disgrace,  almost  destruction,  as 
fining  in  the  Star-chamber,  and  long  imprisoning 
in  the  Tower. 

19.  Now  came  that  parliament  so  much  wished  Enlaced 

out  of  the 

for,  that   many  feared    it  would    never  begin,  and  Tower  and 
afterwards  (oh  the  mutability  of  desires,  or  change  w8hop  of 
of  things  desired,)  the  same  feared  it  would  never 
have  an  end.     Then  is  bishop  Williams  sent  for  out 
of  the  Tower,  brought  to   parliament,  advanced  to 

The  former  accuses  Williams 
of  being  the  author  of  this  re- 
port,  which,  according  to  him, 
had  no  other  foundation  than 
Williams'  hostility  to  Price, 
their  former  friendship  having 
been  converted  into  mutual 
dislike.  See  Exam.  Hist.  p.  74. 
In  this  he  is  followed  by  Wood. 


See  Fast.  i.  p.  198.  Prynne 
also  accuses  Price  of  being  a 
papist,  and  asserts  that  at  his 
death  he  received  extreme  unc- 
tion from  a  popish  priest.  Trial 
of  Laud,  P.  355.] 

k  Cabala,  or  Scrinia  Sacra, 
parti,  p.  59.  [260.  ed.  1691.] 



322  The  Church  History  book  zi. 

a.d.  1645.  the  archbishopric  of  York,  and  is  the  antesignanus  of 

"  the  episcopal  party,  to  defend  it  in  the  house  of 

lords  (as  best  armed  with  his  power  and  experience) 
against  a  volley  of  affronts  and  oppositions. 
HiipW-        20.  Once  when  his  majesty  saw  him  earnest  in 

sant answer    ,.„  i..  1  11  1. 

to  the  king,  the  defence  of  episcopacy  then  opposed  by  parlia- 
ment ;  "  My  lord,"  saith  the  king,  "  I  commend  you 
"  that  you  are  no  whit  daunted  with  all  disasters, 
"  but  are  zealous  in  defending  your  order."    "  Please 
it  your  majesty,"  returned  the  archbishop,  "  I  am 
a  true  Welshman ;  and  they  are  observed  never 
to  run  away  till  their  general  do  first  forsake  them; 
no  fear  of  my  flinching,  whilst  your  highness  doth 
"  countenance  our  cause."     But  soon  after  he  was 
imprisoned  about   the  bishops'  protestation  to  the 
parliament,    and    with  great  difficulty  obtained  his 
liberty,  as  was  afore  observed. 
Retires  into     21.   Retiring  himself  into  North  Wales,  (where 
Wales,  and  his  birth,  estate,  alliance,  but  chiefly  hospitality,  did 
JJreei  into*  ™ake  him  popular,)  he  had  a  great,  but  endeavoured 
dii&rour.    a  greater,  influence  on  those  parts.     It  gave  some 
distaste,  that  in  all  consultations  he  would  have  his 
advice  pass  for  an  oracle,  not  to  be  contested  with, 
much  less  controlled  by  any.     But  vast  the  differ- 
ence betwixt  his  orders  in  chancery,  armed  with 
power  to  enforce  obedience,  and  his  counsel  here, 
which  many  military  men  (as  in  their  own  element) 
took  the   boldness  to  contradict:    buff-coats  often 
rubbed  and  grated  against  this  prelate's  silk  cassock, 
which,  because  of  the  softer  nature,  was  the  sooner 
fretted  therewith1.    Indeed,  he  endeavoured  as  much 

1  [His  advice,  however,  buff-coats  who  jostled  against 
though  unpalatable,  was  fur  him.  He  seems  to  have  been 
sounder  than  any  given  by  the    the  only  person  who  thoroughly 


of  Britain. 


as  might  be  to  preserve  his  country  from  taxes,  (an  a.  d.  1645. 
acceptable  and  ingratiating  design  with  the  people,)  — ■ — — 
but  sometimes  inconsistent  with  the  king's  present 
and  pressing  necessities.  All  his  words  and  deeds 
are  represented  at  Oxford  (where  his  court  interest 
did  daily  decline)  to  his  disadvantage,  and  some 
jealousies  are  raised  of  his  cordialness  to  the  royal 

22.  At  last  some  great  affronts  were  put  upon  Jj]^na^t 
him,  (increased  with  his  tender  resenting  of  them,)  affronts. 
being  himself,  as  I  have  been  informed,  put  out 

of  commission,  and  another  placed  in  his  room;  a 
disgrace  so  much  the  more  insupportable  to  his  high 
spirit,  because  he  conceived  himself  much  meriting 
of  his  majesty,  by  his  loyalty,  industry,  ability,  and 
expense  in  his  cause,  who  hitherto  had  spared  nei- 
ther care  nor  cost  in  advancing  the  same,  even  to 
the  impairing  of  his  own  estate. 

23.  But  now  he  entereth  on  a  design,  which,  hadTake8.a. 

0  commission 

I  line  and  plummet,  I  want  skill  to  manage  them  in  from  the 
measuring  the  depth  thereof.     He  sueth  to  the  par- 
liament for  favour,  and  obtained  it,  whose  general  in 
a  manner  he  becomes  in  laying  siege  to  the  town 

understood  the  real  temper  of 
the  times;  as  thoroughly  un- 
derstanding the  weakness  and 
vacillation  of  the  king's  coun- 
sel, the  excessive  selfishness  and 
dishonesty  of  the  courtiers,  as 
he  perceived  the  true  strength 
and  power  of  the  enemy.  To 
the  time  of  his  disgrace  he  was 
the  only  sound  adviser,  almost 
the  only  sincere  one,  which  the 
king  possessed.  But  if  he  had 
one  fault  greater  than  another  it 
consisted  in  this,  that  he  was 
too  much  of  a  politician  ;  more 

fitted  for  the  council-table  than 
for  the  bishop's  chair ;  and  this 
alone  was  sufficient  to  prejudice 
him  with  the  king.  Some  few 
of  his  letters  are  preserved  in 
Carte's  collection  of  original 
papers,  the  best  in  the  whole 
volume,  and  as  far  distinguished 
by  sound  good  sense  and  dis- 
cretion from  the  mass  of  corre- 
spondence with  which  they  are 
surrounded,  of  nobles  and  ca- 
valiers, as  the  experience  of 
manhood  surpasses  the  levity 
of  childhood.] 

Y  2 

8£4  The  Church  History  book  m. 

a.d.  1645.  and  castle  of  Aberconway,  till  he  had  reduced  it 

—  to  their  service,  and  much  of  the  town  to  his  own 

Condemned  24.  And  now  Meruit  sub  parliamento  in  Wattia 
ists.  roya  is  the  wonder  of  all  men™.  I  confess  he  told  his 
kinsman,  who  related  it  to  me,  that  if  he  might  have 
the  convenience  to  speak  with  his  majesty  but  one 
half  hour,  (a  small  time  for  so  great  a  task,)  he 
doubted  not  but  to  give  him  full  satisfaction  for  his 
behaviour.  Sure  it  is,  those  of  the  royal  party,  and 
his  own  order,  which  could  not  mine  into  his  in- 
visible motives,  but  surveyed  only  the  sad  surface  of 
his  actions,  condemn  the  same  as  irreconcilable 
with  the  principles  he  professed.  And  though  here- 
by he  escaped  a  composition  for  his  estate  in  Gold- 
smiths' Hall,  yet  his  memory  is  still  to  compound 
(and  at  what  rate  I  know  not)  with  many  mouths, 
before  a  good  word  can  be  afforded  unto  it ;  but 
these,  perchance,  have  never  read  the  well  Latined 
apology  in  his  behalf.  And  although  some  will  say 
that  they  that  need  an  apology  come  too  near  to 
fault,  the  word,  as  commonly  taken,  sounding  more 
of  excuse  than  defence,  yet  surely  in  its  genuine 
notation,  it  speaks  not  guilt  but  always  greatness  of 
enemies  and  opposers. 
Human  in-      25.  Of  all  English  divines  since  the  reformation, 

constancy.  °  ' 

he  might  make  the  most  experimental  sermon  on 
the  Apostle's  words,  by  honour  and  dishonour  9  by  ill 
report  and  good  report,  though  the  method  not  so 
appliable  as  the  matter  unto  him,  who  did  not  close 
and  conclude  with  the  general  good  esteem,  losing 

m  [Yet  Hacket  has,  I  think,     Life  of  Williams,  ii.  p.  a  iS.] 
cleared  him  of  this  imputation. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  SftB 

by  his  last  compliance  his  old  friends  at  Oxford,  and  A  ^ 'H5' 

m  J  r  a  i  Chug.  L 

in  lieu  of  them  finding  few  new  ones  at  London. 

26.  Envy  itself  cannot  deny  but  that  whithersoever  Hi»  act*  of 
he  went  he  might  be  traced  by  the  footsteps  of  his c  ""  y" 
benefaction.     Much  he  expended  on  the  repair  of 
Westminster  abbey  church,  and  his  answer  is  gene- 
rally known,   when  pressed   by  bishop   Laud  to   a 
larger  contribution  to  St.  Paul's,  "  that  he  would  not 

"  rob  Peter  to  pay  Paul."  The  library  of  Westmin- 
ster was  the  effect  of  his  bounty,  and  so  was  a  chapel 
in  Lincoln  College  in  Oxford,  having  no  relation 
thereunto,  than  as  the  namesake0  of  his  bishopric ; 
so  small  an  invitation  will  serve  to  call  a  coming 
charity.  At  St.  John's,  in  Cambridge,  he  founded 
two  fellowships,  built  a  fair  library,  and  furnished 
it  with  books,  intending  more,  had  his  bounty  then 
met  with  proportionable  entertainment.  But  bene- 
factors may  give  money,  but  not  grateful  minds  to 
such  as  receive  it. 

27.  He  was  very  chaste  in  his  conversation,  what-  Purged 

■  111.  ,  fromuojuit 

soever  a  nameless  author  hath  written  on  the  con- aspersion. 
trary;  whom  his  confuter  hath  styled  aulicus  e 
coguinaria,  or,  "the  courtier  out  of  the  kitchen," 
and  that  deservedly  for  his  unworthy  writings,  out 
of  what  drippingpan  soever  he  licked  this  his  sluttish 
intelligence.  For  most  true  it  is,  (as  I  am  certainly 
informed  from  such  who  knew  the  privacies  and 
casualties  of  his  infancy,)  this  archbishop  was  but 
one  degree  removed  from  a  mysogynist,  yet,  to  pal- 
liate his  infirmity,  to  noble  females  he  was  most 
complete  in  his  courtly  addresses. 

28.  He  hated  popery  with  a  perfect  hatred  ;  and  A  perfect 
though   oft   declaring  freedom  and  favour  to  im-*11  p"pi 

11  I  believe  he  also  was  visitor  thereof. 

Y  8 

896  The  Church  History  book  u. 

a.d.  1645- prisoned  papists,  as  a  minister  of  state,  in  obedience 
1  to  his  office ;  yet  he  never  procured  them  any  cour- 
tesies out  of  his  proper  inclinations.  Yea,  when 
Dr.  [Bishop,]  the  new  bishop  of  Chalcedon,  at  the 
end  of  king  James  his  reign,  first  arrived  in  England, 
he  gave  the  duke  of  Buckingham  advice0,  (in  case 
other  circumstances  conveniently  concurred,)  that 
the  judges  should  presently  proceed  against  him  and 
hang  him  out  of  the  way,  and  the  king  cast  the 
blame  on  archbishop  Abbot  or  himself,  prepared  it 
seemeth,  to  undergo  his  royal  displeasure  therein. 
Favour  of       gg#  ^ot  out  0f  sympathy  to  nonconformists,  but 

tome  non-  J      r        j 

conform-  antipathy  to  bishop  Laud,  he  was  favourable  to  some 
select  persons  of  that  opinion.  Most  sure  it  is,  that 
in  his  greatness  he  procured  for  Mr.  Cotton,  of  Bos- 
ton, a  toleration  under  the  broad  seal  for  the  free 
exercise  of  his  ministry,  notwithstanding  his  dissent- 
ing in  ceremonies,  so  long  as  done  without  disturb- 
ance to  the  church.  But  as  for  this  bishop  himself, 
he  was  so  great  an  honourer  of  the  English  Liturgy, 
that  of  his  own  cost  he  caused  the  same  to  be  trans- 
lated into  Spanish  and  fairly  printed,  to  confute  their 
false  conceit  of  our  church  p,  who  would  not  believe 
that  we  used  any  book  of  common  prayer  amongst 
Th*?hkC'  80.  He  was  of  a  proper  person,  comely  counte- 
penon.  nance,  and  amiable  complexion,  having  a  stately 
garb  and  gait  by  nature,  which  (suppose  him 
prouder  than  he  should  be)  made  him  mistaken 
prouder  than  he  was.  His  head  was  a  well  filled 
treasury,  and  his  tongue  the  fair  key  to  unlock  it. 

0  Cabala,  part  i.  8 1[= 373.         q    [See    Hacket's    Life    of 
Hacket,  i.  95.]  Williams,  i.  126.] 

P  Cabala,  parti.  79[=a84.] 


cent,  xvii.  of  Britain.  82? 

He  bad  as  great  a  memory  as  could  be  reconciled  *•*>. '645. 

,  **  21  Cha§.  I. 

with  so  good  a  judgment ;  so  quick  his  parts,  that 

his  extempore  performances  equalized  the  premedi- 
tations of  others  of  his  profession.  He  was  very 
open,  and  too  free  in  discourse,  disdaining  to  lie  at  a 
close  guard,  so  confident  of  the  length  and  strength 
of  his  weapon. 

81.  Thus  take  we  our  farewell  of  his  memory,  mssavoury 
concluding  it  with  one  of  his  speeches,  (as  savoury  IRpeec 
believe  as  ever  any  he  uttered,)  wherein  he  expressed 
himself  to  a  grave  minister  coming  to  him  for  insti- 
tution in  a  living,  "  I  have,"  saith  he,  "  passed 
"  thorough  many  places  of  honour  and  trust,  both 
"  in  church  and  state,  more  than  any  of  my  order  in 
England  this  seventy  years  before;  but  were  I 
but  assured  that  by  my  preaching  I  had  converted 
u  but  one  soul  unto  God,  I  should  take  therein 
"  more  spiritual  joy  and  comfort  than  in  all  the 
"  honours  and  offices  which  have  been  bestowed 
44  upon  me." 

32.  He  died,  as  I  take  it,  anno  1649%  sure  I  am  0n  our  lady- 

r  [He    died    the    25th    of  "  as  this  blow  was  given,  many 

March,  1650;  see  the  account  **  conceived    despairs  and   are 

of  his  death  in  Hacket's  Life  "  big   with    it   yet,    that    the 

of  WiUiams,    part  ii.   p.  227:  4<  slavery  under  which  the  three 

where,  speaking  of  the  effects  "  nations  are  fallen  is  irreco- 

produced  by  the  king's  mur-  "  verable,  till  the  last  and  ter- 

der,  strange  to  say,  (though  in  "  rible  day  of  the  Lord.     In 

this  he  is  fully  borne  out  by  "  which   doleful  sadness,  lord 

various  testimonies,)  the  writer  "  primate  Usher,  I  am  witness 

tells  us,  "  that  phrensies  seized  "  of  it,  continued  to  his  end. 

••  on   some,  and  sudden  death  "  Dr.  Floyd,  a  religious  divine, 

"  on    many.       It   pierced  the  u  preaching  a  sermon  at  his  fu- 

•'  archbishop's    heart    with    so  •'  neral,  (that  is,  of  archbishop 

"  sharp   a  point,  that  sorrow  "  Williams,)  extolled  the  most 

"  sent  him  down  the  hill  with  "  reverend   father  s   devotion  ; 

'*  that  violence,  that  he  never  "  that  from  the  heavy  time  of 

••  stayed  till  he  came  to   the  "  the  king's  death  he  rose  every 

"  bottom  and  died.     As  soon  ••  midnight    out   of    his    bed, 

Y  4 


The  Church  History 


a.  d.  1645.011  the  25th  of  March,  leaving  a  leading  case,  (not 

—  as  yet  decided  in  our  law,)  whether  his  half-year's 

rents  (due  after  sunrise)  should  go  with  his  goods 
and  chattels  unto  his  executor,  or  fall  to  his  heir: 
the  best  was,  such  the  providence  of  the  parties  con- 
cerned therein,  that  before  it  came  to  a  suit,  they 
seasonably  compounded  it  amongst  themselves. 

•  « 


and  having  nothing  but  his 
shirt  and  waistcoat  upon  him, 
kneeled  on  his  bare  knees 
and  prayed  earnestly  and 
strongly  one  quarter  of  an 
hour  before  lie  went  to  rest 
again.  I  will  inform  Dr. 
Floyd  in  two  things,  which 
he  knew  not.  First,  he  ob- 
served the  season  of  midnight, 
because  the  scriptures  speak 
of  Christ's  coming  to  judge 
the  quick  and  the  dead  at 
midnight.  Secondly,  the 
matter  of  his  prayer  was  prin- 
cipally this ;  Come,  Lord 
Jesus,  come  quickly;  and  put 
an  end  to  these  days  of  sin 
and  misery.  So  much  I 
learnt  from  himself,  and  so 
report  it.  His  days  were 
consumed  in  heaviness,  as 
his  nights  in  mourning ;  fa- 
cetiousness,  in  which  he 
was  singular,  came  no  more 
out  of  his  lips;  he  ceased 
from  discourse,  from  com. 
pany,  as  he  could,  and  no- 
thing could  hale  him  out  of 
this  obscurity.  Two  years 
and  almost  two  months  he 
consumed  in  a  sequestered 
and  forlorn  condition,  scarce 
any  witness  could  tell  what 
he  did  all  the  while,  but  that 
he  prayed  and  sat  at  his  book 
all   day,   and   much   of  the 



"  night.  His  death  came  from 
a  sudden  catarrh,  which  caus- 
ed a  squinancy  by  the  inflam- 
"  mat  ion  of  the  interior  mus- 
"  cles,  and  a  shortness  of  breath 
' '  followed,  wh ich  dissolved  him 
"  in  the  space  of  twelve  hours. 
"  In  which  term  the  virtuous 
"  lady  Mostyn,  where  he  so- 
"  journed,  spake  to  him  of  his 
"  preparation  for  heaven  ;  says 
"  he.  Cousin,  I  am  already 
"prepared,  and  will  be  better 
u  prepared.  So  he  called  for 
"  the  minister  that  was  the 
"  nearest  to  read  the  Visitation 
"  of  the  sick,  and  twice  over,  to 
"  him,  the  greatest  part  where- 
"  of,  especially  the  Psalms,  he 
"  rehearsed  distinctly  himself, 
"  and  received  absolution. — 
"  When  the  pangs  of  death 
"  approached  many  other  pray- 
"  ers  were  read,  and  short  sen- 
"  tences  of  devotion  repeated 
"  aloud  in  his  ears ;  and  those 
"  words  being  often  said  :  The 
"  Lord  be  merciful  to  thee;  the 
*'  Lord  receive  thy  soul :  at 
"  that  instant,  first  he  closed 
"  his  eyes  with  one  hand,  and 
"  then  lifting  up  the  other,  his 
"  lips  moved,  and  recommend? 
"  ing  his  spirit  to  his  Redeem- 
"  er,  he  expired."  He  died  on 
his  birthday.] 

crniT.  xvii.  of  Britain.  829 

88.  Come  we  now  to  present  the  reader  with  a  a.  d.  1645. 

21  Oh  an  \» 

list  of  the   principal  ordinances  of  the   lords  and  — : — '— 
commons  which  respected  church  matters.     I  say  parliament 
principal,  otherwise  to  recite  all  (which  wear  the^JJ^8* 
countenance  of  an  ecclesiastical  tendency,  some  of  re]i«iaa- 
them  being  mingled   with   civil  affairs)   would  be 
over  voluminous.     Yea,  I  have  heard  that  a  great 
antiquary8  should  say,  that  the  orders  and  ordinances 
of  this  parliament  in  bulk  and  number  did  not  only 
equal  but  exceed  all  the  laws  and  statutes  made 
since  the  Conquest ;   it  will  be  sufficient,  therefore, 
to  recite  titles  of  those  most  material,  going  a  little 
backward  in  time,  to  make  our  history  the  more 

Die  Martis,  August  19,  1645. — "  Directions  of 
"  the  lords  and  commons  (after  advice  had  with  the 
"  Assembly  of  divines)  for  the  election  and  choosing 
"  of  ruling  elders  in  all  the  congregations,  and  in 
"  the  classical  assemblies  for  the  city  of  London 
a  and  Westminster,  and  the  several  counties  of  the 
"  kingdom ;  for  the  speedy  settling  of  the  presby- 
"  terial government" 

Die  Lunae,  Oct.  20,  1645. — "  An  ordinance  of  the 
"  lords  and  commons,  together  with  rules  and  direc- 
"  tions,  concerning  suspension  from  the  sacrament 
u  of  the  Lord's  supper  in  cases  of  ignorance  and 
"  scandal.  Also  the  names  of  such  ministers  and 
"  others  that  are  appointed  triers  and  judges  of  the 

*  ability  of  elders  in  the  twelve  classes,  with  the 

*  province  of  London." 

Die  Sabbathi,  March  14,  1645. — "  An  ordinance 
"  of  the  lords  and  commons  for  keeping  of  scandal- 

8  Sir  Symonds  D'Ewes. 


880  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a. d.  1645.  «  ou8  persons   from   the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's 

"  supper,  the  enabling  of  the  congregation  for  the 

"  choice  of  elders,  and  supplying  of  defects  in 
"  former  ordinances  and  directions  of  parliament 
"  concerning  church  government. 

Die  Veneris,  June  5,  1646. — "  An  ordinance  of 
"  the  lords  and  commons  for  the  present  settling 
"  (without  further  delay)  of  the  presbyterial  govern- 
"  ment  in  the  Church  of  England.'' 

Die  Veneris,  August  28,  1646. — "  An  ordinance 

"  of  the  lords  and  commons  for  the  ordination  of 

**  ministers  by  the  classical  presbyters  within  their 

respective  bounds,  for  the  several  congregations 

in  the  kingdom  of  England." 

Die  Sabbathi,  Jan.  29,  1647. — "  An  ordinance  of 

"  the  lords  and  commons  for  the  speedy  dividing 

M  and  settling  of  the  several  counties  of  this  king- 

"  dom  into  distinct  classical  presbyteries  and  congre- 

"  gational  elderships." 

An  orda        34.  Great  now  was  the  clamorous  importunity  of 

part  for  mi- the  wives  and   children   of  ministers  sequestered, 

^Hesand   ready  to  starve  for  want  of  maintenance.     I  had 

children.    a|mosj.  caiied  them  the  widows  and  orphans  of  those 

ministers,  because,  though  their  fathers  were  living 
to  them,  their  means  were  not  living  to  their  fathers, 
and  they  left  destitute  of  a  livelihood.  Indeed,  there 
was  an  ordinance  of  parliament  made  1644,  em- 
powering their  commissioners  in  the  country  to  ap- 
point means  (not  exceeding  a  fifth  part)  to  the  wives 
and  children  of  all  sequestered  persons ;  but  seeing 
clergymen  were  not  therein  expressed  by  name,  such 
as  enjoyed  their  sequestrations  refused  to  contribute 
any  thing  unto  them.  Whereupon  the  house  of  com- 
mons, compassionately  reflecting  on  the  distresses  of 


cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  381 

the  foresaid  complainers,  made  an  order  in   more  a.  d.  1645. 

particular  manner  for  the  clergy,  and  (seeing  it  is  — '• 1 

hard  to  come  by)  I  conceive  it  a  charitable  work 
here  to  insert  a  copy  thereof. 

Die  Jovis,  Nov.  11,  1647. — "  That  the  wives  andTh°°°py 
•*  children  of  all  such  persons  as  are,  or  have  been, 
u  or  shall  be,  sequestered  by  order  of  either  houses 
"  of  parliament,  shall  be  comprehended  within  the 
ordinance  that  alloweth  a  fifth  part  for  wives  and 
children,  and  shall  have  their  fifth  part  allowed 
*•  unto  them ;  and  the  committee  of  lords  and  com- 
u  mons  for  sequestration,  and  the  committee  of 
44  plundered  ministers,  and  all  other  committees,  are 
u  required  to  take  notice  hereof,  and  yield  obedi- 
"  ence  hereunto  accordingly. 

"  H.  Elsing, 
"  Clericus  parliamenti  domus  communis." 

35.  But  covetousness  will  wriggle  itself  out  at  Several 
a  small  hole.      Many  were  the  evasions  whereby  soured  to 
such  clergymen  possessed  of  their  livings  do  frus-  thUoSer. 
trate  and  defeat  the  effectual  payment  of  the  fifth 

part  to  the  aforesaid  wives  and  children  :  some  of 
which  starting-holes  we  will  here  present,  not  to 
the  intent  that  any  should  unjustly  hide  themselves 
herein,  but  that  for  the  future  they  may  be  stopped 
up,  as  obstructing  the  true  performance  of  the  par- 
liament's intended  courtesy. 

36.  First,  they  plead  that  taxes  being  first  de- Fim  eva- 
ducted,  tithes  are  so  badly  paid,  they  cannot  live 
and  maintain  themselves  if  they  must  still  pay  a 
fifth  part  out  of  the  remainder.  Such  consider  not, 
if  themselves  cannot  live  on  the  whole  grist,  how 
shall  the  families  of  such  sequestered  ministers  sub- 
sist on  the  tole. 


332  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1645.      37.  Secondly,  if  the  foresaid  minister  hath  a  wife 

—  without  children,  or  children  without  a  wife,  or  but 

■ion.  one  child,  they  deny  payment,  as  not  within  the 
letter,  though  the  equity,  of  the  order ;  though  one 
child  is  as  unable  to  live  on  nothing  as  if  there  were 
many  more. 

Third  e*a-  38.  Thirdly,  if  the  sequestered  minister  hath  any 
temporal  means  of  his  own,  or  since  his  sequestra- 
tion hath  acquired  any  place  wherein  he  officiateth, 
though  short  of  a  comfortable  subsistence,  they  deny 
payment  of  a  fifth  part  unto  him. 

Fourth eva-  89.  Fourthly,  they  affright  the  said  sequestered 
minister,  threatening  to  new  article  against  him  for 
his  former  faults ;  whereas,  had  he  not  been  reputed 
a  malignant,  not  a  fifth  part,  but  all  the  five  parts 
were  due  unto  him. 

Fifth  era.  40.  Fifthly,  many  who  have  livings  in  great 
towns,  especially  vicarages,  disclaim  the  receiving  of 
any  benefits  in  the  nature  of  tithes,  and  accept 
them  only  in  the  notion  of  benevolence.  Then  they 
plead  nothing  due  to  the  sequestered  minister  out 
of  the  free  gratuities  which  only  are  bestowed  upon 

s«th  eva-  4j#  Sixthly,  they  plead  that  nothing  can  be  de- 
manded by  virtue  of  the  said  ordinance,  longer 
than  the  sitting  of  the  said  parliament  which  made 
it,  which  long  since  is  dissolved :  now  though  this 
be  but  a  dilatory  plea,  (themselves  enjoying  the 
four  parts  by  virtue  of  the  same  order,)  yet  though 
it  doth  not  finally  blast,  it  doth  much  set  back  the 
fifth  part9  and  whilst  the  same  groweth  the  ministers' 
wives  and  children  starve. 

Seventh  4g#    Lastly,  of  late,  since  the  setting   forth  of 

the  proclamation,  "  that  all  who  disquiet  their  peace- 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  888 

"able  possession,  who  are  put  into  livings  by  th^'Sj'H5, 

parliament's  order,  should  be  beheld  as  enemies  of 

the  state;"  such  sequestered  ministers,  who  only 
sue  the  refusers  to  pay  the  fifth  part,  unblamable  in 
all  things  else,  are  threatened  (though  they  humbly 
conceived  contrary  to  the  true  intent  of  the  procla- 
mation) with  the  foresaid  penalty  if  they  desist  not 
in  their  suit.  Many  more  are  their  subterfuges, 
besides  vexing  their  wives  with  the  tedious  attend- 
ance to  get  orders  on  orders;  so  that  as  one  truly 
and  sadly  said,  the  fifths  are  even  paid  at  sixes  and 

43.  I  am  sorry  to  see  the  pitiful  and  pious  inten-  Remember 

*  toe  poor. 

tions  of  the  parliament  so  abused  and  deluded  by 
the  indirect  dealings  of  others,  so  that  they  cannot 
attain  their  intended  ends  for  the  relief  of  so  many 
poor  people,  seeing  no  doubt  therein  they  desired  to 
be  like  the  Best  of  Beings,  who  as  closely  applieth  His 
lenitive  as  corrosive  plasters,  and  that  His  mercy  may 
take  as  true  effect  as  His  justice.  Sure  if  the  present 
authority  (when  at  leisure  from  higher  employment) 
shall  be  pleased  to  take  the  groans  of  these  poor 
souls  into  its  consideration,  the  voice  of  their  hungry 
bowels  will  quickly  be  turned  to  a  more  pleasant  tune; 
from  barking  for  food  to  the  blessing  of  those  who 
procured  it.  Nor  let  any  censure  this  [as]  a  digress 
from  my  history,  for  though  my  estate  will  not  suffer 
me,  with  Job,  to  be  eyes  to  the  blind  and  feet  to  the 
lame1,  I  will  endeavour  what  I  can  to  be  a  tongue 
for  the  dumb. 

t  Job  xxix.  15. 

SECT.    XT 





I  find  that  my  namesake* <,  Thomas  Fuller,  teas  pilot  in  the 
ship  called  the  Desire,  wherein  captain  Cavendish  surrounded 
the  world. 

Far  be  it  from  me  to  compare  these  my  weak  undertakings 
to  his  great  adventures.  Yet  I  may  term  this  my  look  the 
Desire,  as  wherein  I  desire  to  please  and  profit  all,  justly 
to  displease  none.  Many  rocks  and  storms  have  I  passed, 
by  God's  blessing,  and  now  am  glad  of  so  firm  an  anchorage 
as  a  dedication  to  your  ladyship. 

I  believe,  Madam,  none  of  your  sex  in  our  nation  hath  tra- 
velled farther  than  yourself;  yet  this  section  of  our  history 

a  [Daughter  of  sir  Thomas 
Cave,  bart.  of  Stamford,  North- 
amptonshire ;  first  married  to 
sir  George  Beeston,  of  Cheshire. 
Collins,  ii.  176.  Sir  Thomas 
Roe,  son  of  Robert  Roe,  esq.  of 
Low  Lay  ton,  Wan  stead,  Essex, 
her  second  husband,  was  the 
celebrated  ambassador  employ- 
ed by  king  James  and  king 
Charles  in  various  negotiations 
in  Turkey,  Denmark,  Sweden, 
and  Germany.  At  his  death 
in  1 644,  he  bequeathed  several 
books  to  the  Bodleian  library  ; 
and  his  widow,  lady  Eleanor, 
enriched  it  with  a  collection  of 
silver  coins.  See  Wood's  Ath. 
"•  5  a.  These  are  the  armsof  the 

lady's  family,  (azure,  fretty,  ar- 
gent,) for  the  arms  of  Rowe, 
or  Roe,  as^given^in  the  scarce 
portrait  prefixed  to  his  Nego- 
tiations, are  the  same  as  those 
given  by  Morant;  a  chevron 
with /three  plates,  or  bezants, 
between  three  trefoils,  two  and 
one.  Hist,  of  Essex,  i.  p.  35. 
Of  his  lady,  (who  was  related 
to  the  loyal  Mrs.  Cave,  so  well 
known  for  her  services  to 
Charles  I.)  sir  Thomas  says,  in 
one  of  his  letters  to  secretary 
Calvert,  "  that  shee  was  yet 
•'  never  sick,  dismayed,  nor 
"  afraid  at  sea,"  p.  39.] 

b  Hackluit's  voyages,  partiii. 
p.  825. 

test.  xvii.         The  Church  History  of  Britain.  885 

may  afford  you  a  rarity  not  teen  before.     I  know  you  liaveA.D.  1648. 
mowed  the  tomb  of  S.  Polycarptu,  but  here  the  hearts  it  pre-  >*Cbm-L 
nented  unto  you  of  one  ichote  death  cannot  be  paralleled  in  ail 

ATELY  certain  delegates  from  theO^"«J»'. 
university  of  Oxford  pleaded  their  pri-the™ion 
vileges  before  the  committee  of  parlia- 
ment, that  they  were  only  visitable  by 
the  king,  and  such  who  should  be  de- 
puted by  him.  But  their  allegations  were  not  of 
proof  against  the  paramount  power  of  parliament, 
the  rather  because  a  passage  in  an  article  at  the 
rendition  of  Oxford  was  urged  against  them,  where- 
in they  were  subjected  to  such  a  visitation.  Where- 
upon many  masters  were  ejected  their  places,  new 
heads  of  houses  made,  and  soon  after  new  houses  to 
those  heads,  which  produced  great  alteration. 

2.  Come  we  now  to  the  church  part  of  the  treaty  der^men 
in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  as  the  sole  ecclesiastical  matter  the  ui»  or 
remaining :    here  appeared  of  the  divines  chosen  by 

the  king,  James  Usher,  archbishop  of  Armagh ; 
Brian  Duppa,  bishop  of  Salisbury ;  doctor  Sander- 
son, doctor  Sheldon,  doctor  Henry  Feme:  as  for 
doctor  Brownrigg,  bishop  of  Exeter,  (when  on  the 
way)  be  was  remanded  by  the  parliament  because 
under  restraint,  and  it  was  reported  that  Dr.  Pri- 
deaux,  bishop  of  Worcester,  wanted  (the  more  the 
pity.)  wherewith  to  accommodate  himself  for  the 
journey.  Mr.  Stephen  Marshall,  Mr.  Joseph  Caryl), 
Mr.  Richard  Vines,  and  Mr.  Lazarus  Seaman,  were 
present  there  by  appointment  from  the  parliament0. 

3.  It  was  not  permitted  for  either  side  personally*''" 
to  speak,  but  partly  to  prevent  the  impertinenciesw 

e  An  account  of  this  conference  was  published  separately. 

336  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1648.  of  oral   debates,    partly  that  a   more  steady  aim 
-- — ^-^  might  be    taken  of  their  mutual    arguments,   all 
things  were  transacted  in  scriptis :  his  majesty  con- 
sulted with  his  chaplains  when  he  pleased.     The 
king's  writings   were   publicly  read   before   all   by 
Mr.  Philip  Warwick,  and  Mr.  Vines  read  the  papers 
of  his  fellow  divines,  the  substance  whereof  we  come 
here  to  present. 
rfhi.6^       *•  His  majesty  began,  the  effect  of  whose  first 
joty'i  fint  paper  was  to  prove  that  the  apostles,  in  their  own 
persons,  by  authority d  derived   from  Christ,   exer- 
cised their  power  in  ordinations,  giving  rules  and 

ii.  That  Timothy  and  Titus6,  by  authority  derived 
from  the  apostles,  did  or  might  actually  exercise  the 
same  power  in  the  three  branches  specified. 

iii.  That  the  angels  of  the  seven  churches,  Rev. 
ii.  3,  were  so  many  persona  singulares  of  such  as  had 
a  prelacy,  as  well  over  pastors  as  people. 

From    the   premises,   his   majesty   inferred   that 
our  bishops  succeed  to  the  function  of  the  persons 
afore  named.     The  rather  because  the  same  plainly 
appeareth    out    of    the    history    of   the  primitive 
Church,  the  writings  of  Ignatius  and  other  ancient 
authors.     In  conclusion  his  majesty  desired  to  be 
satisfied  from  them ;  what  were  the  substantiate  of 
church  government   appointed  by  Christ   and    His 
apostles,   and   in   whose  hands  they  are  left,   and 
whether  they  bind  to  a  perpetual  observation  there- 
of;    or  may  upon  occasion  be  altered  in  whole  or  in 
mentdi-         5.  The  next  day  the  parliament  divines  put  in 
«w  there- Aeir  answer  to  the  king's  paper,  wherein  they  con- 
"**•  <*  Job.  xx.  2i.  e  Tit.  i.  5. 

cent.  xvii.  of  Britain.  337 

fessed,  that  the  places  of  scripture   cited   by  him  a.  d.  1648. 
proved,  in  those  persons  by  him   named,  a  power  — — — 
respectively  to  do  the  three  things  specified ;  but 
they  utterly  denied  that  the  foresaid  persons  were 
bishops  as  distinct  from  presbyters,  or  exercised  the 
government  in  that  sense. 

i.  To  the  instance  of  the  apostles,  they  answered, 
that  they  had  an  extraordinary  calling,  and  so  nothing 
thence  can  be  inferred  to  prove  modern  bishops. 

ii.  That  Timothy  and  Titus  were  evangelists,  and 
the  first  is  expressly  so  termed f ;  nor  could  they  be 
bishops,  who  resided  not  in  one  diocess,  but  often 
removed  from  place  to  place. 

iii.  That  the  denomination  of  the  angels  of  the 
churches  being  allegorical,  no  firm  argument  can  be 
taken  thence,  nor  weight  laid  thereon.  Besides, 
those  epistles  of  St.  John,  though  directed  to  one, 
were  intended  to  the  whole  body  of  the  church. 

They  denied  that  the  apostles  were  to  have  any 
successors  in  their  office,  affirming  but  two  standing 
officers  in  the  church ;  presbyterians  and  deacons* 
They  cited  Philippians  i.  1,  1  Tim*  iii.  8,  for  the 
proof  thereof;  where  there  is  no  mention  of  bishops 
as  distinct  from  presbyters,  but  of  the  two  orders 
only,  of  bishops  or  presbyters  and  deacons. 

6.  As  for  the  succeeding  ages  to  the  apostles, 
seeing  scripture  reacheth  not  unto  them,  they  can 
but  beget  a  human  faith,  which  is  uncertain  and 
fallible ;  besides,  such  the  darkness  of  those  times 
in  respect  of  church  history,  that  little  certainty 
can  be  thence  extracted,  yet  it  appeareth  in  Clement 
himself,  that  he  useth  the  same  word  for  bishop  and 

*  2  Tim.  iv.  5. 


388  The  Church  History  book  xt. 

a.d.  i648.  presbyter ;    and  as  for  Ignatius  his  Epistles,  little 
U  credit  is  to  be  given  unto  them. 

7.  Lastly,  there  is  a  great  difference  between  pri- 
mitive episcopacy  and  the  present  hierarchy,  as  much 
enlarged  in  their  power  and  privileges  by  many  tem- 
poral accessions,  whereof  no  shadow  or  pretence  in 
scripture.  In  conclusion,  they  humbly  besought  his 
majesty  to  look  rather  to  the  original  of  bishops  in 
holy  writ,  than  to  their  succession  in  human  history. 

8.  As  to  the  point  of  substantiate  in  church  go- 
vernment appointed  by  Christ,  wherein  his  majesty 
desired  satisfaction,  the  return  was  short  and  general, 
that  such  substantial  were  in  the  scripture,  not 
descending  to  any  particulars.  Whether  out  of 
policy,  foreseeing  it  would  minister  matter  of  more 
debate,  or  obedience  to  the  parliament,  as  alien 
from  the  work  they  were  designed  for,  who  were 
only  to  oppose  episcopacy  as  qualified  in  the  bill 
presented  to  his  majesty. 

The  king's      g#  Three  days  after  the  king  gave  in  his  answer 

rejoinder  to  J  °   ° 

the  pariia-  to  this  first  paper  of  the  divines,  wherein  he  acknow- 
yines.  1  edged  that  the  word  episcopus  (denoting  an  overseer 
in  the  general  sense)  agreeth  as  well  to  presbyters  as 
ministers,  in  which  respect  they  are  sometimes  in 
scripture  confounded,  both  meeting  in  the  joint  func- 
tion of  overseeing  God's  flock.  But  soon  after,  com- 
mon usage,  the  best  master  of  words,  appropriated 
episcopus  to  the  ecclesiastical  governor,  leaving  pres- 
byter to  signify  the  ordinary  minister,  or  priest,  as  in 
the  ancient  fathers  and  councils  doth  plainly  appear. 
10.  As  to  the  extraordinary  calling  of  the  apostles, 
he  confessed  their  unction  extraordinary,  consisting  in 
their  miraculous  gifts,  which  soon  after  ceased  when 
churches  were  planted,  but  he  urged  their  mission  to 

cent.  xvn.  of  Britain.  389 

govern  and  teach,  to  be  ordinary,  necessary,  and  per-  a.d.  1648. 

petual  in  the  church,  the  bishops  succeeding  them  in - 

the  former,  the  presbyters  in  latter  function. 

11.  Their  evasion  that  Timothy  and  Titus  were 
evangelists,  and  not  bishops,  is  clearly  refuted  by 
Scultetus,  Gerard,  and  others,  yea,  (as  his  majesty  is 
informed,)  is  rejected  by  some  rigid  presbyters,  as 
Gillespie,  Rutherford,  &c.  Besides,  that  Timothy 
and  Titus  were  bishops  is  confirmed  by  the  consen- 
tient testimony  of  antiquity,  (St.  Hierome  himself 
recording  them  made  by  St.  Paul's  ordination,)  as 
also  by  a  catalogue  of  twenty-seven  bishops  of  Ephe- 
sus,  lineally  succeeding  from  Timothy,  as  is  avouched 
by  Dr.  Reynolds  against  Hart. 

12.  If  the  angels  mentioned  in  the  Revelations 
were  not  singular  persons  who  had  a  prelacy  over 
the  church,  whether  were  they  the  whole  church,  or 
so  many  individual  pastors  therein,  or  the  whole 
college  of  presbyters,  or  singular  presidents  of  those 
colleges?  For  into  so  many  opinions  these  few  are 
divided  amongst  themselves,  who  herein  divide  them- 
selves from  the  ancient  interpretation  of  the  church 

13.  Concerning  ages  succeeding  the  apostles,  his 
majesty  confesseth  it  but  a  human  faith,  which  is 
begotten  on  human  testimonies,  yet  so  that  in 
matter  of  fact  it  may  be  infallible,  as  by  the  credit 
of  history  we  infallibly  know  that  Aristotle  was  a 
Greek  philosopher. 

14.  The  objected  obscurity  of  church  history  in 
primitive  times  is  a  strong  argument  for  episcopacy, 
which,  notwithstanding  the  darkness  of  those  times, 
is  so  clearly  extant  by  their  unquestionable  catalogues. 

15.  It  is  plain  out  of  Clement,  elsewhere,  even  by 


840  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.d.  1648.  the  confession  of  ones,  (not  suspected  to  favour  the 
!! 1  hierarchy,)  that  he  was  accounted  a  bishop  as  dis- 
tinct from  a  presbyter.  As  for  Ignatius  his  Epistles, 
though  some  out  of  partial  disaffection  to  bishops 
have  endeavoured  to  discredit  the  whole  volume  of 
them,  without  regard  of  ingenuity  or  truth ;  yet 
sundry  of  them,  attested  by  antiquity,  cannot  with 
any  forehead  be  denied  to  be  his,  giving  testimony 
of  the  prelacy  of  a  bishop  above  a  presbyter. 

16.  As  for  the  difference  between  primitive  epi- 
scopacy and  present  hierarchy,  his  majesty  did  not 
conceive  that  the  additions  granted  by  the  favour  of 
his  royal  progenitors  for  the  enlarging  of  the  power 
and  privileges  of  bishops,  did  make  the  government 
substantially  to  differ  from  what  it  was,  no  more 
than  arms  and  ornaments  make  a  body  really  dif- 
ferent from  itself,  when  it  was  naked  and  divested 
of  the  same. 

17.  Whereas  they  besought  his  majesty  to  look 
rather  to  the  original  than  succession  of  bishops,  he 
thought  it  needful  to  look  at  both,  the  latter  being  the 
best  clue  in  such  intrinsic  cases  to  find  out  the  former. 

18.  Lastly,  he  professed  himself  unsatisfied  in 
their  answer,  concerning  the  perpetual  and  unalter- 
able substantial  of  church  government,  as  expecting 
from  them  a  more  particular  resolution  therein  than 
what  he  had  received. 

The  return      19.  Eleven  days  after  the  parliament  divines  put 

liament  di-  in  their  answer  to  his  majesty's  last  paper ;  herein 

king.       ethey  affirmed,  they  saw  not  by  what  warrant  this 

writ  of  partition  of  the  apostles'  office  was   taken 

forth :    that  the  governing  part  should  be   in  the 

hands  of  the  bishops;  the  teaching  and  sacrament- 

8  Vedelius  Exerc.  8.  in  Ignat.  cap.  3. 

cxnt.  xvii.  of  Britain.  841 

izing  in  the  presbyters,  scripture  making  no  such  a. d.  i648. 

enclosure  or  partition  wall.     Besides,  the  challenge - 

of  episcopacy  is  grown  to  more  than  it  pretended 
to  in  ancient  times;  some  fathers11  acknowledging 
that  bishops  differed  from  presbyters  only  in  matter 
of  ordination. 

20.  The  abettors,  say  they,  of  this  challenge,  that 
they  might  resolve  it  at  last  into  scripture,  ascend  by 
the  scale  of  succession,  going  up  the  river  to  find 
the  head,  which,  like  the  head  of  Nile,  cannot  be 
found.  Such  who  would  carry  it  higher  endeavour 
to  impe  it  into  an  apostolical  office,  and  at  last  call 
it  a  divine  institution,  not  by  force  of  any  express 
precept,  but  implicit  practice  of  the  apostles. 

21.  They  also  returned  that  his  majesty's  defini- 
tion of  episcopal  government  is  extracted  out  of  the 
bishops  of  later  date  than  scripture  times. 

22.  Concerning  the  ages  succeeding  the  apostles. 
However  episcopal  government  was  generally  cur- 
rent, yet  the  superscription  thereof  was  not  judged 
divine  by  some  of  those  which  were  themselves 
bishops,  or  lived  under  that  government. 

23.  As  they  firmly  believed,  as  to  matter  of  fact, 
that  Chry80stom  and  Augustine  were  bishops,  as 
that  Aristotle  was  a  philosopher,  so  they  would 
rather  call  such  a  belief,  grounded  upon  human 
testimonies  uncontrolled,  certain  than  infallible. 

24.  The  darkness  of  the  history  of  the  church  in 
the  times  succeeding  the  apostles,  had  an  influence 
on  the  catalogue  makers,  who  derived  the  series 
of  the  succession  of  bishops,  taken  much  from  tra- 
dition and  reports;  and  it  is  a  great  blemish  of 
their  evidence,  that  the  nearer  they  come  to  the 

h  St.  Chrysost.  St.  Hierom,  and  of  moderns,  bishop  Bilson. 

z  3 

342  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  d.  1648.  apostles'  times,  (wherein  this  should  be  most  clear 

—  to  establish  the  succession  firm  at  the  first,)  they  are 

most  doubtful  and  contradictory  one  to  the  other. 

25.  They  granted  that  a  succession  of  men  to 
feed  and  govern  those  churches,  which  by  ecclesias- 
tical writers,  in  compliance  with  the  language  of 
their  own  times,  were  called  bishops,  but  not  distinct 
from  presbyters ;  so  that  if  such  a  succession  from 
the  primitive  times  seriatim  were  proved,  they  would 
either  be  found  more  than  bishops,  as  apostles  and 
extraordinary  persons,  or  less,  as  merely  first  presby. 
ters,  not  having  the  three  essentials  to  episcopal 
government  insisted  on  by  his  majesty. 

26.  As  for  Ignatius,  he  cannot  distinctly  be  known 
in  Ignatius  his  Epistles,  such  their  insincerity,  adul- 
terate mixture,  and  interpolations;  and  take  him 
gross,  he  is  the  patron  of  such  rites  as  the  church  in 
that  age  never  owned. 

27.  They  professed,  that  in  their  last  answer,  they 
related  not  to  a  school  nicety,  utrum  episcopatus  sit 
ordo  vel  grains,  the  question  being  stated  by  popish 
authors,  to  whom  they  had  no  eye  or  reference. 

28.  They  humbly  moved  his  majesty,  that  the 
regiments  of  human  testimonies  on  both  sides  might 
be  discharged  the  field,  and  the  point  of  dispute 
tried  alone  by  dint  of  holy  scripture. 

29.  They  honoured  the  pious  intentions  and  mag- 
nificence of  his  royal  progenitors,  acknowledging  the 
ornamental  accessions  to  the  persons  made  no  sub- 
stantial change  in  the  office;  but  still,  it  remained 
to  be  proved  that  primitive  episcopacy  and  present 
hierarchy  are  the  same. 

30.  They  affirmed  also  that  the  power  of  episco- 
pacy under  Christian  and  pagan  princes  is  one  and 


of  Britain. 


the  same,  though  the  exercise  be  not;    but  acknow-Ap-1^- 

ledging  the  subordination  thereof  to  the  sovereign 

power,  with  their  accountableness  to  the  laws  of 
the  land. 

81.  They  conclude  with  thanks  to  his  majesty's 
condescension  in  vouchsafing  them  the  liberty  and 
honour  in  examining  his  learned  reply,  praying  God 
that  a  pen  in  the  hand  of  such  abilities  might  ever 
be  employed  in  a  subject  worthy  thereof. 

32.  Some  days  after,  his  majesty  returned  his  last 
paper,  wherein  he  not  only  acknowledgeth  the  great 
pains  of  these  divines  to  inform  his  judgment  accord- 
ing to  their  persuasions,  but  also  took  especial  notice 
of  their  civilities  of  the  application,  both  in  the  be- 
ginning and  body  of  their  reply. 

33.  However   he   told   them   they   mistook   his 

meaning  when  they of  a  writ  of  partition,  as  if 

his  majesty  had  cantoned  out  the  episcopal  govern- 
ment, one  part  to  the  bishops,  another  to  the  pres- 
byterians  alone ;  whereas  his  meaning  was,  that  the 
office  of  teaching  is  common  to  both  alike,  but  the 
other  of  governing  peculiar  to  bishops  alone !. 

1  [On  account  of  the  abrupt 
termination  of  this  passage,  our 
author  was  thus  attacked  by 
his  indefatigable  censurer,  Dr. 
Heylin :  "  The  man  who  reads 
"  this  passage  cannot  choose  but 
"  think  that  his  majesty,  being 
"  vanquished  by  the  arguments 
"  of  the  presbyterians,  had 
"  given  over  the  cause ;  and 
"  therefore,  as  convicted  in  his 
"  conscience,  rendereth  them 
"  thanks  for  the  instruction 
which  he  had  received,  and 
the  civilities  they  used  to- 
"  wards  him  in  the  way  there* 



"  of.  But  he  that  looks  upon 
"  his  majesty's  last  paper,  will 
"  find  that  he  had  learnedly 
"  and  divinely  refelled  all  their 
"arguments;  and  having  so 
"  done,  puts  them  in  *mind  of 
"  three  questions  which  are 
"  proposed  in  his  former  pa- 
'•  per,  acknowledged  by  thera- 
'•  selves  to  be  of  great  import- 
"  ance  in  the  present  contro- 
"  versy ;  without  an  answer 
"  whereunto,  his  majesty  de- 
"  clared  that  he  would  put 
"  an  end  to  that  conference. 
"  *  //  not  being  probable,'  as  he 

Z  4 

844  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a. d.  i648.     34.  I  know  not  what  truth  there  was  in  (and  by 

-consequence  what  belief  is  to  be  given  to)  their 

quantusau- intelligence,  who  have  reported  and  printed  that  in 
order  of  a  pacification  his  majesty  condescended, 

i.  That  the  office  of  ordination  for  the  space  of 
three  years  should  not  be  exercised  by  the  bishops 
without  the  assent  of  the  presbytery,  and  if  this  did 
not  please, 

ii.  That  it  should  be  suspended  until  twenty  of 
his  own  nomination,  consulting  with  the  synod,  (as- 
sembled by  the  appointment  of  the  houses,)  should 
determine  some  certainty  touching  some  ecclesias- 
tical government. 

iii.  That  in  the  meantime  the  presbytery  should 
be  settled  for  experiment  sake. 

iv.  That  though  he  would  not  suffer  bishops' 
lands  to  be  sold  and  alienated  from  the  church,  yet 
he  permitted  them  to  be  let  out  for  ninety-nine 
years,  paying  a  small  price  yearly  in  testimony  of 
their  hereditary  right  for  the  maintenance  of  bishops. 

v.  That  after  that  time  expired  they  should  return 
to  the  crown,  to  be  employed  for  the  use  of  the 

Here  some  presumed  to  know  his  majesty's  in* 
tention;  that  he  determined  with  himself  in  the 
interim  to  redeem  them  by  their  own  revenues,  and 


told  them,  '  that  they  should  "  those  questions,  his  majesty 

work   much  upon  his  judg-  "  remained  sole  master  of  the 

"  ment,  whilst  they  are  fearful  u  field,   &c."     To  this  Fuller 

••  to  declare  their  own,  norpos-  replies;  "  The  posting  press— 

"  sible  to  relieve  his  conscience  "  —  mistaking  my  copy  com- 

but  by   a  free  declaring  of  "  plete,  and  not  attending  my 

theirs  J     But  they  not  able  "  coming  from    London   that 

or   not   daring,  for   fear   of  "  morning  from  Waltham,clapt 

"  displeasing  their  great  mas-  "  it  up  imperfect."  Appeal,  6rc, 

"  tere,  to  return  an  answer  to  p.  48.] 



of  Britain. 


to  refund  them  to  ecclesiastical  uses,  which  is  pro- a.  d.  1648. 

portionable  to  his  large  heart k  in  matters  of  that  !i " 


35.  Many  now  did  hope  for  a  happy  agreement  The  king 
betwixt  the  king  and  parliament,  when  divine  Pro-fromthe 

•  Tiff 

vidence  (whose  ways  are  often  above  reason  but  ^ht  and 
never  against  right)  had  otherwise  ordered  it;  and^£^j£ 
seeing  it  was  God's  will,  it  shall  be  ours  to  submit 
thereunto1.  Oh,  what  can  a  day  bring  forth  I m 
especially  some  pregnant  day  in  the  crisis  of  matters, 
producing  more  than  what  many  barren  years  before 
beheld.  The  king's  person  is  seized  on  and  brought 
up  to  London,  arraigned  before  a  select  committee 
for  that  purpose,  indicted,  and  upon  his  refusal  to 
own  their  authority,  finally  condemned.     But  these 

k  For  he  gave  the  duke  of 
Richmond  the  entire  revenues 
of  the  archbishopric  of  Glasgow. 
in  Scotland,  to  hold  them  until 
he  should  furnish  him  with 
lands  of  the  same  value,  ex- 
pressing then  his  resolution  to 
restore  them  to  the  church. 

1  [There  seems  to  have  been 
a  hope  entertained  at  this  time 
by  some  of  the  more  moderate, 
that  an  amicable  arrangement 
might  have  been  made  between 
the  king  and  the  parliament. 
Mr.  Evelyn  in  this  year  has 
made  the  following  entry  in 
his  diary :  "  4  May.  Came 
"  up  the  Essex  petitioners  for 
"  an  agreement  'twixt  his  ma- 
"  jesty  and  the  rebels.  The 
••  1 6th,  the  Surrey  men  ad- 
"  dressed  the  parliament  for 
"  the  same  ;  of  which  some  of 
"  them  were  slain  and  murder- 

"  ed  by  Cromwell's  guards  in 
••  the  New  Palace  Yard."  Pro- 
bably, their  desires  would  have 
been  frustrated,  had  it  not  been 
for  the  army,  at  this  time  quar- 
tered at  Whitehall.  Indeed 
so  general  was  the  expectation 
that  the  city  would  be  plun- 
dered by  the  soldiers,  that  a 
proclamation  was  issued  "  for 
"  all  to  stand  on  their  guard." 
At  the  13th  Dec.  there  is 
the  following  entry  in  Mr. 
Evelyn's  diary:  "The  parlia- 
"  ment  now  sat  up  the  whole 
"  night  and  endeavoured  to 
"  have  concluded  the  Isle  of 
"  Wight  treaty,  but  were  sur- 
"  prised  by  the  rebel  army ;  the 
"  members  dispersed,  and  great 
"  confusion  everywhere  in  ex- 
"  pectation  of  what  would  be 
"  next."] 

m  Prov.  xxvii.  1. 

846  The  Church  History  book  xi. 



.  d.  1648.  things  belong  to  the  historian  of  the  state,  and  this 
4    — -  subject  in  itself  is  not  so  amiable  and  tempting  as  to 
invite  us   to  trespass  in  the  property  of  others  in 
courting  the  prosecution  thereof. 
3**™****      86.  My  cue  of  entrance  is  to  come  in  where  the 
de  mihu     state  writer  doth  go  out,  whose  pen  hath  always  fol- 
lowed the  confessors  into  the  chambers  of  dying 
people ;    and  now  must   do  its   last  devoir  to   my 
gracious  master,  in  describing  his  pious  death  and 
solemn  burial. 
He  haareth     yjm  n  Having  received  in  himself  the  sentence  of 

the  last  aer-  °  • 

mon.  death,  Dr.  Juxon,  bishop  of  London,  preached  pri- 
vately before  him,  at  St.  James',  on  the  Sunday 
following;  his  text,  Rom.  ii.  16,  In  the  day  when 
God  shall  judge  the  secrets  of  men  by  Jesus  Christ, 
according  to  my  gospel. 

Receives         88.  Next  Tuesday  being  the  day  of  his  dissolu- 

theoominu-    . 

nion.  tion,  in  the  morning,  alone,  he  received  the  com- 
munion from  the  hands  of  the  said  bishop0;  at  which 
time  he  read  for  the  second  lesson  the  27th  chapter 
of  St.  Matthew,  containing  the  history  of  the  death 
and  passion  of  our  Saviour.  Communion  ended,  the 
king  heartily  thanked  the  bishop  for  selecting  so 
seasonable  and  comfortable  a  portion  of  scripture, 
seeing  all  human  hope  and  happiness  is  founded  on 
the  sufferings  of  our  Saviour.  The  bishop  modestly 
disavowed  any  thanks  due  to  himself,  it  being  done 

n  [For   the  most  complete  "  of  Commons,   and    attested 

and  authentic  information   of  "  under  the  hand  of  Phelps, 

the  trial  of  Charles  I.,  see  "  A  "  clerk  to  that  infamous  court. 

"  true  copy  of  the  Journal  of  "  Taken    by    J.  Nalson,    &c. 

"  the  High  Court  of  Justice  "  1 684."] 
"  for  the  Trial  of  Charles  I.,         °  [Nalson,  p.  112.] 
"  as  it  was  read  in  the  House 


of  Britain. 



merely  by  the  direction  of  the  Church  of  England,  a.  d.  1648. 

whose  rubric  appointeth  that  chapter  the  second  — ' 

morning  lesson  for  the  thirtieth  of  January. 

39.  His  hour  drawing  nigh,  he  passed  thorough  ,8P*tl«?t 
the  Park  to  Whitehall :  as  he  always  was  observed  fronted. 
to  walk  very  fast,  so  now  he  abated  not  any  whit  of 
his  wonted  pace.  In  his  passage,  a  sorry  fellow 
(seemingly  some  mean  citizen)  went  abreast  along 
with  him,  and  in  an  affront  often  stared  his  majesty 
in  the  face,  which  caused  him  to  turn  it  another  way. 
The  bishop  of  London,  though  not  easily  angered, 
was  much  offended  hereat,  as  done  out  of  despite- 
ful design,  to  discompose  him  before  his  death,  and 
moved  the  captain  of  the  guard  he  might  be  taken 
away,  which  was  done  accordingly?. 

P  [The  proceedings  against 
the  king  to  the  very  last  mo- 
ment were  marked  with  signal 
barbarity.       He    was   fetched 
from  St.  James's  to  Whitehall 
at  ten  in  the  morning;  when  he 
arrived  at  the  place  of  execution 
the  scaffold  was  not  fully  pre- 
pared, and  he  was  consequently 
compelled  to  wait  in  this  painful 
suspense  for  two  hours.     Dur- 
ing his  trial  the  brutal  Brad, 
shaw  had  interrupted  him  in 
all  attempts  to  justify  his  con. 
duct,  and  now,  at  the  last  mo- 
ment, the  tyrants  artfully  con- 
trived  to   prevent    his    being 
heard  by  posting   soldiers    at 
inch  distances  as  checked  the 
approach  of  the  spectators,  and 
frustrated  the  king's  design  of 
addressing  them.     The  follow- 
ing remarks,  which  are  found 
in    Nalson'8    History   of    the 
Trial,  supply  some  particulars 
omitted  by  Fuller,  and  are  too 

interesting  to  be  neglected  : — 
"  About  two  of  the  clock,"  says 
that  writer,  ••  his  majesty  was 
"  brought  from  St.  James'  to 
"  Whitehall  by  a  regiment  of 
"  foot,  with  colours  flying  and 
"  drums  beating,  part  marching 
"  before  and  part  behind,  with 
*'  a  private  guard  of  partisans 
"  about  him,  the  bishop  on  the 
"  one  hand  and  colonel  Tom- 
"  linson  (who  had  the  charge  of 
"  him)  on  the  other,  both  bare- 
"  headed ;  his  majesty  walking 
"  very  fast,  and  bidding  them 
"  go  faster,  added :  '  That  he 
"  now  went  before  them  to 
"  strive  for  a  heavenly  crown, 
"  with  less  solicitude  than  he 
"  had  often  encouraged  his  sol- 
"  diers  to  fight  for  an  earthly 
'•  diadem.' 

"  Being  come  to  the  end  of 
"  the  Park,  he  went  up  the 
"  stairs  leading  to  the  long  gal- 
"  lery  in  Whitehall,  and  so  in. 

348  The  Church  History  book  xi. 

a.  0.1648.      40.  Entering  on  the  floor  of  death,  he  asked  of 
colonel  Tomhn8on,  who  attended  there,  whether  he 

His  last 

question,  might  have  the  liberty  to  dispose  of  his  own  body, 
as  to  the  place  and  manner  of  the  burial  thereof? 
The  colonel  answered  that  he  could  give  his  majesty 
no  account  at  all  therein. 

and  speech       41.  His  majesty  held  in  his  hand  a  small  piece  of 

printed,  paper,  some  four  inches  square,  containing  heads 
whereon  in  his  speech  he  intended  to  dilate ;  and  a 
tall  soldier,  looking  over  the  king's  shoulders,  read  it 
as  the  king  held  it  in  his  hand.  As  for  the  speech 
which  passeth  in  print  for  the  king's,  though  taken 
in  short-hand  by  one  eminent  therein,  it  is  done  so 
defectively  it  deserveth  not  to  be  accounted  his 
speech,  by  the  testimony  of  such  as  heard  it.  His 
speech  ended,  he  gave  that  small  paper  to  the  bishop 
of  London  1. 

well  pre.         42.  After  his  death,  the  officers  demanded  the 

▼en  ted. 

"  to  the  cabinet  chamber,  where  "  side  of  the  street,  which  hin- 

"  he  used  formerly  to   lodge.  "  dered  the   approach    of  the 

"  There,  finding  an  unexpect-  "  very    numerous    spectators, 

"  ed  delay    in  being   brought  "  and  the  king  from  speaking 

"  upon  the  scaffold,  which  they  "  what  he  had  premeditated." 

"had   not  as  then   fitted,  he  Nalson,   Trial,    p.  113.      The 

"  passed  the  time  at  convenient  fatal  stroke  was  given  within  a 

"  distances  in  prayer.      About  minute  of  two  o'clock  in  the 

"  twelve  of  the  clock,  his  ma-  afternoon,  Sanderson,  1 138,  by 

"  jesty,  refusing  to  dine,  only  the   executioner,  who  wore  a 

"  ate  a  bit  of  bread  and  drank  vizard.] 

"  a  glass  of  claret,  and  about  an         Q  [He  spoke  very  little,  di- 

u  hour  after,  colonel  Hacker,  reeling  himself  chiefly  to  colonel 

"  with  other  officers  and  sol-  Tomlinson  ;   the  rebels  having 

"  diers,  brought  him,  with  the  taken  the  precaution  of  posting 

"  bishop  and  colonel  Tomlin-  numerous  companies  of  horse 

"  son,  through  the  banqueting  and  foot  on  each  side  of  the 

"  house    to    the    scaffold,   to  street  to  prevent  the  approach 

"  which  the  passage  was  made  of  the  populace.     Nalson,  ib. 

"through  a  window.     Divers  p.  113,  who  has  preserved  the 

"  companies  of  foot  and  troops  king's  speech  on  this  occasion.] 
"  of  horse  were  placed  on  each 


of  Britain. 


paper  of  the  bishop;    who,  because  of  the  depth  ofA.D.  1648. 

his  pocket,  smallness  of  that  paper,  and  the  mixture - 

of  others  therewith,  could  not  so  soon  produce  it  as 
was  required.  At  last  he  brought  it  forth,  but 
therewith  the  others  were  unsatisfied,  (jealousy  is 
quick  of  growth,)  as  not  the  same  which  his  majesty 
delivered  unto  him ;  when  presently  the  soldier, 
whose  rudeness  (the  bad  cause  of  a  good  effect)  had 
formerly  over  inspected  it  in  the  king's  hand,  attested 
this  the  very  same  paper,  and  prevented  farther  sus- 
picions, which  might  have  terminated  to  the  bishop's 
trouble r. 

43.  On  the  Wednesday  sennight  after8,  his  corpse,  hu  oorpw 
embalmed  and  coffined  in  lead,  was  delivered  to  the  Windsor. 
care  of  two  of  his  servants  to  be  buried  at  Windsor ; 
the  one  Anthony  Mildmay,  who  formerly  had  been 
his  sewer,  as  I  take  it ;  the  other,  John  Joyner,  bred 
first  in  his  majesty's  kitchen,  afterwards  a  parliament 
captain,  since  by  them  deputed  (when  the  Scots 
surrendered  his  person)  cook  to  his  majesty.  This 
night  they  brought   the   corpse   to   Windsor,   and 



*  ["  From  the  bishop  of 
London,  long  time  kept  pri- 
soner," says  Sanderson,  "they 
take  away  all  the  king's  pa- 
"  pers,  ransack  his  coffers  and 
"  clothes  for  scripts  and  scrolls; 
"  but  Almighty  God  in  his  pro- 
"  vidence  hath  preserved  a  vo- 
"  lame  of  the  king's  own  apost- 
"  hume  work."  Reign  of  King 
Charles,  p.  1139.] 

»  [A 8  soon  as  the  head  was 
severed  from  the  body,  it  was 
placed  in  a  coffin,  and  covered 
with  a  black  velvet  pall.  On 
its  removal  to  the  king's  house 
at   St.  James's,  a  great  mul- 

titude of  people  pressed  for- 
ward to  see  the  king  in  the 
place  where  he  lay,  but  few 
had  leave  to  enter  and  behold 
it.  Here  his  enemies,  with  a 
malice  and  villany  almost  un- 
paralleled in  history,  "  direct. 
"  ed  their  empirics  to  search 
"  for  such  symptoms  as  might 
"  disgrace  his  person  or  his  pos- 
"  teritv ;  but  herein  thev  were 
"  prevented  by  an  honest  in- 
"  trader,  who  gave  a  true  ac- 
"  count  of  his  sound  and  ex- 
"  cellent  temperament."  Nal- 
son,  ibid.  p.  118.  Sanderson, 
p.  1 138] 


The  Church  History 


a.d.  1648.  digged  a  grave  for  it  in  St.  George  bis  chapel,  on 

A Lithe  south  side  of  the  communion-table*. 

The  lords       44.   But  next  day  the  duke  of  Richmond",  the 

follow  after  ~ 

it.  marquis  of  Hertfordx,  and  earls  of  Southampton* 

and  Lindsey*  (others,  though  sent  to,  declining  the 
service,  so  far  was  their  fear  above  their  gratitude  to 
their  dead  master)  came  to  Windsor  and  brought 
with  them  two  votes  passed  that  morning  in  parlia- 
ment ;  wherein  the  ordering  of  the  king's  burial,  for 
the  form  and  manner  thereof,  was  wholly  committed 
to  the  duke  of  Richmond,  provided  that  the  expense 
thereof  exceeded  not  five  hundred  pounds.  Coming 
into  the  castle,  they  shewed  their  commission  to  the 
governor,  colonel  Whichcot,  desiring  to  inter  the 
corpse  according  to  the  Common  Prayer-Book  of 
the  Church  of  England ;  the  rather  because  the  par- 
liament's total  remitting  the  manner  of  the  burial  to 
the  duke's  discretion  implied  a  permission  thereof. 
This  the  governor  refused,  alleging  it  was  improbable 
that  the  parliament  would  permit  the  use  of  what  so 
solemnly  they  had  abolished,  and  therein  destroy 
their  own  act. 
Thegover-  45.  The  lords  returned,  that  there  was  a  differ- 
lution.       ence  betwixt  destroying  their  own  act,  and  dispens- 

t  [Their  wish,  in  the  first 
instance,  was  to  have  buried 
the  body  in  king  Henry  the 
Seventh's  chapel,  in  Westmin- 
ster Abbey,  but  this  was  de- 
nied them  ;  his  enemies  con- 
ceiving that  the  sympathies  of 
the  people  would  be  too  vio- 
lently moved  by  so  public  a 
funeral,  and  a  disturbance  be 
created,  which  "  was  judged 
"  unsafe  and  inconvenient."] 

u  [James  Stewart.] 

*  [William  Seymour.] 

T  [Thomas  Wriothealey.] 

*  [Montague*  Bertie.  To 
these  names  should  be  added 
that  of  Juxon,  bishop  of  Lon- 
don. Whatever  praise,  how- 
ever, is  due  to  this  service,  be- 
longs to  Mr.  Herbert  and  bi- 
shop Juxon ;  and  let  them  have 
it  ;  these  lords  came  in  when 
the  others  were  already  con- 
siderably advanced  in  their 

ckkt.  xvii.  of  Britain.  861 

wg   with   it,   or  suspending  the  exercise  thereof.  A.  D.  1648. 

That  no  power  so  bindeth  up  its  own  hands  as  to - 

disable  itself  in  some  cases  to  recede  from  the  rigour 
of  their  own  acts,  if  they  should  see  just  occasion. 
All  would  not  prevail,  the  governor  persisting  in  the 
negative,  and  the  lords  betook  themselves  to  their 
sad  employment. 

46.  They  resolved  not  to  inter  the  corpse  in  the  T^f  ,opdi» 

with  much 

grave  which  was  provided  for  ita,  but  in  a  vault,  Marching, 
if  the  chapel  afforded  any.  Then  fall  they  a  search- 
ing, and  in  vain  seek  for  one  in  king  Henry  the 
Eighth  his  chapel,  (where  the  tomb  intended  for 
him  by  cardinal  Wolsey  lately  stood,)  because  all 
there  was  solid  earth ;  besides,  this  place,  at  the  pre- 
sent used  for  a  magazine,  was  unsuiting  with  a 
solemn  sepulture.  Then  with  their  feet  they  tried 
the  quire,  to  see  if  a  sound  would  confess  any  hol- 
lowness  therein,  and  at  last  (directed  by  one  of  the 
aged  poor  knights)  did  light  on  a  vault  in  the  middle 

47.  It  was  altogether  dark,  as  made  in  the  midst  Thede- 
of  the  quire,  and  an  ordinary  man  could  not  stand  thereof. 
therein  without  stooping,  as  not  past  five  foot  high. 

In  the  midst  thereof  lay  a  large  leaden  coffin,  with 
the  feet  towards  the  east,  and  a  far  less  on  the 
left  side  thereof.  On  the  other  side  was  room, 
neither  to  spare  nor  to  want,  for  any  other  coffin 
of  a  moderate  proportion. 

48.  That   one   of  the   order  was   buried   there,  One  of  the 
plainly  appeared  by  perfect  pieces  of  purple  velvet  therein, 
(their  proper  habit)  remaining  therein;  though  some 
pieces  of  the   same   velvet  were  fox-tawney,  and 

*  [That  is,  an  ordinary  grave  provided  by  the  governor.] 

862  The  Church  History  book  %l 

a.  d.  1648.  some  coal-black,  (all  eye  of  purple  being  put  out 
— —  therein,)  though   all  originally  of  the  same   cloth! 

varying  the  colour,  as   it  met  with   more   or  less 

moisture  as  it  lay  in  the  ground. 
Piwumed       49,  Now  a  concurrence  of  presumptions  concluded 

to  be  king  r  .        TT 

Henry  the  this  great  coffin  to  contain  the  corpse  of  king  Henry 
the  Eighth,  though  there  was  neither  arms  nor  any 
inscription  to  evidence  the  same. 

8eeitinthe     j#  The  place  exactly  corresponds  to  the  designa- 

end  of  king 

Henry  his  tion  of  his  burial,  mentioned  in  his  last  will  and 
I*lgn*        testament. 

ii.  The  small  coffin  in  all  probability  was  his 
queen's,  Jane  Seymour's,  (by  whom  in  his  will  he 
desired  to  be  buried,)  and  the  room  on  the  other 
side  seems  reserved  for  his  surviving  wife,  queen 
Katherine  Parr. 

iii.  It  was  never  remembered  nor  recorded  that 
any  subject  of  that  order  was  interred  in  the  body 
of  that  quire,  but  in  by  chapels. 

iv.  An  hearse  stood  over  this  vault  in  the  days  of 
queen  Elizabeth,  which  (because  cumbering  the  pas- 
sage) was  removed  in  the  reign  of  king  James. 

I  know  a  tradition  is  whispered  from  mouth  to 
mouth,  that  king  Henry  his  body  was  taken  up  and 
burned  in  the  reign  of  queen  Mary,  and  could  name 
the  knight  (her  privy  councillor,  and  then  dwelling 
not  far  off)  muttered  to  be  employed  in  this  in- 
humau  action.  This  prevailed  so  far  on  the  lord 
Herbert's  belief,  that  he  closeth  his  History  of  King 
Henry  the  Eighth  with  these  suspicious  words,  "  To 
"  conclude,  I  wish  I  could  leave  him  in  his  grave." 
But  there  is  no  certainty  hereof,  and  more  probable 
that  here  he  quietly  was  reposed.  The  lead  coffin 
being  very  thin  was  at  this  time  casually  broken, 


of  Britain. 


and   some  yellow  stuff,   altogether  scentless,   Hke  ^- DjjiJM. 

powder  of  gold,  taken  out  of  it,  (conceived  some 

ezsiccative  gums  wherewith  he  was  embalmed,) 
which  the  duke  caused  to  be  put  in  again  and  the 
coffin  closed  upb. 

50.  The  vault  thus  prepared,  a  scarf  of  lead  was  The  leaden 

*       *  inscription 

provided  some  two  foot  long  and  five  inches  broad,  onhiscoffin. 
therein  to  make  an  inscription.  The  letters  the  duke 
himself  did  delineate,  and  then  a  workman  was  called 
to  cut  them  out  with  a  chisel.  It  bare  some  debate 
whether  the  letters  should  be  made  in  those  con- 
cavities to  be  cut  out,  or  in  the  solid  lead  betwixt 
them.  The  latter  was  concluded  on,  because  such 
vacuities  are  subject  to  be  soon  filled  up  with  dust 
and  render  the  inscription  less  legible,  which  was 

KING    CHARLES,    1648. 

The  plumber  soldered  it  to  the  coffin  about  the 
breast  of  the  corpse  within  the  samec. 

51.  All  things  thus  in  readiness,  the  corpse  wasThecorpw 
brought  to  the  vault,  being  borne  by  the  soldiers 

of  the  garrison ;    over  it  a  black  velvet  hearse-cloth, 

*  [See  a  very  interesting  pa- 
per by  sir  Henry  Halford,  with 
the  following  title  :  "  An  Ac- 
"  count  of  what  Appeared  on 
"  Opening  the  Coffin  of  King 
"  Charles  the  First,  in  the 
"  Vault  of  King  Henry  the 
"  Eighth  in  St.  George's  Cha- 
M  pel  at  Windsor,  on  the  First 
"  of  April,  1 813."  Reprinted 
at  the  end  of  the  second  vo- 
lume of  the  Life  of  James  the 
Second,  edited  by  Dr.  Clarke.] 

*  [Herbert  mentions  a  very 
touching  circumstance  in  his 


affecting  narrative  :  "  This  is 
"  memorable,"  he  says,  "  that 
"  at  such  time  as  the  king's 
"  body  was  brought  out  of  St. 
"  George's  Hall,  the  sky  was 
"  serene  and  clear,  but  pre- 
"  sently  it  began  to  snow,  and 
"  fell  so  fast,  as  by  that  time 
"  they  came  to  the  west  end  of 
"  the  royal  chapel  the  black 
"  velvet  pall  was  all  white, 
"  (the  colour  of  innocency,)  be- 
"  ing  thick  covered  over  with 
"  snow."  Memoirs,  p.  206.] 

A  a 

864  27*e  Church  History  of  Britain.         book  xi. 

a. d.  1648. the  four  labels  whereof  the  four  lords  did  support: 

44  Chas.  I.  rr 

the  bishop  of  London  stood  weeping  by,  to  tender 

that  his  service  which  might  not  be  accepted.  Then 
was  it  deposited  in  silence  and  sorrow  in  the  vacant 
place  in  the  vault  (the  hearse-cloth  being  cast  in 
after  it)  about  three  of  the  clock  in  the  afternoon, 
and  the  lords  that  night  (though  late)  returned  to 


[As  Fuller  has  passed  over  the  last  two  years  of  this  king's  reign 
in  a  very  rapid  and  cursory  manner,  it  has  been  thought  advisable 
to  reprint,  by  way  of  supplement,  the  Memoirs  of  Sir  Thomas 
Herbert,  who  attended  the  king  in  his  bedchamber  during  that 
period,  and  was  a  loyal  adherent  to  his  royal  master  in  the  time 
of  his  greatest  troubles.] 

MEMOIRS,   &c. 


BY  yours  of  the  22nd  of  August  last,  1679,  I  find  you 
have  received  my  former  letters  of  the  first  and  thir- 
teenth of  May,  1678.  And  seeing  it  is  your  further  desire  I 
should  recollect  what  I  can  well  remember  upon  that  sad  sub- 
ject, more  at  large,  I  am  willing  to  satisfy  you  therein,  so  far 
forth  as  my  memory  will  assist. 

Some  short  notes  of  occurrences  I  then  took,  which,  in  this 
long  interval  of  time,  and  several  removes  with  my  family,  are 
either  lost  or  mislaid,  so  as  at  present  I  cannot  find  them ; 

*  This  Memoir  took  its  rise  from  heard  the  king  express  a  wish  in  re- 

the  following  circumstance : — About  gard  to  the  bestowing  of  his  body 

the  year  1677  or  1678,  the  parlia-  after  death.  Sir  Thomas  in  his  answer 

ment  having  voted  a  large  sum  of  enlarged  upon  various  particulars, 

money  towards  a  solemn  funeral  of  then  little  known,   which  induced 

the  late  king,  sir  William  Dugdale,  sir  William  Dugdale  to  request  of 

who  had  the  superintendence  of  the  him  the  following  short  treatise  here 

ceremonies,  as  Garter  King  of  Arms,  reprinted.    See  Wood's  Ath.  ii.  692. 

tent  to  sir  Thomas  Herbert  to  in-  Sir  Thomas  died  at  York  in  1682, 

quire  of  him  whether  he  had  ever  aged  76. 


356  Herberts  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

which  renders  this  narrative  not  so  methodical,  nor  so  largo, 
as  otherwise  I  should,  and  probably  by  you  may  be  expected. 
Nor  would  I  trouble  you  with  what  any  other  has  written, 
but,  in  a  summary  way,  give  you  some  court  passages,  which 
I  observed,  during  the  last  two  years  of  his  late  majesty*! 
life  and  reign,  being  the  time  of  his  solitude  and  sufferings. 
Neither  will  I  retrospect  to  times  of  hostility,  which  (as  I 
imagine)  ceased  in  or  about  the  month  of  August,  1646 b,  nor 
speak  of  the  grounds  of  that  unhappy  and  destructive  war, 
occasioned  either  by  a  contest  for  the  militia  in  this  kingdom, 
or  from  some  uproars  in  Scotland,  arising  (as  pretended)  by 
our  introducing  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  in  conformity 
to  the  liturgy;  which  they  retaliated  by  endeavouring  to 
impose  upon  us  their  discipline  and  forms  of  a  Presbytery. 

These,  with  some  other  apprehensions,  made  the  first  dif- 
ference betwixt  the  king  and  parliament.  But  referring  you 
to  the  histories  which  fully  mention  those  things,  you  may 
there  observe,  that  about  the  middle  of  April,  1646,  the  king 
being  then  at  Oxford,  had  certain  intelligence  that  sir  Thomai 
Fairfax  was  returned  out  of  the  western  countries,  and  upon 
the  27th  of  that  month  arrived  at  Newbury  with  his  army,  in 
order  to  his  besieging  the  city  of  Oxford,  which  accordingly 
was,  within  four  days  after,  invested :  so  as  his  majesty  thought 
fit  to  leave  that  important  garrison  to  the  care  of  sir  Thomas 
Glenham,  the  governor,  a  valiant  and  expert  warrior,  and  in 
the  night  season,  disguised  and  attended  only  by  his  servant 
Ashburnhamc  and  Dr.  Hudson,  hastened  to  the  Leager  before 
Newark,  which  at  that  time  was  on  the  one  side  straitened  by 
major-general  Poyntz,  who  commanded  there  the  parliament 
forces;  and  on  the  other  by  general  Levend  and  the  Scots 
army,  into  whose  hands  his  majesty  was  pleased  to  intrust 
himself,  having  (it  seems)  a  solemn  engagement  from  them  to 
defend  his  royal  person  with  their  lives  and  fortunes ;  and  not 
a  little  rejoicing  was  expressed  in  their  camp  at  his  majesty's 
reception.  For  at  his  command,  the  10th  of  May,  the  garrison 
was  forthwith  surrendered  by  the  lord  Bellasis,  the  governor; 

b  Sir  Thomas  was  admitted  to  his        c  See   Ashburnham's    Memoir* 
place  as  groom  of  the  bedchamber    p.  57,  80. 
m  1647.  •  That  is,  Alexander  Lesley. 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  357 

the  English  forces  were  put  into  possession  of  the  town 
id  castle,  which  was  well  provided  for  defence ;  and  the  Scots 
mug  got  the  king  into  their  hands,  marched  with  great  haste 
to  the  north,  till  they  attained  Newcastle,  where  they  rested, 
airing  that  place  their  head  quarters ;  which  being  known 
»  sir  Thomas  Glenhara,  he  entered  into  a  treaty  with  sir 
homas  Fairfax  about  the  middle  of  May,  and  upon  honour- 
ble  terms  Oxford  was  yielded  upon  Midsummer-day,  which 
as  the  24th  of  June  following.  The  governor  (at  the  treaty 
reposing  that  he  might  have  the  liberty  to  know  his  majesty's 
leaaure,  whether  he  should  yield  up  the  garrison  or  not)  had 
be  king's  approbation  with  the  lords  of  his  majesty's  privy 
(rancil,  then  in  Oxford,  for  his  surrender. 

Mean  time  the  lords  and  commons  in  parliament  assembled 
n  Westminster,  disliking  that  the  king  should  so  long  and  so 
ruitlessly  continue  amongst  the  Scots  within  this  kingdom ; 
he  house  of  commons  upon  the  17th  of  April,  1646,  published 
■  declaration  for  maintaining  a  right  understanding  between 
ihe  two  kingdoms  of  England  and  Scotland,  asserting  thereby, 
that  in  as  much  as  a  safe  and  good  peace  is  the  right  end  of 
i  just  war,  it  was  by  them  the  more  passionately  desired; 
md  to  that  end  and  purpose  they  had  framed  several  propo- 
rtions to  be  sent  to  the  king,  (some  of  which  were  primarily 
transmitted  from  both  houses  to  their  brethren  of  Scotland, 
for  their  consent,  that  those  proposals  might  in  the  name  of 
both  kingdoms  be  tendered  to  the  king.)  Which  being  agreed, 
fche  lords  and  commons  about  the  middle  of  July  following, 
Bent  their  desires  (entituled  "  Propositions  for  a  Safe  and 
Well-grounded  Peace  to  be  presented  his  Majesty,1")  by  the 
Mrls  of  Pembroke  and  Suffolk e,  members  of  the  house  of 
peers,  with  four  of  the  house  of  commons,  namely,  sir  Walter 
Earle,  and  sir  John  Hippesly,  knights,  Robert  Goodwin,  and 
Luke  Robinson,  esquires;  who  being  come  to  Newcastle 
(which  they  attained  in  few  days,  the  summer-season  fa- 
vouring) the  day  after  their  arrival,  they  presented  their 
propositions  to  the  king.  Who  having  heard  them  read,  and 
deliberated  upon  them,  disapproved  of  them,  in  regard  they 
insisted    upon    confirmation    of  the    national    league    and 

'  Philip  Herbert  the  notorious  and  selfish  poltroon,  and  James  Howard. 

a  aS 

858  Herberts  Memoirs  of  ike  [appendix  a. 

covenant,  the  abolishing  of  episcopacy,  investing  the  subject 
with  the  militia,  exempting  from  pardon  several  lords  and 
other  considerable  persons,  that,  during  the  war,  adhered  to 
him ;  so  as  his  majesty  would  in  no  wise  give  his  royal  assent. 
Nevertheless  was  graciously  pleased  to  give  the  commissioners 
his  hand  to  kiss,  and  to  dismiss  them  with  a  friendly  aspect 
Who  being  returned  to  Westminster,  made  their  report,  and 
had  the  thanks  of  both  houses  for  their  pains. 

The  parliament  soon  after  came  to  an  agreement  with  the 
Scots,  to  entrust  the  king  with  them ;  hoping  that  his  drawing 
nearer  London  might  conduce  to  a  more  speedy  composure 
of  the  present  unhappy  differences  between  them.  And  like* 
wise,  that  upon  payment  of  two  hundred  thousand  pounds 
(sterling)  the  Scots  army  should  depart  this  kingdom,  as 
upon  the  15th  of  November,  1646,  which  was  by  the  house  of 
commons  publicly  declared.  The  one  moiety  of  that  sum  to 
be  paid  at  Newcastle,  upon  their  march  back  into  Scotland  ; 
the  other  half  within  twelve  months  after.  Both  which  were 
punctually  performed. 

Things  being  thus  prepared  in  order  thereto,  the  parliament 
nominated  and  appointed  the  earls  of  Pembroke  and  Denbighf, 
the  lord  Montague  of  Boughton,  and  double  their  number  of 
some  members  of  the  house  of  commons ;  namely,  sir  James 
Harrington,  sir  John  Holland,  sir  John  Cooke  s,  baronets,  sir 
Walter  Earle,  knight,  John  Crew,  esquire,  and  major-general 
Browne,  with  some  private  gentlemen,  viz.  sir  Fulk  Grevil, 
knight,  Mr.  James  Harrington11,  Mr.  Thomas  Herbert,  Mr. 

Anthony  Mildman,   Mr. Ansty,  Mr.  Babington,  Mr. 

Muschamp,  Mr.  Clement  Kinnersly,  Mr.  Beading,  with  some 
others,  who  accompanied  those  lords  and  gentlemen  of  the 
house  of  commons,  to  attend  his  majesty  with  his  other 
servants,  if  he  should  think  fit  to  approve  of  them.  Mr. 
Stephen  Marshal  and  Mr.  Joseph  Caryl  (two  ministers  of  the* 
assembly  of  divines)  also  went  along  as  chaplains  to  those 
lords  and  members  of  the  house  of  commons,  commissioners  of 

f  Basil  Fielding.  h  Afterwards  groom  of  the  bed- 

*  Notorious  for  the  part  which  he    chamber  with  Herbert, 
took  in  the  king's  trial. 

last  two  Years  of  Chart*  the  First.  859 

The  12th  of  January,  1646',  those  noblemen  and  gentlemen, 
(members  of  both  houses,)  with  the  other  gentlemen  afore- 
named, set  forth  from  London,  (the  lords  in  their  coaches,) 
and  went  the  first  night  to  Dunstable,  the  second  to  North- 
ampton, the  third  to  Leicester,  the  fourth  to  Nottingham,  the 
fifth  to  Doncaster,  the  sixth  to  Wetherby,  the  seventh  to 
North-AUerton,  the  eighth  to  Durham,  the  ninth  to  New- 
castle ;  in  all  two  hundred  miles,  which  with  bad  ways  and 
short  days  made  the  travel  less  pleasant. 

The  commissioners,  after  a  very  short  repose,  went  to  the 
house  where  the  king  then  lodged  in  Newcastle ;  and  being 
conducted  to  the  presence-chamber,  his  majesty,  soon  after 
his  being  acquainted  with  their  coming,  came  into  the  pre- 
sence, and  with  affability  received  and  gave  them  his  hand  to 
kiss;  and  being  by  the  commissioners  told  the  occasion  of 
their  repair  thither  to  attend  his  majesty,  the  king  seemed 
very  well  pleased  therewith,  and  said  they  were  welcome,  for 
he  knew  most  of  them,  none  of  them  were  strangers  to  him, 
and  no  less  welcome  was  their  business ;  well  hoping,  that  his 
drawing  nearer  his  parliament  would  be  a  means  to  remove 
jealousies  and  distrusts,  and  establish  a  right  understanding 
betwixt  him  and  his  two  houses  of  parliament. 

The  king,  both  by  his  alacrity  and  cheerfulness  of  his  coun- 
tenance, made  it  appear  to  all  that  were  there  (and  the  pre- 
sence-chamber was  then  full  thronged)  that  he  was  no  less 
willing  to  part  from  the  Scots  than  they  with  him ;  and  that 
his  going  south  was  very  satisfactory  to  him :  and  after  some 
mirthful  passages  with  the  earl  of  Pembroke,  who  (let  others 
say  what  they  will)  loved  the  king  in  his  heart,  and  certainly 
had  never  separated  from  him,  had  he  not  (by  the  procure- 
ment of  some  ill-willers)  been  committed  to  the  Tower,  and 
his  white  staff  taken  from  him,  only  by  reason  of  a  sudden 
and  unhappy  falling  out  at  a  committee  in  the  painted-cham- 
ber, with  his  kinsman  the  lord  Mowbray,  father  to  the  duke 
of  Norfolk ;  and  the  lord  chamberlain's  office  conferred  upon 
the  earl  of  Essex,  in  which  place  the  earl  of  Pembroke  had 
served  his  majesty  many  years,  with  much  honour,  honesty, 
and  splendor.     The  king  told  him  he  was  glad  to  see  he  could 

*  N.  S.  1647. 

860  Herberts  Memoir*  of  the  [appendix  a. 

ao  well  in  his  old  age  perform  00  long  a  winterly  journey  with 
the  rest  of  the  commissioners  who  were  youthful.  He  then 
advised  them  to  go  and  refresh  themselves,  and  attend  him 
the  next  morning,  which  the  commissioners  accordingly  ob- 

Next  morning  being  come,  the  commissioners  attended  his 
majesty,  and  after  dinner  humbly  prayed  his  majesty  to  de- 
clare his  pleasure  as  to  his  remove  from  Newcastle.  The 
king  then  told  them,  he  would  not  go  thence  till  they  had 
rested  themselves  some  time,  as  was  convenient ;  being  that 
they  were  to  enter  upon  a  further  travel.  After  about  four 
days  longer  stay,  they  repeated  their  desire,  that  his  majesty 
would  be  pleased  to  appoint  both  the  time  and  place  he  would 
remove  unto,  that  orders  might  be  given  to  make  ready  ac- 
cordingly ;  both  which  he  did,  so  that  all  things  were  speedily 
prepared  by  his  majesty's  old  servants  for  his  journey  to  his 
house  at  Holdenby  in  Northamptonshire,  commonly  called 
Holmby,  a  very  stately  house,  built  by  the  lord  chancellor 
Hatton,  as  the  last  and  greatest  monument  of  his  youth,  as 
he  expressed ;  and,  in  king  James's  reign,  purchased  by  queen 
Anne,  for  her  second  son  the  duke  of  York,  who,  by  the 
death  of  prince  Henry,  became  prince  of  Wales,  and  after- 
wards to  the  present  duke,  second  son  to  king  Charles  the 
-First,  of  whom  we  are  now  speaking. 

And  as  my  memory  will  serve,  give  me  leave  to  name  the 
several  places  his  majesty  lodged  at  between  Newcastle  and 
Holmby,  the  distance  betwixt  those  two  being  about  eight 
score  miles. 

The  first  night  the  king  (being  attended  by  his  commis- 
sioners) came  to  Durham,  the  second  to  Richmond,  the  third 
to  Rippon,  the  fourth  to  Leeds,  the  fifth  to  Rotheram,  the 
sixth  to  Nottingham,  the  seventh  to  Leicester,  the  eighth  to 
Holmby ;  at  some  of  which  towns  he  staid  some  few  days. 

And  it  is  note- worthy,  that  through  most  parts  where  his 
majesty  passed,  some  out  of  curiosity,  but  most  (it  may  be 
presumed)  for  love,  flocked  to  behold  him,  and  accompanied 
him  with  acclamations  of  joy,  and  with  their  prayers  for 
his  preservation ;  and,  that  not  any  of  the  troopers,  who 
guarded  the  king,  gave  those  country-people  any  check  or 

last  two  Tears  of  Charles  the  First.  361 

disturbance,  as  the  king  passed,  that  could  be  observed,  a 
civility  his  majesty  was  well  pleased  with. 

Being  arrived  at  Holmby,  very  many  country  gentlemen, 
gentlewomen,  and  others  of  ordinary  rank,  stood  ready  there 
to  welcome  the  king  with  joyful  countenances  and  prayers. 

The  house  was  prepared  with  all  things  requisite  by  Mr. 
Clement  Einnersly,  his  majesty's  servant  in  the  wardrobe; 
others  also  performing  their  duties  in  their  respective  offices 
and  places :  so  as  the  court  was  accommodated  with  all  things 
needful,  both  in  reference  to  the  king,  and  likewise  to  the 
commissioners,  their  chaplains,  gentlemen,  attendants,  and 
others,  and  all  within  the  king's  house,  without  straitening ; 
and  all  the  tables  were  as  well  furnished  as  they  used  to  be 
when  his  majesty  was  in  a  peaceful  and  flourishing  state. 
•  At  mealtimes,  the  commissioners  never  failed  to  wait  upon 
the  king  with  all  due  observance,  and  there  being  none  of  his 
majesty^s  chaplains  in  ordinary  to  wait,  whom  by  his  letter, 
dated  the  sixth  of  March,  he  desired,  but  denied  by  both 
houses,  in  regard  they  had  not  taken  the  covenant,  the  two 
divines,  Mr.  Marshall  and  Mr.  Caryl,  (who  came  along  with 
the  commissioners,)  were  most  times  present,  when  his  majesty 
dined  and  supped,  and  willing  to  crave  a  blessing,  but  the 
king  always  said  grace  himself,  standing  under  the  state,  his 
voice  sometimes  audible.  His  majesty,  nevertheless,  was  civil 
to  those  ministers,  seeming  to  have  a  good  esteem  of  them,  in 
reference  to  what  he  had  heard,  both  as  to  their  learning  and 
conversation.  Nor  did  he  express  a  dislike  towards  any  of 
his  servants  then  attending  him,  as  were  free  to  repair  to  the 
chapel,  where  those  ministers  by  turns  preached  forenoon  and 
afternoon,  every  Lord's  day,  before  the  commissioners,  and 
others  of  the  household ;  albeit,  as  some  of  them  would  say, 
they  had  rather  have  heard  such  as  the  king  better  approved 
of.  The  king  every  Sunday  sequestered  himself  to  his  private 
devotion,  and  all  other  days  in  the  week  spent  two  or  three 
hours  in  reading,  and  other  pious  exercises ;  at  other  times, 
for  recreation,  would  after  meals  play  a  game  at  chess,  and, 
for  health  sake,  walk  oft  in  the  garden  at  Holmby  with  one 
or  other  of  the  commissioners ;  and  in  regard  there  was  no 
bowling-green  then  well  kept  at  Holmby,   the   king   would 

863  Herbert*  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

sometimes  ride  to  Harrowden,  a  house  of  the  lord  Vaux's 
about  nine  miles  off,  where  there  was  a  good  bowling-green 
with  gardens,  groves,  and  walks,  that  afforded  much  pleasure. 
And  other  whiles  to  Althorpe,  a  fair  house  about  two  or  three 
miles  from  Holmby,  belonging  to  the  lord  Spencer,  now  earl 
of  Sunderland,  where  also  there  was  a  green  well  kept.  The 
king  in  his  going  to  Harrowden  passed  over  a  bridge  where 
major  Bosvilek,  disguised  like  a  labouring  man,  stood  and  gave 
his  majesty  a  packet  from  the  queen.  The  king  told  the  com- 
missioners, it  was  to  obtain  his  leave  for  the  prince  to*  accom- 
pany Monsieur  that  campaign,  in  the  French  army,  so  as  the 
disguised  person  was  excused. 

In  this  interim  jealousies  increased,  which  begot  fears, 
against  which  there  is  no  fence.  The  commissioners  pursuant 
to  their  instructions  one  time  addressed  themselves  all  toge- 
ther unto  the  king,  and  acquainted  him  therewith,  and  humbly 
prayed  his  majesty  to  dismiss  such  of  his  servants  as  were 
there,  and  had  waited  upon  him  at  Oxford. 

This  application  of  theirs  was  in  no  wise  well  pleasing  to 
the  king  (having  had  long  experience  of  the  loyalty  and  good 
affection  of  those  his  servants)  as  appeared  by  his  counte- 
nance, and  the  pause  he  made  ere  he  gave  the  commissioners 
any  answer.  Howbeit  after  some  expostulation  and  deliber- 
ation, he  condescended  to  that  they  proposed,  they  not  op- 
posing the  continuance  of  Mr.  James  Maxwell  and  Mr. 
Patrick  Maulo1  their  attendance  upon  his  royal  person,  as 
grooms  of  his  majesty's  bedchamber,  in  which  place  they 
had  many  years  faithfully  served  the  king. 

Next  day  his  majesty's  servants  came,  as  at  other  times, 
into  the  presence-chamber;  where,  at  dinner-time,  they 
waited :  but  after  his  majesty  arose  from  dinner,  and  ac- 
quainted them  with  what  had  passed  betwixt  him  and  the 
commissioners,  they  kissed  his  majesty's  hand,  and  with  great 
expressions  of  grief  for  their  dismiss,  poured  forth  their 
prayers  for  his  majesty's  freedom  and  preservation,  and  so 
departed.     All  that  afternoon  the  king  withdrew  into   his 

k  Probably  sir  Thomas  Bosvile  of  l  Afterwards  earl  of  Penmaure  in 
Eynsford  in  Kent  Scotland. 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  ike  First.  368 

bedchamber,  having  given  orders,  that  none  should  interrupt 
him  in  his  privacy. 

Soon  after  this,  his  majesty  purposing  to  send  a  message  to 
the  parliament,  after  dinner  he  called  the  earl  of  Pembroke  to 
him,  and  told  him  he  would  have  Mr.  Herbert  come  into  his 
chamber,  which  the  earl  acquainting  the  commissioners  with, 
Mr.  Herbert  was  brought  into  the  bedchamber  by  Mr. 
Maxwell,  and,  upon  his  knee,  desired  to  know  his  majesty's 
pleasure ;  who  told  him,  he  would  send  a  message  to  the  par- 
liament :  and  having  none  there  that  he  usually  employed,  and 
unwilling  it  should  go  under  his  own  hand,  called  him  in  for 
that  purpose.  Mr.  Herbert  having  written  as  his  majesty 
did  dictate,  was  by  him  enjoined  secresy,  and  not  to  commu- 
nicate it  to  any  till  made  public  by  both  houses™,  if  by  them 
held  meet ;  which  he  carefully  observed. 

About  a  week  after,  the  king  was  pleased  to  tell  the  com- 
missioners, that  seeing  Mr.  James  Levington,  Mr.  Henry 
Murray,  Mr.  Ashburnham,  and  Mr.  Legge,  were  for  the  pre- 
sent dismissed,  he  had  taken  notice  of  Mr.  Harrington  and 
Mr.  Thomas  Herbert,  who  had  followed  the  court  since  his 
coming  from  Newcastle;  and  being  well  satisfied  with  the 
report  he  had  concerning  them,  as  to  their  sobriety  and  good 
education,  he  was  willing  to  receive  them  as  grooms  into  his 
bedchamber,  to  wait  upon  his  person  with  Mr.  Maxwell  and 
Mr.  Maule ;  which  the  commissioners  approving,  they  were 
that  night  admitted,  and  by  his  majesty  instructed  as  to  the 
duty  and  service  he  expected  from  them. 

They  thenceforth  attended  his  royal  person,  and  agreeable 
to  that  great  trust,  with  due  observance  and  loyalty,  as  be- 
came servants ;  and  by  Mr.  Maxwell  and  Mr.  Maule  were 
affectionately  treated.  Mr.  Harrington  was  a  gentleman 
well  accomplished,  had  waited  upon  the  prince  elector  pala- 
tine in  his  chamber,  had  travelled  Germany,  Italy,  and 
France,  and  spake  their  languages.  Mr.  Herbert  in  like  sort 
had  travelled  through  most  parts  of  the  Greater  Asia,  as  also 
several  parts  of  Afric  and  Europe". 

m  Wood  thinks  that  this  had  refer-    May  12,1 647.    Athen.  ii.  69 1 . 
ence  to  "  His  Majesty's    message        n  And  published  an  account  of 
for   Peace/'  dated  from    Holmby,    his  travels. 

364  Herbert's  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

His  majesty,  during  his  stay  at  Holmby,  such  times  as  he 
did  not  ride  abroad  for  refreshment,  would  walk  in  the  long 
gravel  walk  in  the  garden ;  where  the  earl  of  Pembroke  was 
ofttimes  with  the  king,  and  not  without  some  difficulty  held 
pace  with  him,  his  majesty  being  quick  and  lively  in  his  mo- 
tion. And  other  times  with  others  of  the  commissioners,  but 
most  with  major-general  Browne,  with  whom  the  king  was 
pleased  to  discourse  often.  And  whensoever  the  king  thus 
recreated  himself,  he  never  had  above  one  in  company,  the 
rest  keeping  at  a  becoming  distance,  in  some  other  part  of 
the  privy-garden.  For  indeed  as  the  commissioners  always 
expressed  a  high  respect  to  the  king,  so  the  king  was  very 
affable  to  the  commissioners  all  the  time  they  attended  his 

During  his  majesty's  being  at  Holmby,  the  earl  of  Pem- 
broke fell  sick  by  cold  he  had  taken,  and  for  three  weeks 
kept  his  chamber,  and  turning  to  a  fever  he  kept  his  bed ; 
and  was  so  ill  that  Mr.  Bathurst  his  physician  had  for  some 
days  (in  regard  he  was  ancient)  small  hopes  of  his  life.  The 
lord  Herbert,  his  son,  (having  notice)  hastened  to  him,  ac- 
cording to  his  duty,  which  was  some  comfort  to  the  earl ;  and 
his  majesty  sent  Mr.  Herbert  every  day  to  inquire  of  his 
condition,  and  in  person  was  graciously  pleased  to  visit  him 
twice,  which  kindness  helped  (as  the  doctor  said)  much  to  his 

It  is  well  worth  our  observation,  that  in  all  the  time  of  his 
majesty's  restraint  and  solitude  he  was  never  sick,  nor  took 
any  thing  to  prevent  sickness,  or  had  need  of  a  physician : 
which  (under  Ood)  is  attributed  to  his  quiet  disposition  and 
unparalleled  patience ;  to  his  exercise,  when  at  home  walking 
in  the  gallery  and  privy-garden,  and  other  recreations  when 
abroad;  to  his  abstemiousness  at  meat,  eating  but  of  few  dishes, 
(and  as  he  used  to  say)  agreeable  to  his  exercise,  drinking 
but  twice  every  dinner  and  supper,  once  of  beer,  and  once  of 
wine  and  water  mixed,  only  after  fish  a  glass  of  French  wine, 
the  beverage  he  himself  mixed  at  the  cupboard,  so  he  would 
have  it;  he  very  seldom  eat  and  drank  before  dinner,  nor 
between  meals. 

His  majesty  being  one  afternoon  at  bowls  in  the  green  at 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  865 

Althorpe,  it  was  whispered  amongst  the  commissioners,  who 
were  then  at  bowls  with  the  king,  that  a  party  of  horse,  ob- 
scurely headed,  was  marching  towards  Holmby ;  and  for  no 
good  it  was  presumed,  in  regard  neither  the  commissioners, 
nor  colonel  Graves,  who  kept  the  guard  at  Holmby  and  was 
an  officer  in  the  army,  nor  the  commissioners*  servants,  had 
the  least  notice  of  it  from  any  officer  or  other  correspondent 
in  the  army. 

Whereupon  the  king,  so  soon  as  he  was  acquainted  with  it, 
immediately  left  the  green,  and  returned  to  Holmby ;  where 
the  commissioners,  after  consultation  with  colonel  Graves,  re- 
solved to  stand  upon  their  guard,  and  accordingly  they  forth- 
jvith  doubled  the  guards  for  defence  of  his  majesty's  person ; 
and  major-general  Browne,  calling  all  the  soldiers  together, 
acquainted  them  with  the  occasion,  who  promised  to  stand  by 
him,  and  not  to  suffer  any  attempt  upon  the  king's  person,  or 
affront  to  the  commissioners:  but  the  difference  is  great  be- 
twixt saying  and  doing,  as  soon  appeared;  for  about  mid- 
night came  that  party  of  horse,  which  in  good  order  drew  up 
before  the  house  at  Holmby,  and  at  all  avenues  placed  guards; 
which  done,  the  officer  that  commanded  the  party  alighted 
and  demanded  entrance.  Colonel  Graves  and  major-general 
Browne  asked  him  his  name  and  business.  He  replied  his 
name  was  Joyce,  a  cornet  in  colonel  Whaley's  regiment,  and 
his  business  was  to  speak  with  the  king.  u  From  whom  f 
said  they.  "  From  myself/'  said  he :  at  which  they  laughed. 
"  It  is  no  laughing  matter,"  said  Joyce.  They  then  advised 
him  to  draw  off  his  men,  and  in  the  morning  he  should  speak 
with  the  commissioners.  "  I  came  not  hither  to  be  advised 
"  by  you/9  said  he,  "  nor  have  I  any  business  with  the  com- 
"  missioners,  my  errand  is  to  the  king,  and  speak  with  him  I 
"  must  and  will  presently."  They  then  bid  the  soldiers  within 
stand  to  their  arms,  and  be  ready  to  fire  when  ordered.  But 
during  this  short  treaty  betwixt  the  cornet  and  the  colonel, 
the  soldiers  had  conference  together,  and  so  soon  as  they  un- 
derstood they  were  fellow-soldiers  of  one  and  the  same  army, 
they  quickly  forgot  what  they  had  promised ;  for  they  opened 
the  gates  and  doors,  shook  one  another  Vy  the  hand,  and  bade 
them  welcome.     So  little  regard  had  they  to  their  promise, 

866  Herbert's  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

either  in  reference  to  the  king's  safety,  or  the  commissioners 
that  attended  him. 

Entrance  being  thus  given,  strict  search  was  made  after 
the  colonel,  who  (though  he  was  faultless,  yet  was  it  suggested 
he  would  have  privately  conveyed  the  king  to  London,)  got 
happily  out  of  their  reach.  Gentinels  were  ordered  by  Joyce 
to  be  set  at  the  commissioners'  chamber-doors,  that  he  might 
with  less  noise  carry  on  his  design,  and  find  way  to  the  back- 
stairs, where  the  grooms  of  his  majesty's  bedchamber  at- 
tended. The  cornet  being  come  to  the  door,  in  rude  manner 
knocked ;  those  within  asking  who  it  was  that  in  such  uncivil 
manner  and  so  unseasonable  a  time  came  to  disquiet  the 
long's  rest .  The  cornet  replied,  his  name  was  Joyce,  an  offi- 
cer  of  the  army,  sorry  he  should  disquiet  the  king,  but  could 
not  help  it,  for  speak  with  him  he  would,  and  that  presently. 

This  strange  confidence  of  his,  and  the  posture  he  was  in 
(having  a  cocked  pistol  in  his  hand)  amazed  these  four  gen- 
tlemen, Mr.  Maxwell,  Mr.  Maule,  Mr.  Harrington,  and  Mr. 
Herbert,  whose  duty  it  was  and  care  to  preserve  his  majesty's 
person,  and  were  resolved  to  sacrifice  their  lives  rather  than 
give  him  admittance;  they  in  the  first  place  asked  Joyce  if 
he  had  the  commissioners'  approbation  for  his  intrusion.  He 
answered,  No ;  for  he  had  ordered  a  guard  to  be  set  at  their 
chamber-doors,  and  that  he  had  his  orders  from  those  that 
feared  them  not.  He  still  pressed  for  entrance,  and  engaged 
his  word  to  do  the  king  no  harm :  they  on  the  other  side  per- 
suaded him  to  lay  aside  his  arms,  and  to  forbear  giving  dis- 
turbance, the  king  being  then  asleep,  assuring  him  that  the 
next  morning  he  should  have  his  majesty's  answer  to  his 
errand.  The  cornet  refused  to  part  with  either  sword  or 
pistol,  and  yet  insisted  to  have  the  chamber-door  opened. 
But  these  gentlemen  keeping  firm  to  their  resolution,  that  he 
should  not  enter,  the  noise  was  so  loud  (which  in  this  contest 
could  not  be  avoided)  as  it  seems  awakened  his  majesty,  for 
he  rung  his  silver  bell,  at  which  Mr.  Maxwell  went  into  the 
bedchamber  to  know  the  king's  pleasure,  the  other  three 
gentlemen  meantime  securing  the  door.  The  king,  being  ac- 
quainted with  the  business  and  uncivil  carriage  of  the  cornet, 
lent  word,  he  would  not  rise  nor  speak  with  him  until  morn- 

lent  two  Y*ar$  o/CharUs  ike  Fir$t.  867 

ing :  which  being  told  the  cornet,  he  huffed ;  but  seeing  his 
design  oould  not  be  effected  in  the  night,  he  retired :  so  as 
for  a  few  hours  there  was  silence. 

Morning  being  come,  the  king  arose  a  little  sooner  than 
ordinary,  and,  having  performed  his  morning  exercise,  he  sent 
for  Joyce,  who  with  no  less  confidence  than  if  he  had  been  a 
supreme  officer,  approached  the  king,  and  acquainted  him 
with  the  commands  he  had  concerning  his  removal.  The 
king  desired  the  commissioners  might  be  sent  for,  and  his 
orders  communicated  to  them.  The  cornet  replied,  "  They 
"  were  to  return  back  unto  the  parliament.'"  "  By  whose 
"  appointment  P  said  the  king.  As  to  that,  the  cornet  had 
no  answer.  The  king  then  said,  "  By  your  favour,  sir,  let 
"  them  have  their  liberty,  and  give  me  a  sight  of  your  instruc- 
44  tions."  " That/*  said  Joyce,  "you  shall  see  presently ;**  and 
forthwith  drawing  up  his  troop  into  the  inner  court,  as  near 
as  he  oould  unto  the  king.  "  These,  sir,"  said  he,  u  are  my 
"  instructions."  The  king  took  a  good  view  of  them,  and 
finding  them  proper  men  and  well  mounted  and  armed,  smil- 
ingly told  the  cornet,  his  instructions  were  in  fair  characters, 
legible  without  spelling0.  The  cornet  then  pressing  the  king 
to  go  along  with  him,  no  prejudice  being  intended,  but  rather 
satisfaction :  the  king  told  him  he  would  not  stir,  unless  the 
commissioners  went  along  with  him.  The  cornet  replied,  for 
his  part  he  was  indifferent.  However  the  commissioners  in 
this  interim  had,  by  an  express,  acquainted  the  parliament 
with  this  violence ;  and  so  soon  as  they  perceived  his  majesty 
was  inclinable  to  go  with  Joyce,  and  that  it  was  the  king's 
pleasure  they  should  follow  him  they  knew  not  whither,  they 
immediately  made  themselves  ready.  Nevertheless  several 
questions  they  asked  the  cornet,  whose  answers  were  insigni- 
ficant. The  commissioners  then  seeing  reason  was  of  no  force 
to  dissuade,  nor  menaces  to  affright,  they  were  willing  to  at- 
tend the  king  at  all  adventures. 

This  audacious  attempt  exceedingly  troubled  the  commis- 
sioners ;  and  the  more,  for  that  they  knew  not  how  to  help  it, 
as  well  appeared  by  their  countenances.  And  indeed  it  sad- 
dened the  hearts  of  many ;  the  king  was  the  merriest  of  the 

°  According  to  nr  John  Berkeley,  he  had  a  guard  of  four  hundred  horse. 

868  Herberts  Memoirs  of  ike  [appendix  a. 

company,  having  (it  seems)  a  confidence  in  the  army,  espe^ 
cially  from  some  of  the  greatest  there,  as  was  imagined. 

The  king  (then  being  in  his  coach)  called  the  earls  of  Pem- 
broke and  Denbigh,  as  also  the  lord  Montague,  into  it ;  the 
other  commissioners  (members  of  the  house  of  commons) 
being  well  mounted,  followed ;  leaving  Holmby  languishing : 
for  about  two  years  after,  that  beautiful  and  famous  structure 
was,  amongst  other  his  majesty's  royal  houses,  pulled  down 
by  order  of  the  two  houses  of  parliament,  to  satisfy  the  sol- 
diers' arrears :  whereby  the  splendor  of  the  kingdom  was  not 
a  little  eclipsed,  as  by  their  ruins  is  now  sadly  manifested  P. 

His  majesty  following  his  guide,  the  confident  cornet,  came 
that  night  to  Hinchingbrook,  heretofore  a  nunnery,  now  a 
fair  mansion-house  of  colonel  Edward  Mountague,  created 
earl  of  Sandwich,  in  the  twelfth  year  of  the  reign  of  king 
Charles  II.;  which  colonel  married  Jemima  daughter  to  Mr. 
Crew,  who  was  created  a  baron  of  England  the  year  after. 
Here  his  majesty  was  treated  with  honour  and  hearty  wel- 
come, as  were  also  the  commissioners  and  the  king's  servants.  ' 
From  Hinchingbrook  the  king  went  next  night  to  Childersly, 
a  house  of  sir  John  Cutts,  about  four  miles  from  Cambridge ; 
where,  during  his  majesty's  three  days  stay,  many  masters, 
fellows,  graduates,  and  scholars  of  that  university  repaired,  to 
most  of  which  the  king  was  graciously  pleased  to  give  his  hand 
to  kiss,  for  which  honour  they  returned  their  humble  and  gra- 
tulatory  thanks  with  a  Vivat  rex. 

Thither  also  came  sir  Thomas  Fairfax,  general  of  the  par* 
liament  army,  lieutenant-general  Cromwell,  commissary-general 
Ireton,  serjeant-major-general  Skippon,  lieutenant-general 
Hammond,  colonel  Lambert,  colonel  Whalley,  colonel  Rich, 
colonel  Dean,  and  several  other  field  and  commission  officers 
of  the  army,  as  also  Mr.  Hugh  Peters,  Mr.  Dell,  Mr.  Sedg- 
wick, and  others ;  some  of  which,  so  soon  as  they  came  into 
the  presence,  kissed  his  majesty's  hand;  the  general  sir 
Thomas  Fairfax  in  the  first  place,  whom  the  king  took  aside; 

P  According  to  Mr.  Baker,  the  parliament,  and  the  palace  levelled 

Northamptonshire  historian,  this  is  to    the    ground  by  the  purchaser, 

not  quite  correct.    The  house  was  who  preserved  only  some  few  of  the 

sold  with    the    timber,    when  the  offices, 
crown  lands  were  alienated  by  the 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  869 

and  for  about  half  an  hour  discoursing  with  him,  the  general 
(unasked)  disavowed  his  majesty's  seizure  by  Joyce  at  Holmby, 
as  done  without  his  order  or  approbation,  but  probably  by 
some  other  powerful  officer  of  the  army,  seeing  that  the  cornet 
was  neither  at  a  council  of  war,  nor  otherwhere  called  to 
question  for  it. 

His  majesty  being  now  in  the  custody  of  the  army,  was  highly 
caressed  by  all  the  great  officers,  who  seldom  failed  to  wait 
and  discourse  with  him  as  opportunity  offered.  But  the  king 
had  most  conference  with  the  general,  the  lieutenant-general, 
and  commissary-general  Ireton,  (who  indeed  had  the  greatest 
influence  in  the  army,)  and  then  behaved  themselves  with  civi- 
lity and  due  respect  to  his  royal  person,  which  made  the  king 
sometimes  very  pleasant  in  his  discourse  with  them ;  nor  were 
the  private  soldiers  wanting,  in  their  way,  to  oblige  all  that 
followed  the  king  with  civility. 

From  Childerley  the  king  removed  to  his  house  at  New- 
market, which  was  fitted  for  his  reception,  as  well  as  that 
little  edifice  would  admit,  and  where  for  some  weeks  he  con- 
tinued ;  and  thence  by  messages,  repeating  to  his  two  houses 
of  parliament  his  desires  of  a  further  treaty  for  peace,  that 
at  Uxbridge  concluding  without  any  good  success. 

Whilst  the  king  was  there,  he  would  be  often  upon  New- 
market heath  to  recreate  himself,  sometimes  in  his  coach,  but 
most  part  riding.  That  heath,  for  good  air  and  pleasure, 
gives  place  to  no  other  in  this  great  island,  insomuch  that 
king  James  took  exceeding  delight  there  in  hunting,  hawking, 
and  races,  both  horse  and  foot,  and  much  frequented  by  for- 
mer princes. 

The  army  officers,  during  his  majesty's  residence  at  New- 
market, were  constantly  attending.  The  commissioners  like- 
wise continued  their  waiting  on  the  king ;  who,  in  this  condi- 
tion appeared  very  cheerful,  having,  as  it  was  presumed,  fair 
hopes  as  well  as  promises,  that  some  of  the  grandees  of  the 
army  would  be  instrumental,  and,  by  their  undoubted  interest 
with  the  two  houses  and  the  army,  endeavour  a  happy  under- 
standing and  accommodation  between  him  and  his  parliament, 
being  in  the  mean  time  sub  Dei  numine  tutus. 

It  may  not  be  forgotten,  that  during  his  majesty's  stay  at 

FULLER,  VOL.  VI.  B  b 

870  Herbert's  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

Newmarket,  very  many  of  the  gentry  and  others,  men,  women, 
and  children,  repaired  thither  from  most  parts  of  Cambridge- 
shire, Suffolk,  Essex,  and  other  neighbouring  counties,  to 
see  the  king:  so  that  the  presence-chamber  was  constantly 
thronged  with  people,  especially  when  his  majesty  was  at 
dinner  or  supper,  and  he  seldom  or  never  failed  to  dine  in 
public;  and  when  the  people  saw  his  majesty  withdraw,  their 
prayers  in  loud  acclamations  ever  followed  him.  The  king  still 
observed  his  usual  hours  for  private  devotion ;  and  being  ac- 
quainted that  ho  was  in  a  few  days  to  remove  thence  to  Hampton- 
court,  he  seemed  much  satisfied  therewith,  both  that  he  might 
draw  nearer  his  two  houses  of  parliament,  and  for  that  the 
restraint  upon  him  was  there  to  be  taken  off,  and  he  to  have 
the  exercise  of  public  worship  as  heretofore,  by  his  chaplains1 
attendance ;  and  likewise  that  those  his  servants,  who  were 
dismissed  at  Holmby,  should  have  liberty  to  return  and  wait 
in  their  respective  places ;  willing  nevertheless  that  the  earl 
of  Pembroke,  and  the  other  lords  and  gentlemen,  members  of 
the  house  of  commons,  (their  commissioners,)  should  abide 
with  him,  as  also  the  other  gentlemen  that  had  attended  his 
majesty,  after  his  former  servants  were  discharged  by  the 

The  king  leaving  Newmarket,  took  not  the  ready  way  to 
Hampton-court,  his  progress  being  according  to  the  motion 
of  the  army ;  so  that  for  the  most  part  he  lodged  at  noble- 
men's houses,  save  that  at  Royston,  in  his  own  little  house, 
seldom  used  but  when  he  hunted  in  those  large  open  fields, 
where  king  James  took  much  recreation ;  here  his  majesty 
stayed  two  days,  though  the  house  was  capable  but  of  few  at- 
tendants, and  meanly  furnished ;  the  town  nevertheless,  being 
large,  made  amends  by  that  good  accommodation  it  afforded 
the  commissioners  and  the  general  officers  of  the  army,  as 
also  his  majesty's  followers  and  servants,  which  then  were 

Here  it  was,  (if  my  memory  serve  right,)  that  a  gentleman, 
who  was  envoy  from  some  German  prince,  whose  dead  father 
had  been  a  companion  to  the  knights  of  the  most  noble  order 
of  the  Garter,  inado  an  address  to  his  majesty,  with  a  letter 
and  return  of  the  George  and  Garter,  which  was  richly  set  with 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  871 

diamonds ;  and,  according  to  the  usual  custom,  humbly  prayed 
to  have  his  majesty's  directions  with  whom  they  should  be 
deposited.  The  jewels  formerly  were  sent  to  the  master  of 
the  king's  jewel-house,  and  the  robes  deposited  with  the  dean 
of  Windsor.  A  military  officer,  being  in  the  room,  was  so 
malapert  as  to  interpose,  to  the  end  that  he  might  be  privy  to 
this  affair,  and  hear  what  the  envoy  had  to  communicate  to 
the  king,  who  by  his  frown  expressed  his  displeasure  for  so 
great  a  rudeness  towards  him,  and  incivility  to  the  stranger ; 
but  Mr.  Babington,  the  king^  barber,  standing  by,  and  better 
understanding  good  manners,  instructed  the  army  officer  by 
removing  him  further  off;  with  which  the  king  was  well 
pleased,  and  the  officer  (no  less  than  a  colonel)  had  a  sound 
reproof  soon  after  from  sir  Thomas  Fairfax,  the  general. 

From  Royston  the  king  removed,  June  26,  to  Hatfield  in 
Hertfordshire,  about  thirteen  miles  north  of  London  ;  a  very 
noble  house  belonging  to  the  lord  Cecil,  earl  of  Salisbury, 
having  a  vineyard,  gardens  and  walks  full  of  pleasure,  where 
his  majesty  was  treated  with  high  civility  and  observance. 
Here  the  king  stayed  till  the  first  of  July ;  then  removing  to 
Windsor,  and  two  days  after  to  Caversham,  a  fair  house  of  the 
lord  Craven's,  almost  opposite  to  Reading,  the  river  of  Thames 
interposing ;  to  which  place  repaired  his  highness  the  prince 
elector  palatine,  with  several  of  the  English  nobility,  as  also 
sir  Thomas  Fairfax,  and  many  officers  of  the  army.  On  the 
15th  of  July  the  king  went  to  Maidenhead ;  and  on  the  20th 
to  Woburn,  heretofore  a  religious  house  for  the  Cistercians  or 
White  Monks,  as  we  call  them ;  now  a  large  and  fair  house 
of  the  lord  Russel,  earl  of  Bedford,  where  his  majesty  was 
honourably  and  affectionately  welcomed,  the  commissioners 
and  attendants  entertained  with  high  civility,  as  were  also  the 
army  officers ;  the  earl  of  Cleveland  with  some  other  noble- 
men were  here,  and  some  late  commander  of  the  king's  army 
attending  to  kiss  his  majesty's  hand,  had  the  freedom  to  wait 
and  discourse,  which  was  novel,  as  times  then  stood,  and  an 
omen  of  future  harmony,  as  well-wishers  to  unity  and  peace 

From  Woburn  his  majesty  removed  to  Latimers  in  Bucking- 
hamshire, a  little  but  neat  mansion-house  of  the  lord  Caven- 


S7£  Herberts  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  l. 

dish  earl  of  Devonshire,  the  earl  being  then  there  to  entertain 
the  king.  His  majesty  leaving  Latimers,  it  was  thought  he 
would  have  removed  thence  to  Berkhanipstead,  a  house  once 
belonging  to  the  king,  now  to  the  Carys ;  but  being  unfur* 
nished,  and  unfitted  to  lodge  at,  others  imagined  he  would  go 
to  Ashridge,  (not  above  two  miles  thence,)  where  the  earl  of 
Bridgewater  hath  a  very  noble  house  and  park :  but  the  head 
quarters  being  then  at  St.  Alban's  his  majesty  declined  that 
northern  progress,  and  rode  by  Cheneys  and  Rickmansworth 
to  Moore  Park,  a  place  of  much  pleasure,  (not  above  two 
miles  from  Watford,)  heretofore  a  park  and  house  of  retire^ 
nient  to  that  most  noble  lord  William  Herbert  earl  of  Pem- 
broke, lord  steward  of  his  majesty's  house,  but  since  pur- 
chased by  the  lord  Cary  earl  of  Monmouth,  with  the  curious 
gardens,  water-works,  &c.  Where  having  dined,  the  king  re- 
moved that  night  to  Stoke,  being  about  eight  miles  from 
Moore  Park,  a  fair  house,  built  by  Henry  lord  Hastings  earl 
of  Huntingdon  and  lord  president  of  the  north ;  but  since 
purchased  by  the  lord  chief  justice  Coke,  whose  daughter  by 
the  lady  Elizabeth  Cecil  (the  earl  of  Exeter's  daughter  and 
widow  to  the  lord  chancellor  Hatton)  being  married  to  sir 
John  Villiers,  the  duke  of  Buckingham's  brother,  it  came  to 
him,  who  in  the  year  1619  was  created  baron  of  this  place 
and  viscount  Purbeck.  The  fourteenth  day  of  August  the 
king  removed  from  Stoke  to  Oatlands,  a  large  and  beautiful 
house  of  the  queen's  upon  the  river  of  Thames ;  where,  upon 
the  plaistered  wall  in  the  stone  gallery  respecting  the  gardens, 
were  very  curiously  pourtrayed  that  royal  edifice  (with  Ponte- 
fract  castle,  Havering,  Eltham,  Nonsuch,  and  some  other 
palaces  assigned  to  her  majesty)  in  like  manner  as  you  see  at 
Fontainbleau,  of  several  stately  houses  of  the  French  kings. 
But,  alas !  this  at  Oatlands,  with  Richmond,  Theobalds, 
Holmby,  and  other  magnifioent  houses  in  this  kingdom,  were 
unhappily  soon  after  pulled  down,  to  raise  money  to  satisfy 
the  arrears  of  some  regiments  of  the  army :  all  which,  it  is 
believed,  did  not  raise  half  so  much  as  any  of  those  princely 
houses  cost  when  they  were  built ;  such  are  the  miserable 
effects  of  civil  war.  During  this  progress  eleven  eminent 
members  of  the  house  of  commons  (desirous  of  peace)  were 

tost  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  378 

Accused  of  treason  by  the  army ;  moving,  that  in  the  interim 
they  might  be  expelled  the  house,  and  accordingly  were  se- 
cluded for  six  months,  insomuch  that  some  of  them  leaving 
this  kingdom  died  beyond  sea. 

About  the  middle  of  August  the  king  removed  to  Hampton- 
court,  a  most  large  and  imperial  house,  built  by  that  pompous 
prelate  cardinal  Wolsey,  in  ostentation  of  his  great  wealth, 
and  enlarged  by  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  so  as  it  became  a 
royal  palace ;  which,  for  beauty  and  grandeur,  is  exceeded 
by  no  structure  in  Europe ;  unless  it  be  the  Escurial  in  Spain, 
which  appears  so  magnificent  by  having  the  addition  of  a  fair 
monastery,  dedicated  to  St.  Lawrence,  wherein  live  a  hun- 
dred and  fifty  monks  of  the  order  of  St.  Jerome,  and  hath 
also  a  college,  schools,  and  outhouses  built  by  king  Philip  II. 
who  married  our  queen  Mary. 

Hampton-court  was  then  made  ready  for  the  court,  and  by 
Mr.  Kinnersley,  yeoman  of  the  wardrobe,  and  others,  prepared 
with  what  was  needful  for  the  court.  And  a  court  it  now  ap- 
peared to  be :  for  there  was  a  revival  of  what  lustre  it  had 
formerly,  his  majesty  then  having  the  nobility  about  him,  his 
chaplains  to  perform  their  duty,  the  house  amply  furnished, 
and  his  services  in  the  accustomed  form  and  state ;  every  one 
of  his  servants  permitted  to  attend  in  their  respective  places ; 
nothing  then  appeared  of  discrimination  ;  intercourse  was 
free  between  king  and  parliament,  and  the  army  seemed  to 
endeavour  a  right  understanding  amongst  different  parties : 
also  some  treaties  passed  upon  proposals  presented  his  ma- 
jesty from  the  parliament,  which  gave  hopes  of  an  acconimo* 
dation :  the  commissioners  also  continued  their  attendance 
about  the  king,  and  those  gentlemen  that  waited  at  Holmby, 
were,  by  his  majesty's  appointment,  kept  in  their  offices  and 
places ;  the  general  likewise,  and  other  military  commanders, 
were  much  at  court,  and  had  frequent  conference  with  the 
king  in  the  park,  and  other  where  attending  him ;  no  offence 
at  any  time  passed  amongst  the  soldiers  of  either  party;  there 
was  an  amnesty  by  consent,  pleasing,  as  was  thought,  to  all 

His  majesty,  during  these  halcyon  days,  intimated  to  the 
earl  of  Northumberland  that  he  desired  to  see  his  children,  who, 


874  Herberts  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix,  a. 

at  that  time,  were  under  the  government  of  that  nobleman* 
and  then  in  his  house  at  Sion,  which  is  about  seven  miles  from 
Hampton-court,  in  the  way  to  London.  The  relator,  amongst 
other  the  king's  servants,  followed  his  majesty  to  Sion,  which 
is  denominated  from  the  holy  mount,  so  named,  near  Jeru- 
salem. This  was  first  a  monastery  for  monks,  but  they  being 
by  king  Henry  V.  removed,  in  their  rooms  he  placed  nuns  of 
St.  Bridget's  order;  and  under  the  same  roof  (but  separated  by 
several  walls)  put  so  many  priests  and  friars  as  were  in  num- 
ber equal  to  Christ  with  his  apostles  and  disciples.  All  which 
votaries  were  ejected  by  king  Henry  VIII.,  the  church  pulled 
down,  and  a  fair  house  raised  for  a  retiring  place  of  the  lord 
Seymour,  duke  of  Somerset,  (as  was  his  other  great  mansion- 
house  in  the  Strand,)  but  at  present  belonging  to  the  lord 
Piercy,  earl  of  Northumberland.  Here  the  king  met  the 
young  duke  of  Gloucester,  and  princess  Elizabeth,  who,  so 
soon  as  they  saw  their  royal  father,  upon  their  knees  they 
begged  his  blessing,  who  heartily  gave  it,  and  was  overjoyed 
to  see  them  so  well  in  health  and  so  honourably  regarded. 

The  earl  welcomed  the  king  with  a  very  noble  treat,  and 
his  followers  had  their  tables  richly  furnished,  by  his  behaviour 
expressing  extraordinary  contentment,  to  see  the  king  and 
his  children  together  after  such  various  chances,  and  so  long 
a  separation.  Night  drawing  on,  his  majesty  returned  to 

The  fairest  day  is  seldom  without  a  cloud  ;  for  at  this  time 
some  activo  and  malevolent  persons  of  the  army,  disguised 
under  the  specious  name  of  "  Agitators,"  being  two  selected 
out  of  every  regiment,  to  meet  and  debate  the  concerns  of  the 
army,  mot  frequently  at  Putney,  and  places  thereabouts;  who 
of  their  own  accord,  without  either  authority  (as  some  aver) 
or  countenance  of  the  general,  upon  fair  pretences  had  fre- 
quent consultations;  but  intermeddling  with  affairs  of  state, 
were  not  unlike  those  that  love  to  fish  in  troubled  waters,  and 
being  men  very  popular  in  the  army,  had  thence  their  impulse 
and  approbation.  What  the  result  of  councils  amongst  them 
was,  who  knows,  or  by  what  spirits  agitated :  yet  about  this 
time  the  house  was  rent,  and  the  speaker  went  unto  the  army, 
which  soon  after  marched  through  London  to  the  Tower,  to 


last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  375 

which  was  committed  the  lord  mayor,  and  other  dissenting 
citizens,  in  which  confusion  the  king  proposed  a  treaty,  the 
Agitators,  in  opposition,  published  a  book,  intituled,  "An 

Agreement  of  the  People,  which  concerned  his  Majesty's  Per- 

son  and  Safety."  But  thence  (as  was  well  known)  several 
things  in  design  were  rumoured,  which  fomented  parties,  and 
created  jealousies  and  fears,  and  by  some  artifice  insinuated, 
and  a  representation  by  letter  gave  his  majesty  an  occasion  of 
going  from  Hampton-court  in  the  night,  and  in  disguise  with 
two  grooms  of  his  majesty's  bed-chamber,  Mr.  Ashburnham 
and  Mr.  Legg,  as  also  sir  John  Berkeley;  and  about  the  middle 
of  November,  anno  1647,  passed  through  a  private  door  into  the 
park,  where  no  centinel  was,  and  at  Thames-Ditton  crossed 
the  river,  to  the  amazement  of  the  commissioners,  who  had 
not  the  least  foreknowledge  or  apprehension  of  the  king's  fear 
or  intentions,  and  no  less  to  the  astonishment  of  the  lords, 
and  other  his  majesty's  servants,  the  commissioners  especially, 
who  in  this  ignorance  expressed  great  trouble  of  mind,  until 
the  lord  Mountague  opened  a  letter  his  majesty  left  upon  his 
table,  directed  to  him,  giving  a  hint  of  what  induced  him  to 
hasten  thence  in  such  a  manner,  being  for  self-preservation,  yet 
kindly  acknowledging  their  civility  to  his  person  all  along,  with 
his  good  acceptance  of  their  loyalty  and  service. 

His  majesty  being  thus  gone  from  Hampton-court,  the 
king's  servants  went  with  sad  hearts  to  their  several  homes, 
and  the  earls  of  Pembroke  and  Denbigh,  the  lord  Mountague, 
sir  John  Holland,  sir  James  Harrington,  sir  John  Cooke,  with 
the  rest  of  the  commissioners,  having  acquainted  the  parlia- 
ment with  the  king's  departure  and  the  letter  he  was  pleased 
to  leave  behind  him,  they  immediately  received  an  invitation 
from  both  houses  to  return  to  Westminster,  which  accord- 
ingly they  observed,  and  for  their  long  and  faithful  service 
had  thanks  from  the  parliament. 

After  few  days  it  was  known  that  the  king  was  gone  to 
Tichfield,  a  fair  house  of  the  earl  of  Southampton,  and  that 
upon  the  13th  November,  1647,  he  had  crossed  the  sea,  and 
was  safe  landed  at  Cowes  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  where  colonel 
Hammond  the  governor  was  attending,  and  passing  through 
Newport  (the  principal  town  in  that  island)  the  governor, 


876  Herbert's  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

with  alacrity  and  confidence,  conducted  his  majesty  to  Caris- 
brook  castle,  attended  only  by  sir  John  Berkeley  <),  and  those 
two  gentlemen,  his  servants,  lately  mentioned.  Sure  I  am, 
many  that  cordially  loved  the  king  did  very  much  dislike  his 
going  to  this  place,  it  being  so  remote,  and  designed  neither 
for  his  honour  nor  safety;  as  the  consequence  proved.  A 
gentlewoman,  as  his  majesty  passed  through  Newport,  pre- 
sented him  with  a  damask  rose  which  grew  in  her  garden  at 
that  cold  season  of  the  year,  and  prayed  for  him,  which  his 
majesty  heartily  thanked  her  for. 

Carisbrook  castle  is  the  only  place  of  defence  within  that 
island,  albeit,  upon  the  marine,  the  isle  hath  many  forts,  or 
block-houses.  Its  name  is  derived  from  Whitgare,  a  Saxon, 
corruptly  contracted  to  Garisbrook.  The  isle  being  subdued 
at  the  Conquest  by  William  Fitz  Osborne,  earl  of  Hereford, 
he  built  this  castle,  which  in  king  Henry  III.  his  time  was 
enlarged  by  Isabel  de  Fortibus,  sister  and  heir  to  Baldwyn, 
earl  of  Devon  and  Albemarle,  who  founded  there  a  priory, 
dedicated  to  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  for  Benedictines  or  Black 
Monks,  as  we  call  them.  The  castle  was  new  built  (or  en- 
larged rather)  by  order  of  king  Henry  VIII.,  and  by  queen 
Elizabeth  regularly  fortified ;  so  as  the  outworks  are  large, 
and  planted  with  great  ordnance,  and  has  served  as  a  place  of 
retreat  for  the  islanders  against  the  French  and  Spaniard, 
when  the  English  were  in  war  with  them. 

Thither  (so  soon  as  the  king's  being  there  was  rumoured) 
repaired  several  of  his  old  servants,  and  some  new,  such  as  his 
majesty  at  that  time  thought  fit  to  nominate,  (for  some  weeks 
there  was  no  prohibition,  any  that  were  desirous  to  see  his 
majesty  might  without  opposal,)  or  that,  according  to  the 
duty  of  their  place,  were  to  give  their  attendance.  His  ma- 
jesty had  free  liberty  to  ride  and  recreate  himself  any  where 
within  the  isle,  when  and  where  he  pleased ;  the  only  want 
was,  that  his  chaplains,  Dr.  Sheldon  and  Dr.  Hammond,  were 
not  long  tolerated  to  perform  their  office,  which  was  no  little 
grief  to  him,  in  regard  he  had  no  disposition  to  hear  those 

*i  See  sir  John  Berkley's  own  ac-  tive,  p.  101.  That  the  king  was  in- 
count  of  this  affair  in  his  Memoirs,  veigled  into  this  place  is  scarcely 
p.  163,  and  Ashburnham's  Narra-     doubtful.     See  Ludlow,  p.  83. 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  377 

that  exercised  according  to  the  Directory  which  was  then 
practised;  but  hindered  not  his  private  devotion,  which  every 
day  he  carefully  attended,  and  the  Lord's-day  he  observed  by 
reading  the  Bible,  and  other  books  fitting  him  for  prayer  and 
meditation  in  his  oratory. 

Howbeit  this  liberty  of  refreshing  in  the  isle  abroad  was  of 
no  long  duration ;  for  about  the  middle  of  February,  colonel 
Hammond,  the  governor,  (soon  after  the  king  arose  from 
dinner,)  came  into  the  presence,  which  was  under  his  majesty's 
bedchamber,  and  in  solemn  manner  addressed  himself  to  the 
king ;  and  after  a  short  preamble,  said,  he  was  sorry  to  ac- 
quaint his  majesty  with  the  orders  he  received  the  night  be- 
fore from  his  superiors,  and  then  pausing  a  while,  the  king 
bid  him  speak  out.  The  governor  replied,  his  orders  were  to 
forbid  Mr.  Ashburnham,  Mr.  Legg,  and  the  rest  of  his  ser- 
vants that  were  with  him  at  Oxford,  any  further  waiting  on 
his  person  in  that  castle  and  garrison,  the  jealousies  and  appre- 
hensions of  those  times  judging  it  inconvenient  to  continue 
such  in  their  attendance  about  his  person. 

The  king,  by  his  short  silence,  seemed  surprised,  and,  by 
his  countenance,  appeared  to  be  troubled.  Such  as  were  at 
that  time  in  the  presence  noted  it ;  but  not  knowing  the  oc- 
casion of  his  majesty's  sadness,  they  seemed  full  of  grief,  as 
by  their  dejected  looks  was  visible.  But  the  king  beckoning 
with  his  hand  to  Mr.  Ashburnham  and  some  others,  he  told 
them  what  the  governor  had  communicated,  and  what  he  ex- 
pected not,  nor  was  agreeable  to  what  some  considerable  per- 
sons had  promised.  But  no  remedy  but  patience,  which  in 
these  straits  he  commonly  had  recourse  unto,  and  is  the  noble 
way  of  overcoming. 

His  majesty's  servants  were  much  perplexed,  and  to  expos- 
tulate with  colonel  Hammond,  knew  it  would  be  to  no  pur- 
pose; the  only  comfort  remaining  was,  that  they  were  not 
excluded  their  royal  master's  affection,  which  supported  them. 
Next  day,  after  the  king  had  dined,  those  gentlemen  came 
all  together,  and  prostrating  themselves  at  his  majesty's 
feet,  prayed  God  for  his  preservation,  and  kissing  his  hand, 

This  done,  the  day  following  a  restraint  began  of  the  king's 

878  Herberfs  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

going  any  more  abroad  into  the  Isle  of  Wight,  his  majesty 
being  then  confined  to  Carisbrook  castle  and  line  without, 
albeit  within  the  works,  a  place  sufficiently  large  and  conve- 
nient for  the  king's  walking  and  having  good  air,  and  a  de- 
lightful prospect  both  to  the  sea  and  land:  and  for  his 
majesty's  solace  and  recreation,  the  governor  converted  the 
barbacan  (a  spacious  parading  ground  within  the  line, 
though  without  the  castle)  into  a  bowling-green,  scarce  to  be 
equalled,  and  at  one  side  built  a  pretty  summer-house  for 
retirement.  At  vacant  hours  these  afforded  the  king  most 
recreation,  for  the  building  within  the  castle  walls  had  no 
gallery,  nor  rooms  of  state,  nor  garden,  so  as  his  majesty, 
constantly  in  the  forenoons,  exercised  himself  in  the  walks 
without,  and  in  the  afternoons  there  also,  and  in  the  bowling- 
green  or  barbacan.  Nevertheless  both  times  he  carefully  ob- 
served his  usual  times  set  apart  for  his  devotion  and  for  writ- 
ing. Mr.  Harrington  and  Mr.  Herbert  continued  waiting  on 
his  majesty  in  the  bedchamber:  he  gave  Mr.  Herbert  the 
charge  of  his  books,  of  which  the  king  had  a  catalogue,  and 
from  time  to  time  had  brought  unto  him  such  as  he  was 
pleased  to  call  for.  The  sacred  Scripture  was  the  book  he 
most  delighted  in,  read  often  in  Bishop  Andrews'  Sermons, 
Hooker's  Ecclesiastical  Policy,  Dr.  Hammond's  Works,  Vil- 
lalpandus  upon  Ezekiel,  &c,  Sandys's  Paraphrase  upon  King 
David's  Psalms,  Herbert's  Divine  Poems;  and  also  Godfrey 
of  Bulloigne,  writ  in  Italian  by  Torquato  Tasso,  and  done  into 
English  heroic  verse  by  Mr.  Fairfax,  a  poem  his  majesty 
much  commended,  as  he  did  also  Ariosto,  by  sir  John  Har- 
rington, a  facetious  poet,  much  esteemod  of  by  prince  Henry 
his  master,  Spencer's  Fairy  Queen,  and  the  like,  for  alleviat- 
ing his  spirits  after  serious  studies.  And  at  this  time  it  was 
(as  is  presumed)  ho  composed  his  book  called  "  Suspiria 
"  Regalia" published  soon  after  his  death, and  entitled  "  The 
"  King's  Pouriraiture,  in  his  Solitudes  and  Sufferings"  which 
manuscript  Mr.  Herbert  found  amongst  those  books  his  ma- 
jesty was  pleased  to  give  him,  (those  excepted  which  he  be- 
queathed to  his  children,  hereafter  mentioned,)  in  regard  Mr. 
Herbert,  though  he  did  not  see  the  king  write  that  book,  his 
majesty  being  always  private  when  he  writ,  and  those  his  ser- 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  379 

vants  never  coming  into  the  bedchamber,  when  the  king  was 
private,  until  he  called;  yet  comparing  it  with  his  hand- 
writing in  other  things,  found  it  so  very  like,  as  induces  his 
belief  that  it  was  his  own  handwriting,  having  seen  much  of 
the  king's  writing  before ;  and  to  instance  particulars  in  that 
his  majesty's  translation  of  Dr.  Saunderson  the  late  bishop  of 
Lincoln's  book  "  De  Juramentis"  or  like  title,  concerning 
oaths,  all  of  it  translated  into  English,  and  writ  with  his  own 
hand ;  and  which,  in  his  bedchamber,  he  was  pleased  to  shew 
his  servants,  Mr.  Harrington  and  Mr.  Herbert,  and  com- 
manding them  to  examine  it  with  the  original,  they  found  it 
accurately  translated ;  which  his  majesty  not  long  after  shewed 
the  bishop  of  London  Dr.  Juxon,  and  also  Dr.  Hammond, 
and  Dr.  Sheldon,  his  majesty's  chaplains  in  ordinary,  (which 
first  and  last  were  afterwards  archbishops  of  Canterbury,)  such 
time  as  they  waited  upon  him  at  Newport  in  the  Isle  of  Wight 
during  the  treaty.  In  many  of  his  books,  he  delighted  him- 
self with  the  motto,  u  Dum  spiro  spero ;"  which  he  wrote 
frequently  as  the  emblem  of  his  hopes  as  well  as  endeavours 
for  a  happy  agreement  with  his  parliament.  A  harmony  and 
good  accommodation  he  heartily  desired,  and  a  fair  end  to  all 
matters  that  made  this  unhappy  separation  :  mean  time  alle- 
viating his  mind  by  an  honourable  and  cheerful  submission  to 
the  Almighty,  who  in  his  wisdom  orders  and  disposes  all 
things  according  to  his  good  pleasure,  and  who,  in  all  his 
trials  during  his  disconsolate  condition,  marvellously  supported 
him  with  an  unparalleled  patience.  In  one  of  his  books  he 
writ  this  distich : — 

"  Rebus  in  adversis  facile  est  contemnere  vitam  : 
Fortiter  ille  facit  qui  miser  esse  potest." 

And  out  of  another  poet,  against  the  levelling  and  anti- 
monarchic  spirits  which  predominated  at  that  time: — 

"  Fallitur  egregio  quisquis  sub  principe  credit 
Servitium ;  nunquam  libertas  gratior  extat, 
Quam  sub  rege  pio, ."     Claudian. 

with  many  others  which  are  memorable,  and  express  his  de- 
light in  learning.  For  he  understood  authors  in  the  originals, 
whether  Greek,  Latin,  French,  Spanish,   or  Italian,  which 

380  Herbert' 8  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

three  last  he  spoke  perfectly ;  and  none  better  read  in  histo- 
ries of  all  sorts,  which  rendered  him  accomplished,  and  also 
would  discourse  well  in  arts  and  sciences,  and  indeed  not  un- 
fitted for  any  subject. 

Notwithstanding  this  restraint,  which  the  governor  was 
strict  in,  (probably  in  pursuance  of  his  instructions,)  neverthe- 
less several  diseased  persons,  troubled  with  the  evil,  resorted 
thither  from  remote  parts  to  be  touched;  and,  after  some 
stay  in  Newport  or  other  villages  about,  made  means  to  get 
within  the  line,  and  when  the  king  went  out  of  the  castle  to- 
wards his  usual  walk  about  the  barbacan,  they  had  their 
wished  opportunity  to  present  themselves  afore  him,  and  he 
touched  them. 

About  this  time  one  Mr.  Sedgwick  (sometime  preacher  in 
the  parliament  army)  came  to  Carisbrook  castle,  and  desired 
colonel  Hammond  the  governor's  leave  to  address  himself  to 
the  king.  Mr.  Harrington  being  acquainted  with  the  occa- 
sion, told  his  majesty,  that  a  minister  was  purposely  come 
from  London  to  discourse  with  him  about  his  spiritual  con- 
cerns, and  was  desirous  to  present  his  majesty  with  a  book  he 
had  lately  writ  for  his  majesty's  perusal,  which  (as  the  gentle- 
man said)  if  his  majesty  would  please  to  read,  he  supposed 
might  be  of  much  advantage  to  him,  and  comfort  in  that  his 
uncomfortable  condition.  The  king  thereupon  came  forth, 
and  Mr.  Sedgwick,  in  decent  manner,  gave  his  majesty  the 
book,  the  title  whereof  was,  "  Leaves  of  the  Tree  of  Life? 
being  an  explication  of  the  second  verse  of  the  twenty-second 
chapter  of  the  Revelation  of  St.  John.  His  majesty,  after  he 
read  some  part  thereof,  returned  it  with  this  short  admonition 
and  judgment,  that,  by  what  he  had  read  in  that  book,  he  be- 
lieved the  composer  stood  in  some  need  of  sleep.  The  king's 
advice  being  taken  in  the  best  sense,  the  minister  departed 
with  seeming  satisfaction. 

Next  day  one  Mr.  Harrington,  a  gentleman  of  a  fair  estate 
near  Bath  in  Somersetshire,  (son  to  sir  John  Harrington 
afore -mentioned,)  came  in  like  sort  to  Carisbrook  castle,  upon 
the  same  charitable  account.  But  his  majesty,  having  heard 
something  concerning  him,  thanked  him  likewise  for  his  good 
intentions,  having  no  mind  to  enter  into  discourse  with  him 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  881 

upon  controversial  points ;  so  as  that  gentleman  also  returned 
next  homewards,  having  first  wished  the  king  much  happiness. 

His  majesty  having  thought  fit  to  send  a  gracious  message 
to  his  two  houses  of  parliament,  in  the  evening  he  gave  it, 
sealed  up,  (and  directed  to  the  speaker  of  the  house  of  lords 
pro  tempore ,)  to  his  servant  Mr.  Herbert,  with  a  letter  to  his 
daughter  the  princess  Elizabeth,  who  was  then  at  St.  James's 
bouse  near  Whitehall  with  her  governess.  The  wind  was  not 
favourable,  so  as  Mr.  Herbert  had  much  ado  to  cross  the  sea 
from  Cowes  to  Southampton  ;  but  in  regard  the  king  had  or- 
dered to  make  haste,  so  as  the  letter  might  be  delivered  next 
day  before  the  house  rose,  no  delay  was  suffered.  Being 
landed  he  immediately  took  post  for  London.  It  may  not  be 
forgotten,  that  at  one  stage,  the  post-master,  (a  malevolent 
person,)  having  notice  that  the  packet  cante  from  the  king, 
and  required  extraordinary  speed;  mounted  Mr.  Herbert 
upon  a  horse  that  had  neither  good  eyes  nor  feet,  so  as  he 
usually  stumbled  very  much,  which,  with  the  deep  ways 
(being  winter)  and  dark  night,  in  all  probability  might  have 
abated  his  speed,  but  (through  God's  goodness)  the  horse 
(though  at  his  full  gallop  most  part  of  that  twelve  miles 
riding)  neither  stumbled  nor  fell,  which  at  the  next  stage  was 
admired.  The  king's  packet  was  delivered  to  the  lord  Grey 
of  Warwick r,  (at  that  time  speaker  to  the  lords'  house,) 
within  the  time  limited;  which  done,  he  waited  upon  the 
princess  Elizabeth,  then  at  St.  James's,  who  gave  him  her 
hand  to  kiss,  being  overjoyed  with  her  royal  father's  kind 
letter ;  to  which  she  returned  another  by  Mr.  Herbert,  who 
had  the  king's  approbation  at  his  coming  to  Garisbrook  for 
bis  diligence. 

It  was  upon  the  15th  of  April,  the  princess  Henrietta  (wife 
to  the  duke  of  Orleans  afterwards)  left  Exeter  (the  place  of 
her  birth)  and  took  ship  for  France  to  the  queen;  and  upon 
the  15th  of  April,  two  years  after  that,  the  duke  of  York 
escaped  from  St.  James's,  and  went  to  the  prince,  then  in 

Whilst  these  things  were  acting,  the  Scots,  to  regain  their 
credit  for  delivering  the  king  into  the  hands  of  the  English, 

r  One  of  the  judges.    He  signed  the  warrant. 

982  Herberts  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

(contrary  to  their  promise  when  he  left  Oxford,  and  intrusted 
himself  with  them,  when  they  besieged  Newark,  as  formerly 
hinted)  upon  a  pretence  to  reinthrone  the  king.  In  or  about 
May  1648,  a  Committee  of  Danger  (as  they  termed  it)  was 
by  an  assembly  of  the  States,  in  order  thereto,  constituted  at 
Edinburgh,  consisting  of  eight  earls,  eight  barons,  and  eight 
burgesses,  who  being  assembled,  voted  the  raising  an  army  of 
forty  thousand  men,  to  be  commanded  by  duke  Hamilton, 
with  whom  sir  Marmaduke  Langdale,  and  some  other  colonels, 
gave  the  duke  an  assurance  to  assist  with  three  thousand 
horse  and  foot.  All  expedition  was  used  to  raise  this  army, 
that  they  might  make  their  invasion  with  least  opposition ; 
having  notice  also  from  London  and  other  parts,  that  upon 
the  votes  of  making  no  further  address,  or  receiving  any  mes- 
sage from  the  king,  and  that  a  closer  restraint  was  by  colonel 
Hammond  thereupon  put  upon  his  majesty  at  Carisbrook 
castle,  great  discontents  and  murmurs  arose  amongst  the 
people,  in  sundry  parts  of  the  nation,  that  broke  out  into  in- 
surrections ;  which,  and  with  the  intelligence  duke  Hamilton 
had,  that  sir  Thomas  Fairfax  was  engaged  by  the  king's  party 
in  Kent,  Surrey,  and  other  counties  about  London,  and  that 
lieutenant-general  Cromwell  at  the  same  time  was  busied 
about  the  reducement  of  Pembroke  castle,  and  other  fortified 
places  in  the  remotest  parts  of  South  Wales,  animated  the 
Scots  the  more  to  quicken  their  march  into  England,  notwith- 
standing the  number  of  their  forces  were  with  such  difficulty 
raised,  as  they  lost  their  opportunity,  as  being  unable  to  raise 
above  one-third  of  the  number  they  intended ;  nor  did  they 
enter  England  until  the  13th  of  July  1648. 

A  little  before  this  the  Londoners,  in  great  multitudes, 
petitioned  both  houses  of  parliament  that  the  secluded  mem- 
bers might  be  recalled,  and  those  other  released  who  were 
then  under  restraint,  and  be  permitted  to  sit  as  formerly; 
part  of  their  request  was  granted,  upon  their  willingness  to 
let  major-general  Skippon  command  the  city  militia ;  which 
being  granted,  several  regiments  were  quartered  in  London, 
as  also  in  Somerset  house  in  the  Strand,  the  Mews,  and 
Whitehall,  the  rest  of  the  army  having  quarters  assigned 
more  remote  from  London.     The  Essex  and  Surrey  men  like- 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  888 

wise  petitioned  the  two  houses  that  the  army  might  be  satis- 
fied their  arrears,  and  then  disbanded,  and  that  the  late  vote 
for  making  no  further  address  to  the  king  might  be  nulled, 
and  that  they  would  comply  with  his  majesty's  proposal  for  a 
personal  treaty. 

That  word,  "  disbanding,"1  sounded  harshly  in  the  soldiers' 
ears,  insomuch  as  some  of  them  affronted  the  petitioners,  so 
that  from  words  they  fell  to  blows,  which  was  taken  in  ill  part 
by  many ;  but  especially  by  such  of  their  Kentish  neighbours 
as  inclined  to  the  regal  party,  who,  resenting  the  bad  usage 
the  Surrey  petitioners  had  received,  made  that  and  the  king's 
restraint  the  pretence  of  their  sudden  rising  in  arms,  insomuch 
as  upwards  of  ten  thousand  men,  headed  by  Mr.  Hales,  and 
some  other  persons  of  note  living  there,  publicly  declared  for 
king  and  parliament. 

This  was  soon  known  to  that  part  of  sir  Thomas  Fairfax's 
army  that  quartered  thereabout;  for  colonel  Rich,  with  his 
horse  regiment,  and  colonel  Hewson  with  his  of  foot,  fell  upon 
a  party  near  Gravesend,  so  as  in  disorder  they  made  towards 
Maidstone,  which  place  they  fortified  as  well  as  few  hands  and 
little  time  gave  leave,  though  to  small  purpose,  those  regi- 
ments marching  after  them  with  speed  ;  nevertheless  the  dis- 
pute was  very  sharp,  the  Kentish  men  stood  so  well  to  their 
arms,  and  made  such  opposition,  so  that  the  fight  was  for 
some  hours  maintained  with  great  resolution  on  both  sides, 
and  many  were  killed  in  the  conflict ;  howbeit,  in  conclusion, 
the  parliament  soldiers  had  the  better  of  the  day,  and  took 
many  prisoners,  the  rest  that  escaped  marched  towards  the 
Thames,  and  with  others  rendezvoused  upon  Blackheath, 
where  several  officers  and  soldiers  that  had  served  in  the 
king's  army  repaired  to  them,  which  so  increased  their  num- 
ber, as  induced  the  lord  Goring  earl  of  Norwich  to  command 
that  little  army,  who  having  intelligence  that  sir  Thomas 
Fairfax  was  with  several  regiments  of  horse  and  foot  advanc- 
ing against  him,  he  thought  fit  to  decline  the  engagement  till 
he  had  a  reinforcement,  and  in  order  thereto  he  crossed  the 
Thames  near  Greenwich  into  Essex,  where  sir  Charles  Lucas 
joined  him  with  two  thousand  horse  and  foot ;  amongst  which 

884  Herberts  Memoirs  of  ike  [appendix  a. 

were  many  principal  commanders,  namely,  the  lord  Capell,  the 
lord  Loughborough,  and  other  officers  of  note;  and  being 
near  four  thousand  men,  they  marched  to  Colchester,  where 
expecting  a  siege  in  short  space,  with  the  help  of  many  hands, 
they  regularly  fortified  it. 

Sir  Thomas  Fairfax  had  quick  intelligence  of  their  proceed- 
ings, so  as  he  ordered  colonel  Hewson  and  colonel  Rich  with 
their  regiments  to  quiet  the  Kentish  commotion,  and  with  the 
rest  of  the  army  he  drew  towards  Colchester,  which  he  closely 
besieged,  about  the  middle  of  June  1648. 

At  this  time  was  lieutenant-general  Cromwell  hurried  about 
the  reducement  of  the  strong  castle  of  Pembroke  (the  utmost 
part  of  South  Wales,)  which  was  defended  by  major-general 
Langhorn,  colonel  Powell,  and  colonel  Poyer,  men  of  signal 
courage  and  interest  in  those  parts. 

The  Scots  also,  under  duke  Hamilton's  command,  about 
this  time  (which  was  the  first  week  in  July  1648)  entered 
this  kingdom  near  to  Carlisle,  (sir  Philip  Musgrave  governor,) 
sir  Marmaduke  Langdale,  with  his  brigade,  joining  with  them. 
Much  about  this  time  also  a  great  part  of  the  navy,  by 
procurement  of  vice-admiral  Batten  (in  whose  place  the  two 
houses  of  parliament  had  put  colonel  Ranesborough)  de- 
clared for  the  king,  and  put  themselves  under  the  command 
of  the  prince  of  Wales,  the  duke  of  York  going  abroad,  hav- 
ing in  a  disguise  left  St.  James's,  and  the  earl  of  Northum- 
berland, his  governor,  and  with  one  servant  escaped,  and  got 
into  Holland,  (there  being  also  aboard  prince  Rupert,  and 
sundry  other  noblemen  and  gentlemen  of  quality,  with  two 
thousand  soldiers,  who  being  under  sail  quickly,)  the  wind  fa- 
vouring, landed  at  Yarmouth,  in  expectation  of  increasing 
their  numbers  in  Norfolk,  and  the  neighbouring  counties,  who 
had,  during  the  late  war,  appeared  for  the  king;  but  failing 
to  come  to  his  assistance,  and  hearing  that  colonel  Scroop 
was  with  a  considerable  force  upon  a  speedy  march  thither- 
ward, the  prince  by  advice  of  a  council  of  war  was  persuaded 
to  ship  his  men,  and  to  direct  his  course  toward  Sandwich  or 
Deal  in  Kent,  to  countenance  those  that  had  declared  for  the 
king:  but  his  coming  was  too  late,  the  parliament  forces  there 

last  two  Tears  of  Charles  the  First.  385 

having  wonted  the  king's  party.  So  as  the  prince  finding  the 
opportunity  lost,  and  his  fleet  in  want  of  provisions,  weighing 
anchor,  he  returned  into  the  Netherlands. 

Nevertheless,  about  the  beginning  of  July,  the  earl  of  Hol- 
land, seconded  by  the  duke  of  Buckingham,  the  lord  Francis 
Villiers,  his  brother,  the  earl  of  Peterborough8,  and  several 
others  of  note,  made  a  second  attempt  in  Kent,  upon  his  ma- 
jesty's behalf,  appearing  with  a  considerable  party  of  horse 
and  foot,  and  marching  in  good  order  into  Surrey,  drew  up 
near  Kingston  upon  Thames,  in  hopes  that  several  officers  and 
private  soldiers,  who  had  served  the  king,  would  have  come 
into  their  rendezvous ;  but  few  appearing  to  reinforce  them, 
they  marched  towards  Reygate,  about  a  dozen  miles  from 
Kingston,  which  ere  they  could  reach,  they  were  engaged  by 
colonel  Rich  his  regiment  of  horse,  and  after  a  sharp  skirmish 
forced  to  retreat  back  towards  Kingston,  and  endeavouring 
to  make  good  a  pass  between  Ewell  and  Nonsuch-park,  the 
fight  was  on  either  side  maintained  with  extraordinary  fierce- 
ness and  valour,  in  which  there  were  many  gentlemen  slain  on 
both  sides,  amongst  which  was  the  lord  Francis  Villiers,  who 
that  day  expressed  much  courage,  and,  as  report  goes,  was 
offered  but  refused  quarter1. 

The  king's  party  being  thus  overcome,  such  as  were  not 
prisoners  of  war,  (of  which  were  several  of  the  better  sort,)  the 
rest  shifted  for  themselves  the  best  they  could.  Nevertheless, 
the  earl  of  Holland  with  a  small  party  got  to  Kingston  upon 
Thames,  which  place,  though  favouring  the  king's  friends,  and 
so  near  neighbouring  Hampton-court,  durst  not  in  that  con- 
dition warrant  the  earl's  stay,  the  parliament  forces  being  in 
pursuit ;  so  as  leaving  that  place,  he  hastened  towards  Hunt- 
ingdon, thinking  to  find  security  there,  at  least  for  some  time; 
but  by  the  way,  colonel  Scroop  interposing  with  two  regiments 
of  horse  and  foot  from  Norfolk,  the  earl  after  some  resistance 
near  St.  Neotfs,  seven  miles  from  Huntingdon,  was  taken  pri- 
soner,  and  thence,  under  a  guard  of  horse,  sent  to  Warwick 
castle,  where  he  remained  till  he  was  brought  to  London. 
The  duke  of  Buckingham,  in  this  interim,  passed  through  the 

•  Henry  Mordaunt.  t  So  Ludlow,  p.  99. 


886  Herbert's  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

county  of  Lincoln,  to  the  sea-coast,  where  happily  finding  a 
small  vessel,  he  adventured  the  sea,  and  having  a  favourable 
gale  of  wind,  in  few  hours  arrived  safely  in  Holland,  where 
he  found  the  prince. 

Whilst  these  things  were  in  agitation,  duke  Hamilton,  upon 
the  13th  of  July  (as  hath  been  hinted)  invaded  England  with 
his  Scots,  who  were  far  short  of  the  number  the  Committee  of 
Danger  voted  at  Edinburgh,  as  formerly  mentioned ;  but  was 
supplied  by  the  splendor  of  his  own  equipage,  his  army  (as 
some  report)  was  not  fifteen  thousand  horse  and  foot ;  yet  by 
that  addition  from  sir  Marmaduke  Langdale,  and  which  sir 
Philip  Musgrave  and  other  English  officers  brought,  he  was 
twenty  thousand  men,  or  thereabouts.  The  Scots  army 
marched  as  far  as  Appleby,  in  Westmoreland,  without  oppo- 
sition, where  major-general  Lambert  was  quartered;  near 
which,  after  a  short  dispute,  the  Scots  made  the  English  party 
to  retire,  first  to  Kirkby  Steven,  and  then  to  Bowes,  so  as  the 
Scots  (to  refresh  themselves)  stayed  a  few  days  in  Kendal, 
expecting  more  force  out  of  Scotland ;  which  failed  them. 

Nevertheless,  with  the  army  he  had,  and  animated  with 
his  late  success,  he  marched  into  Lancashire,  thinking  there 
to  be  reinforced  by  many,  that  during  the  late  war  had  ap- 
peared opposite  to  the  parliament  forces ;  but  the  report  of 
lieutenant-general  Cromweirs  approach  disanimated  several 
persons  of  note  in  those  parts ;  so  that  duke^Hamilton  failed 
much  of  his  expectations.  The  sequestration  of  men's  estates 
was  so  great  a  terror  to  many.  Nor  did  major-general  Monro, 
with  his  forces,  follow  the  duke,  as  was  intended ;  he  and  the 
marquis  of  Montrosse  having  enough  to  do  at  home  by  op- 
posing the  marquis  of  Argyle,  who,  with  general  Lesly,  were 
against  duke  Hamilton's  invading  England. 

Nor  was  the  rumour  of  lieutenant-general  Cromwell's  march 
towards  the  Scots  false.  For  so  soon  as  he  had  intelligence 
of  the  duke's  coming  to  Perth,  he  quickly  dispatched  his 
leaguer  at  Pembroke,  which  was  surrendered ;  and,  as  with  a 
flying  army,  made  all  haste  possible  to  join  with  major-general 
Lambert  and  colonel  Harrison  to  fight  the  Scots u.    The  duke 

u  See  Ludlow,  p.  ioo. 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  887 

therefore  thought  it  his  best  course  to  adventure  a  speedy  en- 
gagement :  in  order  whereto  he  marched  to  Preston  in  Lan- 
cashire, and  upon  the  17th  day  of  August  (having  notice  by 
his  scouts  that  the  parliament  forces  observed  his  motion 
and  were  drawing  up  towards  him)  he  drew  up  in  battalia, 
upon  a  moor  about  three  miles  from  Preston,  where  both  ar- 
mies faced  each  other ;  major  Smithson  commanded  the  for- 
lorn, and  worsted  a  part  of  the  van  of  the  Scots  army,  so  as 
the  armies  immediately  engaged. 

For  two  hours  space  the  fight  was  equally  maintained,  and 
fought  with  marvellous  fierceness  and  desperate  courage,  so 
as  many  were  slain ;  but  at  length  the  Scots  gave  ground,  and 
the  greatest  part  of  their  army  marched  back  towards  Lancas- 
ter, the  lesser  part  towards  Preston.  The  parliament  forces 
marched  close  after  the  Scots,  who  at  Ribble-bridge  (which  is 
not  far  from  Haughton-tower)  made  a  stand,  as  resolving  to 
make  good  that  passage,  which  accordingly  they  for  some 
hours  maintained  with  great  courage,  but  being  overpowered 
by  the  English  cavalry,  who  pressed  upon  the  Scots  with  great 
resolution,  and  gained  the  pass,  the  duke  (contrary  to  com- 
mon sense)  declined  his  retreat  northwards  towards  Lancaster, 
whither  the  other  part  of  his  army  was  gone,  and  marched 
southwards  to  Wigan,  (a  small  distance  from  Lathom,  the  earl 
of  Derby's  noble  house,)  and  the  next  day  to  Warrington, 
watered  by  the  river  Mersey,  over  which  there  is  a  bridge, 
and  where  the  Scots  disputed  that  pass  with  signal  courage. 
But  the  duke's  army  being  much  weakened  through  want  of 
that  part  which  went  to  Lancaster,  and  interposed  by  some 
regiments  of  the  English  army,  and  lieutenant-general  Crom- 
well being  some  time  before  come  up  to  reinforce  major- 
general  Lambert  and  colonel  Harrison  with  a  numerous 
party,  finding  his  army  much  discouraged,  and  much  inferior  in 
strength  to  his  adversaries,  in  despair,  he  left  the  foot  to  shift 
for  themselves ;  who  being  thus  deserted,  about  four  thousand 
of  them  threw  down  their  arms,  having  quarter ;  the  duke, 
with  three  thousand  horse,  escaping  to  Nantwich  in  Cheshire; 
where,  and  by  their  disordered  march,  the  greatest  part  were 
snapped  by  the  country  people  and  some  soldiers  that  followed 
the  chase.     Duke  Hamilton,  hastening  into  Staffordshire,  at 


388  Herbert*  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

Uttoxeter  yielded  himself  prisoner  to  the  lord  Grey  of  Grohy, 
who  with  a  convoy  sent  him  to  Ashby-de-la-Zouch,  (of  which 
the  earl  of  Huntingdon  is  lord,)  and  shortly,  with  many  other 
of  the  Scots,  prisoners  to  London. 

The  Scots  army  being  thus  overcome,  lieutenant-general 
Cromwell  with  his  forces  advanced  into  Scotland  without  op- 
position, hearing  that  Monro  was  with  eight  thousand  horse 
and  foot  ready  to  follow  duke  Hamilton's  army ;  but  having 
notice  of  his  defeat,  he  thought  good  to  hearken  to  the  earl 
of  Argyle's  advice,  which  was  to  forbear  his  march,  insomuch 
as  lieutenant-general  Cromwell  entered  Scotland  with  his 
forces  unopposed,  and  at  Edinburgh  was  amicably  received, 
and  treated  with  all  demonstrations  of  affection.  Such  are 
the  strange  effects  and  vicissitudes  of  war. 

All  this  time  Colchester  held  out,  though  straitly  besieged  by 
sir  Thomas  Fairfax  with  his  army,  where  much  gallantry  and 
valour  appeared  on  both  sides*.  Yet  at  length  the  besieged, 
being  in  want  of  powder  and  other  provisions,  and  having  cer- 
tain intelligence  of  duke  Hamilton's  overthrow,  as  also  hope- 
less of  help  from  abroad,  or  a  supply  of  what  the  town  and 
garrison  extremely  wanted,  and  how  unsuccessful  the  king's 
parties  had  been  in  several  places,  having  called  a  council  of 
war,  it  was  resolved  that  commissioners  should  be  named  to 
treat  with  sir  Thomas  Fairfax  upon  certain  articles ;  which 
being  agreed,  Colchester  was  delivered  up  to  the  parliament's 
general  the  27th  day  of  August  1648;  sir  Thomas  Fairfax 
forthwith  removing  to  St.  Alban's,  which  for  some  time  he 
made  his  head  quarter. 

These  military  proceedings  happening  during  his  majesty's 
confinement  at  Carisbrook  castle,  I  thought  pertinent  to  in- 
termix with  other  occurrences,  which  otherwise  should  have 
been  omitted. 

Now  in  regard  it  hath  been  suggested  by  some,  that  the 
king  was  not  ignorant  of  duke  Hamilton's  preparations,  and 
intentions  by  force  of  arms  to  set  his  majesty  at  liberty  and 
settle  him  in  his  throne ;  and  that  the  king,  by  a  letter  from 
the  queen,  was  acquainted  therewith ;  which  letter  was  inter- 

z  See  a  detailed  account  of  the  siege  in  "  Mercurius  Rustic  us." 

last  two  years  of  Charles  the  First.  889 

cepted,  the  seal  violated,  and  the  letter  read  by  some  great 
officers  of  the  army,  members  of  the  commons  house ;  who, 
during  his  majesty's  being  with  the  array  (after  his  remove 
from  Holmby),  had  upon  valuable  considerations  of  wealth 
and  honour,  undertaken,  by  their  interest  in  both  places,  to 
restore  the  king,  upon  condition  that  he  would  wholly  confide 
in  them,  without  having  recourse  to  other  means ;  which  his 
majesty  consenting  to,  they  carried  on  their  design  until  they 
met  with  the  queen's  letter,  which  startled  them  ;  so  as  clos- 
ing it  very  artificially,  and  conveying  it  into  the  king's  hands, 
he  could  not  perceive  the  letter  had  been  intercepted  or  the 
seal  broken,  whereby  the  intelligence  the  queen  gave  might  be 
known  to  any  but  himself;  upon  their  discourse  soon  after 
with  the  king,  asking  him  if  he  knew,  that  duke  Hamilton 
was  with  a  powerful  army  of  Scots  preparing  to  do  that  by 
force,  which  they  had  undertaken  to  effect  by  their  interest 
with  both  houses  of  parliament  and  army,  in  no  wise  doubting 
to  compass  it  for  his  happy  restoration;  the  king  not  ac- 
quainting them  with  the  contents  of  her  majesty's  letter  con- 
cerning the  duke's  invasion,  they  were  thenceforth  distrustful 
of  him,  which  totally  altered  their  former  resolution  in  order 
to  his  reestablishment  and  freedom : 

This,  as  I  said  before,  hath  been  suggested ;  but  assuredly 
little  credit  is  given  to  this  report,  especially  by  unbiassed 

For  albeit  some  great  commanders  in  the  army,  by  the 
influence  they  had  also  in  both  houses,  might  probably  upon 
a  right  prospect  of  peace  and  expectation  of  preferment,  (a 
powerful  magnet,)  confirm  the  king  in  his  belief,  (credulity 
being  rather  a  fault  than  an  offence,  seeing  it  hurts  none  but 
itself,)  that  they  both  could  and  would  use  their  best  endea- 
vours to  accommodate  him  by  a  speedy  composure  of  all  those 
differences  that  secluded  him  from  exercising  his  regal  power, 
(the  thing  aimed  at,  and  by  sober  persons  cordially  desired ;) 
yet  it  is  not  to  be  presumed  that  his  majesty  would  dissemble 
or  falsify  his  word  and  promise  to  depend  upon  them ;  the  busi- 
ness being  so  much  to  his  satisfaction.  And  it  may  be  sup- 
posed, that  his  majesty  might  at  Hampton-court  (where  it  is 


390  Herberts  Memoirs  of  the  [appendix  a. 

pretended  the  letter  was  intercepted)  have  the  opportunity  to 
acquaint  the  queen  with  the  fair  hopes  and  intentions  of  the 
army,  to  incline  the  two  houses  to  agree  the  differences,  and 
remove  the  jealousies  that  occasioned  this  late  war,  and  re- 
store peace  to  a  distracted  kingdom,  (which  it  is  probable  her 
majesty  would  be  glad  to  hear,  and  acquiesce  in  the  king's 
prudence;)  so  as  it  is  unlikely  the  queen  would  hazard  his 
restoration  any  other  way;  especially  by  the  Scots,  who,  if  suc- 
cess should  smile  upon  them  in  that  attempt,  would  in  all  pro- 
bability have  insisted  upon  his  majesty's  taking  and  confirming 
the  league  and  covenant,  which  the  king  was  averse  to. 

Nor  had  his  majesty  confidence  in  duke  Hamilton,  as 
appeared  by  that  his  presage,  that  if  the  duke  would  in  a 
hostile  way  enter  this  kingdom,  he  was  a  lost  person  ;  and  if 
such  a  thing  should  happen,  he  charged  all  such  as  had  been 
of  his  party  in  the  war  to  forbear  joining  with  the  Scots. 
Nor  can  it  rationally  be  granted,  that  the  queen  could,  at  the 
king's  residence  at  Hampton-court,  have  such  quick  intelli- 
gence of  duke  Hamilton's  design ;  the  time  of  this  intercepted 
letter  being  near  eleven  months  before  the  Committee  of 
Danger  was  formed,  which  was  previous  to  the  duke's  pre- 
parations, or  any  thing  in  order  to  it. 

Moreover,  granting  there  was  such  a  letter,  yet  that  it  should 
be  intercepted  seems  strange,  being  presumed  it  would  be  sent 
by  a  trusty  person ;  and  the  court  at  that  time  being  without 
any  restraint,  (none  forbidden  access  unto  the  king ;)  also  no 
less  incredible,  that  her  majesty's  seal  being  broken  could  be 
so  artificially  closed,  as  the  king  (who  was  accurate  in  observing 
seals  and  curiosities  of  all  sorts)  should  not  discern  the  fraud. 
And  as  to  the  discontent  those  army-officers  expressed  by  ab- 
senting themselves  from  court ;  this  relater  observed  no  such 
thing,  but  that,  (as  at  other  times,)  they  frequented  it;  so  as 
until  the  king  in  disguise  went  thence,  the  military  men  did 
not  withdraw,  nor  till  the  commissioners  departed ;  as  did  all 
the  king's  servants;  who,  as  men  amazed,  stood  for  some  time 
gazing  one  upon  another.  For  being  then  without  a  master, 
the  diet  ceased,  and  with  sad  hearts  they  went  thence  to  their 
several  homes.    So  that  upon  the  whole  matter  it  may  be  be- 

last  two  Years  of  Charles  the  First.  891 

lieved  that  the  report  concerning  the  letter  of  intelligence  from 
the  queen  is  fictitious ;  only  designed  to  asperse  the  king  and 
to  blemish  his  integrity;  which  (as  ho  himself  hath  declared) 
he  highly  prized.  And  indeed  a  saying  of  his  is  worthy  to  be 
writ  in  letters  of  gold:  "  That  he  could  more  willingly  lose  his 
"  crowns  than  his  credit ;  his  kingdoms  being  less  valuable  to 
44  him  than  his  honour  and  reputation." 

44  Faith,  assuredly,  is  the  foundation  upon  which  justice 
44  and  truth  are  built,"  saith  Cicero  the  orator  and  great 
statesman,  who  (albeit  the  Romans  of  all  men  got  most  by  war) 
hath  thi